|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1993 - Quarter 2|
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Manned five crew. Carried Atlas-2; deployed and retrieved Spartan 201. Payloads: Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS) 2, Shuttle Solar Backscat-ter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) A, Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) 201 (Solar Wind Generation Experi-ment), Solar Ultraviolet Experiment (SUVE), Commercial Material Dispersion Apparatus (CMIX), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting, and Environmental System (HER-CULES), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Space Tissue Loss (STL), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME) III. Additional Details: STS-56. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Began installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit. References: 66 .
Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system, transmission of television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned seven crew. Carried German Spacelab-D2. Payloads: Spacelab D-2 with long module, unique support structure (USS), and Reaction Kinetics in Glass Melts (RKGM) getaway special, Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II. Additional Details: STS-55. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
In discussions regarding docking the US Shuttle with the Mir space station, NASA expressed concern about the clearances between the Shuttle and Mir's solar panels when using the docking port designed for Buran on the Kristall module. The Russians thought NASA overly cautious, but NPO Energia offered a solution - a modified version of the Buran SO, to be delivered by the Shuttle. The specialised SO docking module was originally designed for docking the Buran space shuttle with the Mir-2 space station. In the 1992 concept the module would be delivered by a Progress-M tug to Mir-2 and included a lateral EVA hatch.
Stationed at 1.2 deg E. TV distribution services to Western Europe and the Canary Islands under franchise from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Contracted and controlled by the private company formed in 1985 called Société Europíenne des Satellites (SES). This is the third in a series of 4 medium power satellites, and will act primarily as Astra 1A's backup. Spacecraft: HS-601 platform.3-axis unified ARC 22 N and one Marquardt 490 N bipropellant thrusters, Sun and Barnes Earth sensors and two 61 Nms 2-axis gimballed momentum bias wheels.1658 kg nitrogen tetroxide & MMH in four spheres. Spin-stabilised in transfer orbit. Twin solar wings of three 2.16 x 2.54 m panels carrying large area silicon cells on Kevlar substrate to satisfy 3.3 kW requirement. Eclipse protection provided by Nickel hydrogen batteries. Payload: 18 eclipse protected transponders, plus six spares with 63W TWTA 10.95-11.200 Ghz down Ku-band European beams in 250 Mhz band adjacent (below) to Astra 1A, 26 Mhz bandwidth, eirp 50 dBW min, orthogonal polarisation, operating in the FSS range References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir. Last launch using Soyuz-U2 launch vehicle. Docked with Mir's front port on 24 May 1993 08:24:44 GMT. In addition to other supplies, carried repair equipment for a spacewalk device damaged a month before. Undocked on 3 Jul 1993 15:58:16 GMT, with Soyuz TM-17 docking at the same port only minutes later at 17:45 GMT. Meanwhile, Progress M-17 remained docked to the Kvant rear port on a longevity test. Progress M-18 was destroyed in reentry on 4 Jul 1993 17:13:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 3.12 days. Total docked time 40.31 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Completed installation of Kvant 1 solar array drive unit. References: 66 .
Manned six crew. Carried Spacehab 1; retrieved Eureca-1 spacecraft. Payloads: Spacehab 01, retrieval of European Retriev-able Carrier (EURECA) Satellite, Superfluid Helium On-Orbit Transfer (SHOOT), Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload (CONCAP)-IV, Fluid Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE), Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II, Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS), GAS bridge assembly with 12 getaway special payloads. Additional Details: STS-57. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Latched Eureca antenna. Conducted tests to refine procedures for servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope and construction of the International Space Station References: 66 .
Investigation of the natural resources of the Earth in the interests of various branches of the national economy; solution of problems relating to ecology and international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
No known mission (with the end of SDI and the cold war) - plus the project manager was one of the 1991 coup plotters. Total cost 20 billion rubles at time of cancellation. References: 83 .
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