The U.S.S.R. launched the world's first multi-manned spacecraft, Voskhod I, the first to carry a scientist and a physician into space. The crew were Col. Vladimir Komarov, pilot; Konstantin Feoktistov, scientist; and Boris Yegorov, physician. Potentially dangerous modification of Vostok to upstage American Gemini flights; no spacesuits, ejection seats, or escape tower. One concession was backup solid retrorocket package mounted on nose of spacecraft. Seats mounted perpendicular to Vostok ejection seat position, so crew had to crane their necks to read instruments, still mounted in their original orientation. Tested the new multi-seat space ship; investigated the in-flight work potential and co-operation of a group of cosmonauts consisting of specialists in different branches of science and technology; conducted scientific physico-technical and medico-biological research. The mission featured television pictures of the crew from space.
Land recovery made possible by rocket package suspended above capsule in parachute lines, which ignited just prior to impact in order to cushion landing. The trio landed after 16 orbits of the earth, 24 hours and 17 min after they had left, on October 13, 1964 7:47 GMT.
Coming before the two-man Gemini flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant worldwide impact. In the United States, the "space race" was again running under the green flag. NASA Administrator James E. Webb, commenting on the spectacular, called it a "significant space accomplishment." It was, he said, "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige."
Huge controversy between military, that wanted all-pilot crew, and Korolev, who wanted to start sending engineers, doctors, even journalists and poets into space. Feoktistov, lead designer of Vostok and Soyuz, showed his faith in design by getting a seat aboard, becoming the only spacecraft designer ever to fly in space. Yegorov, the medical doctor, managed to get a seat through his father's connections in the Politburo. Khrushchev was removed from power while the crew was in flight - it was perhaps supposed to go longer, but ground control cryptically informed the crew that 'there is more in heaven and earth than is dreamt of in your philosophy...' and ordered them back. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 16 , 32 , 33 , 60 .