|MIG 105 at Monino - The MIG-105 EPOS (Experimental Passanger Orbital Aircraft displayed at the Monino Air Museum outside of Moscow.|
Credit: A Zhelyeznakov. 18,419 bytes. 400 x 266 pixels.
The MiG OKB had studied a two stage manned orbital spacecraft in collaboration with the Korolev (overall system integration) and Tupolev (Mach 6 airbreathing first stage) since 1965. Go-ahead to actually proceed with development of the manned orbital vehicle was given on 26 June 1966 and Lozino-Lozinsky was selected as project manager. However the ambitious project never had the leadership support or funding to meet its aggressive schedule. A cosmonaut training group was formed, but went through many changes before being dissolved. After the decision to proceed with the Buran space shuttle, all that was left of Spiral was a subsonic aerodynamic test vehicle, now designated EPOS (Experimental Passanger Orbital Aircraft) and flown by Air Force test pilots. On 11 October 1976 this made its first flight, taking off from an old dirt airstrip near Moscow, flying straight ahead to an altitude of 560 m, and landing at the Zhukovskii flight test center 19 km away. One year later, on November 27, the first air-drop launch from a Tu-95K (used previously for Kh-20 air to surface missile tests) was made from an altitude of 5,000 m, with landing on skids on a beaten earth air strip.The eighth and final flight was made in September 1978, resulting in a hard landing and the writeoff of the aircraft. First and last flights were made by test pilot A. G. Festovets. The eight flights were considered sufficient to characterize the spaceplane's subsonic aerodynamic characteristics and airbreathing systems. Although the MiG 105-11 was designed by the bureau to be adapted directly into a manned orbital spaceplane for launch from a Vostok or Soyuz booster, the decision was taken to use the configuration but develop a larger manned orbital vehicle for launch from the Zenit booster or by other means (see Uragan and Bizan).
The 105-11 incorporated the airframe and some of the systems of the planned orbital version. The spaceplane itself was a flat-bottomed lifting body with a large upturned nose that earned it the nickname 'Lapot' (wooden shoe). The nose design was found to greatly reduce afterbody heating during reentry and was adopted by NASA in its HL-20 proposal of the 1980's. The load-bearing structure, like that of the US X-20, consisted of a network of struts and longerons. The outer skin was articulated to permit thermal expansion during reentry. A unique feature of the spaceplane were the variable dihedral wings. These were set at a 60 degree angle above horizontal during launch, orbit, and reentry, where they served as vertical stabilizers. After becoming subsonic, dual electric actuators moved them to a horizontal position, where they served as wings, substantially increasing the lift of the spaceplane for airbreathing operations. The main body of the spaceplane had a sweepback angle of 78 degrees, and the wings, 55 degrees. The large vertical stabilizer had a sweepback of 60 degrees. Aerodynamic controls consisted of the vertical rudder, elevons in the wings, and air brakes mounted at the top rear of the fuselage. Landing gear normally consisted of four skids, in a tail-dragging configuration, the long frontal skids deploying in a complex manner from landing gear bays mounted on the sides of the spaceplane above the heat shield.
|Mig-105 back view|
Credit: Stefan Wotzlaw. 15,293 bytes. 359 x 219 pixels.
Orbital propulsion consisted of a 1,500 kgf primary engine, with two 40 kgf backup engines. Orbital attitude control and translation were provided by two reaction control system (GDU) pods at the rear of the spaceplane flanking the backup engines. There were a total of six 16 kgf engines for coarse adjustment and ten 1 kgf engines for fine maneuvers. Fuel tanks for these system were located in the center of the spaceplane.
Credit: © Mark Wade. 14,186 bytes. 333 x 180 pixels.
Craft.Crew Size: 1. Total Length: 8.5 m. Maximum Diameter: 2.8 m. Total Mass: 4,220 kg. Total Propellants: 500 kg. Primary Engine Thrust: 1,500 kgf. Electrical System: Batteries.
|Spiral 2 - The MIG-105 EPOS (Experimental Passanger Orbital Aircraft displayed at the Monino Air Museum outside of Moscow.|
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Ministry of Defence Decree 'On military space programs for 1964-69, including the R spaceplane' was issued. The decree was issued by Defence Ministry Marshal Rodiono Yakovlevich Malinovksiy. Included in this plan were new versions of the automatic Zenit, More-1 (US series) spacecraft, the Spiral spaceplane, the Soyuz-R manned combat spacecraft, and others. Chelomei's Raketoplan spaceplane was cancelled.
Decree 'On plan of work on Spiral at OKB-155' was issued.
With the cancellation of Chelomei's desultory R spaceplane development, the job is handed to 'the profis' - the fighter design bureaus of MiG and Sukhoi. Both would use an air breathing first stage (the XB-70 clone T-4 in Sukhoi's case, a huge new Tupolev hypersonic aircraft 'to be developed' in MiG's case). Second stage would be a conventional expendable rocket stage which would carry the relatively small Spiral spaceplane into orbit. Korolev had been doing some 'back door' work with MiG in competition to Chelomei's R project for some time (Began with 1962 Mikoyan study '50-50': Hypersonic first stage to Mach 5.5; rocket stage with one man), and immediately proposed tests from atop R-7 rockets as early as 1967. At the time all this was begun Dyna Soar was still an active US program.
|Spiral 3 view - Spiral 3 view drawing|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 27,623 bytes. 628 x 458 pixels.
Lozino-Lozinsky was selected as project manager. The Spiral system consisted of three main components: the GSR reusable hypersonic air-breathing launch aircraft; RB expendable two stage rocket; and the OS orbital spaceplane.
This would actually not occur until ten years later.
No competing US project any more, huge obstacles in getting Tu-144 SST to fly at Mach 2 sustained let alone Mach 4 sustained for Tupolev's Spiral first stage.
Original planned date for first flight tests of Spiral with rocket first stage.
|Spiral MiG-105-15 - Spiral MiG-105-15 drawing|
Credit: © Mark Wade. 8,355 bytes. 379 x 121 pixels.
The EPOS spaceplane made its first flight, taking off from an old dirt airstrip near Moscow, flying straight ahead to an altitude of 560 m, and landing at the Zhukovskii flight test center 19 km away. Pilot was A. G. Festovets.
Original planned date for flight test of Spiral with airbreathing hypersonic first stage.
The first air-drop launch from a Tu-95K (used previously for Kh-20 air to surface missile tests) was made from an altitude of 5,000 m, with landing on skids on a beaten earth air strip.
|Mig-105 back view - Mig-105 back view closeup|
Credit: Stefan Wotzlaw. 26,623 bytes. 434 x 240 pixels.
The eighth and final flight resulted in a hard landing and the writeoff of the aircraft. First and last flights were made by test pilot A. G. Festovets. The eight flights were considered sufficient to characterize the spaceplane's subsonic aerodynamic characteristics and airbreathing systems.