|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1989 - Quarter 4|
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Inactivation of HQ SAMTO at Vandenberg AFB. References: 88 .
Rockwell International (Space Systems Division) began a year-long contracted effort managed by Langley Research Center to perform an in-depth study of Personnel Logistics System design and operations with the HL-20 concept as a baseline. The spaceplane would supplement the shuttle in support of the Space Station Freedom.
First attempt by a commercial firm, American Rocket Company (AMROC), to launch its SET-l/SMLV (Single Engine Test - 1/Single Module Launch Vehicle) failed on the pad at Vandenberg AFB. References: 88 .
Deployed from STS-34 10/18/89; entered Jupiter orbit 12/7/95; investigations of Jupiter's moons, atmosphere, magnetosphere; antenna failed to deploy. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned five crew. Deployed Galileo .Payloads: Deploy IUS with Galileo spacecraft. Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV), Polymer Morphology (PM) experiments, IMAX camera project, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE), Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) experiment, Growth Hormone Concentration and Distribution (GHCD) in Plants experiment, Sensor Technology Experiment (STEX), SSIP Student Experiment (SE) 82-15, Ice Crystals Experiment. First flight at this inclination. Additional Details: STS-34. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Stationed at 24.5 deg E. At the time, the Intelsat 6 series were the largest commercial spacecraft ever built. The series were also the first commercial satellites to employ Satellite Switched/Time Division Multiple Access (SS/TDMA) techniques. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes 393 bus. Spin stabilised with despun antenna. Hydrazine propulsion system. Passive thermal control. Telescoping dual-cylinder structure with deployed antennas. Body mounted solar cells generate 2250 W (EOL). Solar drums are each about 6m tall. Payload: 38 (plus 12 backup) C-Band and 10 (plus 4 backup) Ku-Band transponders.120,000 telephone calls and 3 colour TV broadcasts simultaneously. SS/TDMA (Satellite-Switched Time Division Multiple Access) techniques used. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Cosmic Background Explorer; measured background galactic infrared radiation. Spacecraft engaged in research and exploration of the upper atmosphere or outer space (US Cat B). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
SMM finished collected data . It re-entered on December 2, 1989.
Manned five crew. Deployed a classified payload. Orbits of Earth: 78. Distance traveled: 3,218,687 km. Landed at: Concrete runway 04 at Edwards Air Force Base, Cali. Landing Speed: 368 kph. Touchdown miss distance: 570.00 m. Landing Rollout: 2,366.00 m. Payloads: DoD Mission - third space shuttle night launch. Additional Details: STS-33. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 .
Mir expansion module. Scheduled docking 2 December delayed due to failure of solar panel to extend and failure of automatic rendezvous system. Faults corrected by ground control and docked with Mir December 6, 1989 at 12:21 GMT. Transferred to lateral port December 8.
Officially: Delivery to the Mir orbital station of additional equipment and apparatus for the purpose of expanding the research and experiments conducted in the interests of science and the national economy. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Operation of the long-range telephone and telegraph radio communications system in the USSR; transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to stations in the Orbita network and within the framework of international cooperation. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
X-, gamma-ray observatory; Danish, French, Bulgarian payloads. Granat orbital observatory. Conduct of studies of X-ray and soft gamma ray radiation sources in space by the USSR jointly with France, Denmark and Bulgaria. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Suborbital. References: 5 .
Unmanned resupply vessel to Mir; carried US microgravity payload. Delivered various cargoes to the Mir orbital station, including scientific apparatus produced in the United States of America and intended, pursuant to a commercial agreement, for the conduct of experiments on space biotechnology. Docked with Mir on 22 Dec 1989 05:41:21 GMT. Undocked on 9 Feb 1990 02:33:07 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 9 Feb 1990 07:56:00 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.31 days. Total docked time 48.87 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
Believed to be a modernised version of the Taifun-1 satellite, built by NPO Yuzhnoe. The satellite carried 36 small Calibration Spherical Object subsatellites to test Russian radars. These were released between December 27, 1989 and November 1, 1991. While Cosmos 2053 re-entered in 1997, by May 1999 the S5M upper stage was still in a 471 km x 485 km x 73.5 deg orbit. An on-board explosion blew it into 25 new objects. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Stationed at 346 deg E. Relaying of telegraph and telephone information. The third Altair/SR geosynchronous satellite for communication with Mir space station and other orbital spacecraft. Combined with Cosmos 1897, it permitted Mir to maintain contact with Mission Control in Moscow 70% of the time. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
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