|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1994 - Quarter 1|
|Previous Quarter||Next Quarter|
RKK Energia, and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory analysed the project 'Mars Together'. This studied the use of spacecraft using solar arrays or nuclear reactors of up to 30 to 40 kW for insertion into Martian orbit and operation of a side-looking radar to digitally map the surface.
The simplified SO design deleted the lateral airlock. Qualification was relatively straightforward since the basic structure of the Soyuz BO orbital module was used, and the APDS androgynous docking port installation had already been proven on Soyuz-TM16. The draft project was completed in December 1993.
Mir Expedition EO-15. Docked at the Kvant module on January 10 at 11:15 GMT. Transported to the Mir orbital station of a crew comprising the cosmonauts V M Afanasev, Y V Usachev, and V V Polyakov for the fifteenth main expedition. The Soyuz TM-18 descent module landed 110 km north of Arkalyk in Kazakhstan at 10:32:35 GMT on July 9. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 51 .
Direct broadcasting satellite (new generation of satellites) intended for development of the Russian television system and international cooperation. Also tested SPT-100 plasma engine. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Launched with Turksat 1. References: 5 .
SDIO sensor technology demonstration; mapped lunar surface; planned asteroid flyby cancelled due to spacecraft failure. After two Earth flybys, lunar insertion was achieved on February 21. Lunar mapping took place over approximately two months, in two parts. The first part consisted of a 5 hour elliptical polar orbit with a perilune of about 400 km at 28 degrees S latitude. After one month of mapping the orbit was rotated to a perilune of 29 degrees N latitude, where it remained for one more month. This allowed global imaging as well as altimetry coverage from 60 degrees S to 60 degrees N. After leaving lunar orbit, a malfunction in one of the on-board computers on May 7 at 14:39 UTC (9:39 AM EST) caused a thruster to fire until it had used up all of its fuel, leaving the spacecraft spinning at about 80 RPM with no spin control. This made the planned continuation of the mission, a flyby of the near-Earth asteroid Geographos, impossible. The spacecraft remained in geocentric orbit and continued testing the spacecraft components until the end of mission. Additional Details: Clementine 1. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 296 .
Also carried German geodetic package, French radiometer. Obtain meterological and solar-terrestrial data. The space object Meteor 3 included the small German satellite Tubsat which was separated from the space object Meteor 3 on the second orbit. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 115 .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Docked with Mir on 30 Jan 1994 03:56:13 GMT. Undocked on 23 Mar 1994 01:20:29 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 Mar 1994 05:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 51.89 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Orbital Reentry Experiment. Orbital Re-entry Experiment Vehicle (OREX) Ryusei. Acquisition of data related to atmospheric reentry. Launch vehicle H-II rocket test flight H-II 1F. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 2220:00 UT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Deployed ODERACS A-F, Bremsat, carried Wake Shield Facility. Payloads: Wake Shield Facility (WSF) 1 and SPACEHAB 02. Getaway special bridge assembly experiments: Capillary Pumped Loop (CAPL), Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS), University of Bremen Satellite (BREMSAT), G-514, G-071, and G-536. Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II; Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B). Additional Details: STS-60. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Vehicle Evaluation Payload; monitored H-2 performance. Vehicle Evaluation Payload (VEP) MYOJO. Provides a ranging function as well as functions to measure the acceleration and deformation, in order to confirm the accuracy of the H-II rocket orbit injection and understand the environment of the payload equipme nt. Launch vehicle H-II rocket test flight H-II 1F. Launching organization NASDA. Launch time 2220:00 UT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Initial demonstration flight of the Astrid (Advanced Single Stage Rapid Insertion) interceptor vehicle. References: 88 .
Stationed at 48 deg E; third launch of alternate Raduga design. Extension of the telephone and telegraph radio communications system on the territory of the Russian Federation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Solar and space physics. Conduct of comprehensive investigations of the sun under the Coronas-I international project developed by Russian and Ukranian experimts in cooperation with specialists from Poland, the Czech Republic, the Slovak Republic, Bulgaria, France, and the United Kingdom. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 116 .
Carried USMP-2, OAST-2, SAMPIE, TES, EISG. Payloads: United States Microgravity Payload (USMP) 2, Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) 2, Dexterous End Effector (DEE), Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), Limited-Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Auroral Photography Experiment Phase B (APE-B), Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test, Bioreactor Demonstration System A. Additional Details: STS-62. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
This space object is intended for assignments on behalf of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation. High resolution photo reconnaissance; returned film in two small SpK capsules during the mission and with the main capsule at completion of the mission. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 179 .
Cost was estimated at $ 9 billion for 840 Ka band low earth orbit satellites.
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Launched into an initial 192 x 238 x 51.6 km orbit. Docked with Mir on 24 Mar 1994 06:39:37 GMT. Fired its engine around 15 May to raise the orbit of the Mir station from 381 x 400 km to 398 x 399 km. Undocked on 23 May 1994 00:58:38 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 23 May 1994 04:40:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.23 days. Total docked time 59.76 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
|Previous Quarter||Next Quarter|