Credit: Mark Wade. 14,278 bytes. 640 x 199 pixels.
Chelomei proposed replacement of the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK with his own transport-supply spacecraft 11F72 (transportniy korabl snabzheniya - TKS). This would consist of the 11F74 VA landing capsule and a new 11F77 Functional-Cargo Block (funktsionalno-gruzovoy blok, FGB). The TKS was designed to ferry a crew of three and a large load of supplies to the Almaz space station. It matched the Almaz itself in size and had the same mass and used the same Proton launch vehicle. On 16 June 1970 Kozlovís Soyuz-R was finally canceled and replaced by the TKS as the resupply craft for Almaz under Central Party decree 437-160.
|TKS Manned Ferry - TKS manned space station ferry.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 10,181 bytes. 456 x 142 pixels.
|Kosmos 1267/Salyut 7 - Kosmos 1267 / Salyut 7|
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|TKS model - TKS model. From left to right note launch escape system, VA reentry capsule, main body with longitudinal fuel tanks and stowed solar arrays, docking system and EVA hand rails at base.|
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler. 30,271 bytes. 656 x 221 pixels.
|TKS VA interior - TKS VA interior - Chelomei School, Leninsk|
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|TKS model - TKS model. Closeup of docking system at base.|
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler. 20,709 bytes. 285 x 322 pixels.
|TKS model - TKS model. Closeup of main maneuver engines (in triangular housings top and bottom) and reaction control system engine cluster.|
Credit: © Dietrich Haeseler. 22,660 bytes. 244 x 457 pixels.
|TKS VA capsule - The landing capsule of the three crew military TKS transport/resupply spacecraft for the Almaz space station. Called Ďour Apolloí by cosmonaut Leonov. After separation of the capsule from the Almaz the retrorocket assembly at top deorbited the capsule. TKS capsules (VA is the Russian acronym) flew 13 times between 1976 and 1983, ten times in capsule tests, three times as part of complete TKS spacecraft which docked with Salyut space stations. They were never flown manned.|
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|TKS capsule - TKS capsule at Khrunichev|
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Decree 437-160 'On creation of the TKS and termination of the 7K-TK' was issued. In 1969 Chelomei proposed replacement of the 11F72 Soyuz 7K-TK with his own transport-supply spacecraft 11F72 (transportnovo korablya snabzheniya - TKS). This would consist of the same 11F74 VA landing capsule used on the Almaz station, together with a new 11F77 functional-cargo block (funktsionalno-gruzovovo blok, FGB). This would transport three crew and sufficient supplies for 90 day operation of the Almaz.
|Lunar Spacecraft - Comparison of Chelomei manned spacecraft. Left to right: Chelomei LK-1 circumlunar spacecraft with UR-500K third stage. Chelomei LK-700 lunar landing spacecraft. Chelomei TKS space station resupply tug. Competing Korolev Soyuz 7K-L1 circumlunar spacecraft with Block D translunar injection stage and UR-500K third stage.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 25,167 bytes. 423 x 429 pixels.
Ministry of General Machine Building (MOM) Decree 'On schedule of work for the Almaz and TKS programs' was issued.
Central Committee of the Communist Party and Council of Soviet Ministers Decree 46-13 'On course of work on Almaz and the TKS' was issued.
|TKS capsule exterior - The landing capsule of the three crew military TKS transport/resupply spacecraft for the Almaz space station. Called Ďour Apolloí by cosmonaut Leonov. After separation of the capsule from the Almaz the retrorocket assembly at top deorbited the capsule. TKS capsules (VA is the Russian acronym) flew 13 times between 1976 and 1983, ten times in capsule tests, three times as part of complete TKS spacecraft which docked with Salyut space stations. They were never flown manned.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 43,287 bytes. 397 x 566 pixels.
|TKS capsule detail 1 - The BSO (Bloka Skhoda s Orbiti - Deorbit Block) mounted on top of the VA capsule weighed 450 kg and allowed the capsule to maneuver and orient itself after separation from the FGB for retrofire and return to the earth.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 24,684 bytes. 197 x 424 pixels.
Almaz station portion of the project already severely cut back after Marshal Grechko's heart attack in early 1976. Chelomei lost his most active patron and was unable to withstand the slow strangulation of his projects by Ustinov and Glushko. Almaz finally completely scrapped in 1980, but Chelomei hid the completed space stations in a corner of his complex, labelling them as 'radioactive material'. Chelomei finally forced to retire in October 1983. TKS shuttle craft used to dock with Salyut stations but never in manned mode. Following Ustinov's death, Almaz stations finally flown as unmanned radarsats, but Chelomei did not live to see this.
|TKS capsule interior - The right control panel of the TKS. The earth globe instrument, also used in Vostok, Salyut, Almaz, and Soyuz, showed the crew at all times their position over the earth. It also allowed them to determine their landing site in the case of a manual re-entry or loss of communications with the ground.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 50,247 bytes. 577 x 400 pixels.
