|astronautix.com||Columbus Attached Pressurised Module|
|Columbus Attached 85|
ESA Columbus Attached Pressurised Module. COLUMBUS Attached Pressurized Module (Aeritalia concept, early 1986).
Credit: ESA via Marcus Lindroos. 64,430 bytes. 640 x 482 pixels.
The European Space Agency formally joined the American Space Station project in May 1985, but the negotiations between ESA and NASA were often difficult. The Europeans complained that the Americans would not allow them to build any high-tech elements such as the pressurised modules. Technology transfer and the principle of non-discriminatory access to the Station for European users also caused problems. Congress initially insisted that the European laboratory module only be used for non-commercial life sciences experiments. The initial $80-million Columbus Phase B1 study in 1985 recommended (despite NASA's objections) that ESA build a Columbus laboratory that could be detached from the main Space Station complex for unmanned microgravity experiments. The Americans refused to accept the proposal, saying autonomous control of Columbus would be physically and technologically impossible.
|Columbus Attached 89|
Credit: ESA via Marcus Lindroos. 36,220 bytes. 437 x 476 pixels.