|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1986 - Quarter 1|
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By January 1986 it was clear that the project, now three years behind schedule, had no prospect of completion due to problems in obtaining deliveries of equipment for Buran, numerous problems in assembling the orbiters and lack of manpower at Baikonur, and a general loss of management focus. Minister O D Bakhnov called large group of industry leaders to the cosmodrome to review measures to concentrate and accelerate the remaining work. Three 'Tiger Teams' were set up. The first, led by Semenov, was to finish the flight Buran orbiter and associated facilities in time for a third quarter 1987 launch. The second, led by B I Gubanov, was to finish the Energia launch vehicle and fly it, without the Buran mock-ups if necessary, at the earliest possible date. The third group, led by S S Banin, was to complete the assembly and launch facilities.
Having completed design and development work on Energia-launched nuclear-electric upper stages, NPO Energia studied a manned Mars project again. The study revamped the 1969 studies to include launch by Energia and use of two reactors in the place of one and the use of tested systems developed on orbital stations.
Maximum speed 520 kph. Maximum altitude 3000 m. Time 36 minutes. References: 81 .
Manned seven crew. Launched Satcom K1. Payloads: Deploy SATCOM (RCA-Satellite Communi-cations) Ku-1 with Payload Assist Module (PAM)-D II. Materials Science Laboratory, Comet Halley Active Monitoring Experiment (CHAMP), Hitchhiker (HH) Goddard (G)-1, thirteen getaway specials (GAS), student experiment, Initial Blood Storage Equipment (lBSE), Characterization of Space Motion Sickness (SMS). Additional Details: STS-61-C. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 33 .
In reaction to US X-30 project government decree ordered development of a Soviet equivalent.
By January 1986 it was clear that the project, now three years behind schedule, had no prospect of completion due to problems in obtaining deliveries of equipment for Buran, numerous problems in assembling the orbiters and lack of manpower at Baikonur, and a general loss of management focus. Minister O D Bakhnov called a large group of industry leaders to the cosmodrome to review measures to concentrate and accelerate the remaining work. Three 'Tiger Teams' were set up. The first, led by Semenov, was to finish the flight Buran orbiter and associated facilities in time for a third quarter 1987 launch. The second, led by B I Gubanov, was to finish the Energia launch vehicle and fly it, without the Buran mock-ups if necessary, at the earliest possible date. The third group, led by S S Banin, was to complete the assembly and launch facilities.
Stationed at 117 deg E. BS-2b (Yuri-2b). Domestic satellite broadcasting; development of broadcasting satellite technology. Launching organization NASDA. N launch vehicle flight no 14. Launch time 0755 GMT. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
The first Buran payload, 37KB module s/n 37070, is delivered by freight car. The 37KB modules, similar to the Kvant module of the Mir space station, were to be standard on the early Buran flights. 37KB-37070 itself primarily contained instrumentation to measure the performance of the orbiter and its structure on its first flight.
The first launch attempt at very low temperatures was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed.
The core module of Russia's new space station was placed in an initial orbit of 172 x 301 km. It was established in its operational orbit on 6 March. It passed just 10 km from Salyut 7 on 8 March. First use of the geosynchronous Luch relay sattelite for communications with the station was on 29 March. Equipment launched with the core module included:
Total costs of Mir from February 1986 through return of Soyuz TM-9 in April 1989 were given as 1.471 billion rubles. This sum ncluded Mir, Kvant, all Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, and 2 new modules. As of April 1989 50% of the scientific equipment was inoperable and the interior was cramped due to lack of extension modules. Electric power supply problems were first reported in April 1989 (batteries would not hold charge from panels). Mass 27,300 kg as of January 1990. Complex mass with Kvant-2 65,790 kg; with Kristall, Soyuz TM, and Progress M, 89,990 kg. Additional Details: Mir. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 67 , 274 .
Studied magnetic, electric, UV properties of auroral regions. Scientific satellite for the investigation of space plasma physics in the part of the magnetosphere close to the Earth, particularly in connection with the auroral phenomena. The nominal mission period is eight months but an extension can be envisaged. ST /SG/SER.E/167: The satellite Viking has ceased to function on 12 May 1987 due to a gradual degradation of its electrical power supply system. The satellite remains, however, in Earth orbit. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
President Marcos flees Philippines after ruling 20 years, as newly elected Corazon Aquino succeeds him
Final expedition to Salyut 7 station was cancelled when control was lost. References: 382 .
Planned Astro-1 shuttle mission. Cancelled after Challenger disaster.
Mir Main Expedition EO-01. Epic repair mission. Crew comprising ship's commander L D Kizim and flight engineer V A Solovyov first docked with the Mir orbital station to conduct scientific and technical studies and experiments. Mir then maneuvered 17 April to match Salyut 7 at 4000 km separation, then again on 4 May to catch up. After six weeks aboard Mir, Soyuz T-15 undocked on 5 May, then rendezvoused with the dead Salyut 7 station. Only docking to date by a single spacecraft with two space stations. After manual docking with inoperative Salyut 7, the station was found to be ice bound and without electrical power. Crew repaired the station, regaining power, heat, and environmental control. Removed experimental results left behind by last crew. Undocked Salyut 7 on 25 June, and redocked with Mir on 26 June. Landed 55 km NE Arkalyk. Recovered July 16, 1986 12:34 GMT. No crew ever revisited Salyut 7; it made an uncontrolled reentry over Argentina. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 32 , 33 , 51 .
Unmanned supply vessel transporting sundry cargoes to the Mir orbital station. Docked with Mir on 21 Mar 1986 11:16:02 GMT. Undocked on 20 Apr 1986 19:24:08 GMT. Destroyed in reentry on 21 Apr 1986 00:48:30 GMT. Total free-flight time 2.27 days. Total docked time 30.34 days. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 275 .
This was to be the first 20 second Energia main engine firing test. It was terminated at 2.58 seconds when the automatic control system detected a slow spool up of an engine turbine. In a the first attempt at a full-duration test helium leaks contaminated electro-hydraulic systems, leading to a situation where the tanks could not be drained. An engineering brigade had to work on the fuelled booster for 55 minutes, attach another helium tank, which led to successful de-fuelling of the vehicle.
Stationed at 105 deg W. Brazilsat 1 & 2 provide telecommunications services to Brazil. Canada's Spar Aerospace was awarded a $125 million contract to build, under license, two satellites based on Hughes' HS-376 design (similar to Anik D). Brazilsat 1 & 2 were the first two elements of Brazil's national Sistema Barasilero de Telecommunicacoes por Satelite (SBTS) network. Spacecraft: Based on Hughes HS-376, single antenna on despun platform, spin stabilised, hydrazine thrusters, body mounted solar cells provide 982 W BOL. Payload: 24 C-band transponders with 6 spares, 10 W TWTA, EIRP >34 dBW over most of Brazilian territory
Contract issued in 1990 for 2 units HS-376W. B1-B2 have dedicated transponders for government use. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
In reaction to US X-30 project, Tupolev OKB asked to start work on counterpart. By 1992 mockup completed, but solving of propulsion and inlet problems intractable without access to supercomputers. References: 83 .
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