Following the decision to cancel Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme, a resolution consolidated the programs, with the Mir docking ports to be reinforced to accommodate 20 tonne space station modules based on Chelomei's TKS manned ferry spacecraft. NPO Energia was made responsible for the overall space station, but subcontracted the work to KB Salyut due to the press of in-house work on Energia, Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, and Progress. The subcontractor began work in the summer of 1979.
|TKS capsule interior - At the junction of the left and right instrument panels of the TKS was a Vzor optical device, as used in Vostok and Soyuz. The Vzor allowed the crew to line up the spacecraft for retrofire and return to earth even if all other spacecraft systems failed.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 50,371 bytes. 571 x 399 pixels.
Planned first test manned flight of the TKS large ferry craft. Would have docked with the Almaz OPS 4 military space station. Flight cancelled with the rest of the Almaz program in 1981. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 6 as Cosmos 1267.
|TKS capsule interior - Left control panel of the descent capsule of the TKS spacecraft. The TKS crew instruments were assembled from the same building blocks as those used in the Soyuz series of spacecraft. The standard clock, used since Vostok, is in the top middle of the panel. The large central panel was used to call up sequences of automated spacecraft procedures.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 67,412 bytes. 574 x 395 pixels.
TKS space station ferry. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 6 space station after the Almaz military station program was cancelled. Capsule recovered 24 May 1981. Docked with Salyut 6 on June 19 at 10:52 AM MT after 57 days autonomous flight. Deorbited and destroyed with Salyut July 29, 1982. Additional Details: Cosmos 1267.
|TKS capsule hatch - The crew of the TKS went from the descent capsule to the main spacecraft cabin through this hatch in the heat shield of the capsule. The central crew couch folded up to give access to the hatch. A similar arrangement was to be used in Gemini B for the USAF MOL (Manned Orbiting Laboratory).|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 82,306 bytes. 568 x 397 pixels.
Third TKS flight that would have docked with the cancelled Almaz OPS 4 military space station. The spacecraft was instead flown unmanned to Salyut 7 as Cosmos 1686. For that mission the VA reentry capsule was retained but stripped of its heat shield and all recovery equpment. In their place military optical test sensors (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer) were installed.
Credit: Mark Wade. 22,590 bytes. 264 x 480 pixels.
TKS manned ferry spacecraft from the cancelled Almaz OPS-4 mission. Flown unmanned to the Salyut 7 space station. Docked with Salyut 7 on 4 March 1983. Separated from Salyut 7 on 14 August. The VA re-entry capsule separated and the space station deorbited itself on September 19, 1983 at 0:28 GMT. The VA capsule continued in space for four more days, demonstrating autonomous flight, before successfully re-entering on 23 August 1983. Returned 350 kg of material from the station. Additional Details: Cosmos 1443.
|Cos1663D - TKS - Cosmos 1663 Configuration|
Credit: © Reginaldo Miranda Jr. 27,597 bytes. 618 x 285 pixels.
Modification of cancelled TKS manned ferry; docked with Salyut 7. All landing systems were removed from the VA re-entry capsule and replaced with military optical sensor experiments (infrared telescope and Ozon spectrometer). Burned up in the atmosphere and together with the Salyut 7 station over Argentina on February 7, 1991 04:00 GMT. Re-entered with unused 3 m diameter recoverable capsule of 2-3,000 kg mass, solid rocket motors, and cesium sensors.
172 km X 302 km orbit to 284 km X 319 km orbit. Delta V: 36 m/s
281 km X 315 km orbit to 290 km X 336 km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
290 km X 336 km orbit to 335 km X 352 km orbit. Delta V: 16 m/s
Maneuvers after docking with Salyut 7:
336 km X 353 km orbit to 338 km X 358 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
338 km X 358 km orbit to 358 km X 359 km orbit. Delta V: 5 m/s
331 km X 333 km orbit to 333 km X 385 km orbit. Delta V: 14 m/s
333 km X 385 km orbit to 332 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
332 km X 468 km orbit to 466 km X 468 km orbit. Delta V: 37 m/s
466 km X 468 km orbit to 470 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
470 km X 475 km orbit to 475 km X 475 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
Total Delta V: 143 m/s
Officially: Testing the equipment, assemblies and design components of a satellite in various modes of flight, including joint flight with the Salyut-7 station.