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|Soyuz ASTP in Orbit - |
Credit: NASA. 18,624 bytes. 316 x 270 pixels.
Manufacturer's Designation: 7K-M. Class: Manned. Type: Spacecraft. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: Korolev.
The Soyuz 7K-T as modified for the docking with Apollo. The spacecraft included some systems developed for the cancelled Soyuz S, including a new launch escape tower. Other changes included new lightweight solar panels to increase endurance; an androgynous universal docking mechanism in place of standard Soyuz male mechanism; unique radio aerials for common communications; optical docking targets for manual docking with Apollo; and modifications to the environmental control system to lower the cabin pressure to 0.68 atmospheres prior to docking with Apollo..
Craft.Crew Size: 2. Design Life: 7 days. Orbital Storage: 7.00 days. Total Length: 7.5 m. Maximum Diameter: 8.9 m. Total Habitable Volume: 9.00 m3. Total Mass: 6,680 kg. Total Propellants: 500 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 417 kgf. Main Engine Propellants: Nitric Acid/Hydrazine. Main Engine Isp: 282 sec. Total spacecraft delta v: 215 m/s. Electric system: 0.50 total average kW. Electric System: 8.00 total kWh. Electrical System: Solar panels span 8.37 m, area: 8.33 sq. m.
- Module: Descent Module. Modules.Crew Size: 2. Length: 2.2 m. Basic Diameter: 2.2 m. Max Diameter: 2.2 m. Habitable Volume: 4.00 m3. Overall Mass: 2,802 kg. Structure Mass: 1,233 kg. Heat Shield Mass: 300 kg. Reaction Control System: 100 kg. Recovery Equipment: 370 kg. Naviagation Equipment: 80 kg. Telemetry Equipment: 50 kg. Electrical Equipment: 150 kg. Communications Systems: 30 kg. Crew Seats and Provisions: 100 kg. Crew mass: 144 kg. Miscellaneous Contingency: 50 kg. Environmental Control System: 150 kg. Propellants: 45 RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 6 X 10kgf. RCS Propellants: H2O2. Remarks: Spacesuits: Yes. Controls: Analog. Periscope: Off-Line. CM Windows: No covers. Parachutes: Improved. Touchdown Rockets: Standard. Telemetry: Low rate + one voice, modified for radio communications with Apollo and U.S. ground stations. .
Credit: © Mark Wade. 2,964 bytes. 327 x 229 pixels.
- Module: Orbital Module. Length: 3.1 m. Basic Diameter: 2.3 m. Max Diameter: 2.3 m. Habitable Volume: 5.00 m3. Overall Mass: 1,224 kg. Structure Mass: 700 kg. Recovery Equipment: 324 kg. Naviagation Equipment: 0 kg. Telemetry Equipment: 0 kg. Electrical Equipment: 50 kg. Communications Systems: 50 kg. Crew Seats and Provisions: 100 kg. Crew mass: 0 kg. Electric system type: Batteries. Battery: 10,500.0 Ah.
Docking System: Universal. Probe: None. Tunnel: Yes. Collar Length (m): 0.33. Probe Length (m): 0.39. Base Diameter(m): 1.3. Ring Diameter(m): 1.2. Rendezvous System: Manual. Antenna: None. Tower: None. Orbital Module: Standard. Length (m): 2.26. Windows: Four. OM Separation: After retro.
- Module: Service Module. Length: 2.3 m. Basic Diameter: 2.1 m. Max Diameter: 2.1 m. Overall Mass: 2,654 kg. Structure Mass: 974 kg. Reaction Control System: 250 kg. Naviagation Equipment: 30 kg. Telemetry Equipment: 50 kg. Electrical Equipment: 500 kg. Maneuvering System: 350 kg. Propellants: 500 RCS Coarse No x Thrust: 14 X 10kgf. RCS Fine No x Thrust: 4 X 10kgf. RCS Coarse Backup No x Thrust: 8 X 1kgf. RCS Fine Backup No x Thrust: 4 X 1kgf roll. RCS Propellants: H2O2. Maneuver System Thrust: 417 kgf. Maneuver System Propellants: Nitric Acid/Hydrazine. Maneuver System Isp: 282 sec. Maneuver system delta v: 215 m/s. Electric system: 0.50 average kW. Electric System: 8.0 kWh. Electric system type: Solar panels span 8.37 m, area: 8.33 sq. m. Remarks: Service Module: Basic. Main-engines: Pump-fed. Propulsion/RCS: Seperate. .
Soyuz ASTP Chronology
03 April 1974
Cosmos 638 Program: ASTP. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,570 kg. Perigee: 187 km. Apogee: 309 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 9.89 days.
Unmanned Soyuz test flight. Recovered April 13, 1974 5:05 GMT. Soyuz ASTP Test.
