This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at Energia Polar City Illuminator

Class: Earth. Type: Environmental. Nation: Russia. Manufacturer: RKK Energia.

The Energia launch vehicle would be used to launch 100 orbital reflectors in sun synchronous orbits at 1700 km altitude / 103 deg inclination. Each satellite would be 240 m in diameter and have a mass of 5 to 6 tonnes. The satellite's equipment module would include solar panels, a KAR gyrosocopic poiniting system, and a laser unit to scan and control the form of the reflector. Pressure from the solar wind would be used to make orbtial corrections. Each satellite would have a ten year life and be usable 8 hours daily, and illuminate a 17 km diameter circluar area on the earth's surface. The concept was tested on two Znamya 25 m diameter reflectors deployed from Progress M-15 and M-40 spacecraft in 1993 and 1998. Deployment problems prevented either test from being successful.

The illuminators would be orbited 10 to 12 at a time. A single Energia launch would put a 69 tonne payload into a 450 km / 103 deg orbit. A solar electric engine interorbital tug would take the satellites to the higher operational orbit and then deploy them.



Back to Index
Last update 12 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .