|astronautix.com||Chronology - 1978 - Quarter 2|
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Manned precursor. Recovered April 15, 1978 12:02 GMT. Unsuccessful mission. Soyuz T test -failure.
202 km X 231 km orbit to 195 km X 291 km orbit. Delta V: 19 m/s
195 km X 291 km orbit to 306 km X 322 km orbit. Delta V: 40 m/s
306 km X 322 km orbit to 308 km X 318 km orbit. Delta V: 1 m/s
Total Delta V: 60 m/s.
Officially: Investigation of the upper atmosphere and outer space. References: 1 , 2 , 6 .
Experimental comsat. Medium-scale broadcasting satellite for experimental purposes (BSE). Launch vehicle Delta 2914-140. Launch time 2201 GMT. Location 110 deg E. Characteristics of satellite: Weight approx 355 kg in an early stage in orbit. Configuration - box shaped satelli te with 2 solar array panels with overall span of 8.95m. Height 3.09m, width 1.32m, length 1.19m. 3-axis stabilized attitude control. Expected life 3 years. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Complete ground vibration test modification at MSFC References: 15 .
Suborbital. References: 5 .
First static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (2.5 seconds; stub nozzles) References: 15 .
Complete final assembly and closeout system installation, ready for power-on, Columbia (OV-102) References: 15 .
Heat Capacity Mapping Mission; prodeuced thermal maps of atmosphere. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Forward payload bay doors on dock, Palmdale, Columbia (OV-102) References: 15 .
The technical project was completed in May 1978. The flight test plan at the beginning of the project foresaw first launch of the booster in 1983, with the payload being an unmanned OK-ML-1 mock-up of the orbiter. The first flight Buran was to fly unpiloted in 1984. Manned flights were to be routine by the 1987 seventieth anniversary of the Soviet Union.
The US Joint Chiefs of Staff issued a priority list of potential Soviet target satellites for the MHV hit-to-kill ASAT. The Chiefs also directed that work on begin on a 'conventional ASAT', a low-risk alternative system using off-the-shelf technology.
An acceptance test flight in October 1977 led to the Yantar-2K being accepted into Red Army service in May 1978.
Orbital Test Satellite; replacement for OTS-A; communications experiments. European Space Agency satellite. Launch time 2259 GMT. Reached definitive position, 10 deg east longitude, on May 24 at 0800 GMT. Launch by US Delta rocket. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Buran engineering details were definitised and drawing release began to the production shops.
The Pioneer Venus Orbiter was inserted into an elliptical orbit around Venus on December 4, 1978. After entering orbit around Venus in 1978, the spacecraft returned global maps of the planet's clouds, atmosphere and ionosphere, measurements of the atmosphere-solar wind interaction, and radar maps of 93 percent of the planet's surface. Additionally, the vehicle made use of several opportunities to make systematic UV observations of several comets. From Venus orbit insertion to July 1980, periapsis was held between 142 and 253 km (at 17 degrees north latitude) to facilitate radar and ionospheric measurements. The spacecraft was in a 24 hour orbit with an apoapsis of 66,900 km. Thereafter, the periapsis was allowed to rise (to 2290 km at maximum) and then fall, to conserve fuel. In 1991 the Radar Mapper was reactivated to investigate previously inaccessible southern portions of the planet. In May 1992 Pioneer Venus began the final phase of its mission, in which the periapsis was held between 150 and 250 km until the fuel ran out and atmospheric entry destroyed the spacecraft. With a planned primary mission duration of only eight months, the spacecraft remained in operation until October 8, 1992 when it finally burned up in Venus' atmosphere after running out of propellant. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 278 , 296 .
Start Enterprise (OV-101)/ ET mated vertical ground vibration test, MSFC References: 15 .
Loaded SRBs (2) arrive at MSFC for mated vertical ground vibration test References: 15 .
Uncertain if Molniya-1T model was Molniya-1 or Molniya-1T. Operation of a system of long range telephone-telegraph radiocommunication, and transmission of USSR Central Television programmes to the stations of the Orbita network. References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 .
Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station a crew consisting of V.V. Kovalenko and A.S. Ivanchenkov to conduct scientific and technological investigations and experiments. Recovered September 3, 1978 11:40 GMT. References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 32 , 33 .
Third static firing, MPTA-098, NSTL (50 seconds, 90% thrust) References: 15 .
Manned two crew. Docked with Salyut 6. Placed on board the Salyut-6 station, under the Intercosmos programme, a second, international, crew consisting of P.I. Klimuk (USSR) and M. Hermaszewski (Poland) to conduct scientific investigations and experiments. Recovered July 4, 1978 13:30 GMT References: 1 , 2 , 6 , 32 , 33 .
US domestic telephone service. Spacecraft engaged in practical applications and uses of space technology such as weather or communication (US Cat C). Launch vehicle put payload into geosynchronous transfer orbit References: 1 , 2 , 5 , 6 , 278 .
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