190km X 309km orbit to 190km X 266km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
190km X 266km orbit to 240km X 300km orbit. Delta V: 23 m/s
240km X 300km orbit to 258km X 274km orbit. Delta V: 12 m/s
Total Delta V: 47 m/s.
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 21,104 bytes. 1380 x 1016 pixels.
12 August 1974
Cosmos 672 Program: ASTP. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,570 kg. Perigee: 222 km. Apogee: 226 km. Inclination: 51.7 deg. Duration: 5.94 days.
ASTP precursor. Recovered August 18, 1974 5:02 GMT. Soyuz ASTP test.
195km X 305km orbit to 195km X 221km orbit. Delta V: 24 m/s
195km X 221km orbit to 223km X 223km orbit. Delta V: 8 m/s
231km X 231km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
223km X 223km orbit to 231km X 231km orbit. Delta V: 4 m/s
231km X 231km orbit to 227km X 237km orbit. Delta V: 2 m/s
Total Delta V: 39 m/s.
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space.
|Soyuz ASTP PO - Cutaway of Soyuz equipment / propulsion module.|
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02 December 1974
Soyuz 16 Program: ASTP. Flight Crew: Filipchenko, Rukavishnikov. Manned flight: Soyuz 16. Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,800 kg. Perigee: 184 km. Apogee: 291 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 5.93 days.
|APAS-75 docking unit - APAS-75 docking unit as used in ASTP project.|
Credit: Andy Salmon. 22,607 bytes. 490 x 293 pixels.
ASTP Manned Test Flight. Check-out of the Soyuz space craft's on-board systems which had been modernized to meet the requirements of the 1975 joint flight in accordance with the programme of the Soviet-United States experiment; conduct of scientific and technical investigations. Landed 30 km NE Arkalyk. Recovered December 8, 1974 8:04 GMT.
Additional Details: Soyuz 16.
15 July 1975
Soyuz 19 (ASTP) Program: ASTP. Flight Crew: Kubasov, Leonov. Manned flight: Soyuz 19 (ASTP). Launch Site: Baikonur . Launch Vehicle: Soyuz 11A511U. Mass: 6,790 kg. Perigee: 186 km. Apogee: 220 km. Inclination: 51.8 deg. Duration: 5.94 days.
|Panel Soyuz 7K-OK - Control panel of the initial earth orbit version of Soyuz.|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 11,752 bytes. 723 x 288 pixels.
Soyuz 19 initial orbital parameters were 220.8 by 185.07 kilometres, at the desired inclination of 51.80°, while the period of the first orbit was 88.6 minutes. On 17 July the two spacecraft docked. The crew members rotated between the two spacecraft and conducted various mainly ceremonial activities. Leonov was on the American side for 5 hours, 43 minutes, while Kubasov spent 4:57 in the command and docking modules.
After being docked for nearly 44 hours, Apollo and Soyuz parted for the first time and were station-keeping at a range of 50 meters. The Apollo crew placed its craft between Soyuz and the sun so that the diameter of the service module formed a disk which blocked out the sun. After this experiment Apollo moved towards Soyuz for the second docking.
Three hours later Apollo and Soyuz undocked for the second and final time. The spacecraft moved to a 40 m station-keeping distance so that an ultraviolet absorption experiment could be performed.
With all the joint flight activities completed, the ships went on their separate ways. Soyuz 19 landed safely July 21, 1975 10:51 GMT, 87 km north-east of Arkalyk, 9. 6 km from its aim point.
Additional Details: Soyuz 19 (ASTP).
|Soyuz ASTP BO - Cutaway of Soyuz orbital module.|
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- 21 - Semenov, Yuri P Editor, Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya 'Energia' imeni S P Koroleva, Moscow, Russia, 1996.
- 32 - Clark, Philip, The Soviet Manned Space Program, Salamander Books, London, 1988.
- 33 - Furniss, Tim, Manned Spaceflight Log, Jane's, London, 1986.
- 51 - Oberg, James, Red Star in Orbit, Random House, New York, 1981.
- 89 - Semenov, Yu. P., S P Korolev Space Corporation Energia, RKK Energia, 1994.
- 185 - Aviation Week and Space Technology, "Fuel, Sensors Limit Soyuz Maneuvering", 1974-01-28, page 36.
- 186 - Aviation Week and Space Technology, "Soyuz Design Details Revealed", 1974-01-21, page 38.
- 187 - Aviation Week and Space Technology, "Docked Soyuz Spacecrft Are Displayed in Moscow", 1970-05-18, page 66.
- 188 - Aviation Week and Space Technology, "Soyuz Spacecraft Shown by Soviets at Japan's Expo 70", 1970-07-25, page 55.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 6,204 bytes. 477 x 286 pixels.
|Soyuz ASTP SA - Cutaway of Soyuz reentry capsule.|
27,237 bytes. 449 x 343 pixels.
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Last update 12 March 2001.
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© Mark Wade, 2001 .