This page no longer updated from 31 October 2001. Latest version can be found at What's New

The Encyclopedia Astronautica is constantly been enlarged and updated. Always recheck an entry for any recent corrections or new material. The following lists only the major changes and additions to the Encyclopedia over the years


Large number of additional entries for Aerojet rocket engines. 3,991 new chronological entries, including entries for Goddard, Von Braun, Soviet decrees, Mercury, Gemini, Skylab, Cold War major events, dates and major events from spacecraft and launch vehicle narratives. Added major new entries and areas:


Updated chronology to October 16 2000. Added: Chinese Moon Base Plans! - plus - New Pix/Info: 921-2 Station - 921-3 Shuttle - Type E Lunar Booster

2000-10-06 Update: Added: Secret History of the Early Soviet Rockets!.
2000-10-02 15:36:00 Update: Added: Comprehensive coverage of gun-launched space vehicles.
2000-09-13 14:11:00

Added: Untold story of South Africa's Ballistic Missile and Space Program

Map of Overberg Test Range

2000-04-18 15:11:00

Updated Map of Baikonur

and Svobodniy

Summary of meeting of VPK Military-Industrial Commission in 1974 where fate of N1 was sealed and Energia-Buran begun.

2000-04-11 13:34:00 Update: Added: Comprehensive, Secret history of the Soviet Space Program.
1999-10-22 15:37:00 Update: Newly revealed details of Yangel's R-56 superbooster - the competitor to Korolev's N1 and Chelomei's UR-700.
1999-10-06 17:33:05

Added the true configuration and program plan of Chelomei's LK-700 direct lunar landing spacecraft revealed.

Chelomei's LK-700 direct lunar landing spacecraft

Chelomei's UR-700 direct lunar landing booster

1999-07-15 13:12:40 Update: Added: In-depth history of design, development, flight test of the Soviet LK Lunar Lander.
1999-06-16 17:58:32 Update: Added: MOOSE, FIRST, PARACONE, and other wild schemes for escaping from your disabled spacecraft....
1999-06-10 17:53:21


- Chinese Manned Spacecraft

- Why Space? - If the Sun Dies...

- R-56 - Water-borne N1 Superbooster Alternative

- New Maps of Secret Places: Baikonur - Plesetsk - Kapustin Yar

- New Encyclopedia Volume: Rocket Propellants / Engine Selector

- Robot Explorers of the Moon and Planets! - Over 400 New Photos, including new rare views of: The N1 - Project Aelita - LOK Orbiter - LK

- Avdeyev to break spacefligh record! - Updated - Chronology - Statistics - US Copies Soviet Spaceplane! - HL-20 - HL-42

1999-04-29 10:35:44 Update: Dietrich Haeseler's comprehensive Data sheet of Russian and Ukrainian liquid rocket engines is added


1999-04-25 14:33:52

Major updates:

Detailed history of Soviet rocketplanes and spaceplanes

Unprecedented detail on the design, develpment, and flight plans for the Buran space shuttle

The Past, present and future of the Chinese manned space program

A US Navy manned space interceptor of the early 1970's

1999-01-13 09:48:31

New on the Encyclopedia Astronautica:

The history of Soviet Lunar Bases and Lunar Landing Projects - completely updated - Learn about the L1, L2, L3, L4, L%, L3M, LEK, and many other previously unknown spacecraft:

The N1 Story - Completely updated and massively expanded - learn about the N1 trade studies, N1 follow-on designs, N1 aerospike versions, and much more. Modified since I posted the draft here a few weeks ago. Check it out again!

and TKS Station OS OP

The Soviet GR-2 multi-warhead FOBS: N11GR

Other recent additions:

Full biorgraphies of all flown US astronauts - US astronauts

Chinese manned spacecraft: Chinese manned spacecraft

North Korean launch vehicle: North Korean launch vehicle

Was the Soyuz design copied from the GE Apollo project proposal? GE Apollo

Soviet manned Mars expeditions - new details: Soviet manned Mars expeditions

1998-09-03 12:13:42

New updates:

The story of Chelomei's Universal Rockets, including updated UR-200, UR-700, and Proton launch data:

Chelomei's Universal Rockets

Chelomei's LK-1 and LK-700 manned lunar spacecraft:



Also new and revised:

Winged, Big, and other assorted Geminis:


Lunar Gemini, including the 1967 Universal Lunar Rescue Vehicle:

Lunar Gemini

1998-05-29 06:20:33 Update: Encylopedia Astronautica updated with major new articles on the Soyuz combat spacecraft variants and the Soviet ASAT program.
1998-05-06 16:13:31

Encyclopedia Astronautica completely updated!

NEW! =>Fully Referenced - Alphabetical Index - Graphics Index - 5,473 articles!
=>Take a Photo Tour of Once-Secret Russian Space Hardware:
=>Almaz Spy Station - TKS Ferry - LK Lunar Lander and LOK Orbiter
=>Zenit-2 - Soviet spy satellite! - Mysteries of Kosmos revealed!
=>Polyus/Soviet Death Star - Soyuz VI/Military Soyuz - The Wrong Stuff

Updates on:
Soviet Mars Expeditions - RSA-3 / RSA-4 - South African LV's

1997-10-27 Update: New additions:

- Nova launch vehicles - a comprehensive survey

- Enlarged essay on Lunar Gemini

- Improved biographies/photos of US X-plane and MOL astronauts.


Retitled Encyclopedia Astronautica and new pages added on:

Russian Lunar Base Plans (DLB, Zvezda, LEK, etc...)
Russian Large Space Stations (OS, MOK/MKBS)
Russian Mars Missions
The N1 Story
South African Space Launcher / ICBM
Dan Roam's Phenomenal X-20 and MOL Artwork
Women in Space

1997-08-18 09:42:19 Update: History of Russian Mars expeditions and nuclear propulsion efforts is added.


1997-07-20 05:58:08

Major update to the Encyclopaedia of Spaceflight

Major items of interest:

Article on the N1, its predecessors and planned future developments -- N1

Details and photos of the Burya Mach 3 intercontinental cruise missile of the 1950's -- Burya

Details on the NPO Energia manned lunar spacecraft for the planned moon bases of the 1950's and 1970's -- Energia manned lunar spacecraft

Updated cosmonaut data, courtesy of Alexander Zheleznyakov Cosmonaut data

Plus, updated data from FPSPACE 97 on the R-26, R-56, UR-200, and many other rockets and launch vehicles - Launch vehicles

1996-10-01 Update: Added Saturn and Titan launch vehicle family pages.
1996-06-06 Update: Site moved to friends & partners server, as suggested by Dennis Newkirk and sponsored by Jennifer Green. Title was 'On-Line Encyclopaedia of Spaceflight'. Site expanded to include launch vehicle data, launch lists, and preliminary astronaut data.
1996-01-10 Update: The pages go on line as the 'Soviet Space Web Page'. The initial site consisted of a small number of pages on Soviet manned spacecraft and flights. Immediate positive response from the Internet and space history communities.
Back to Index
Last update 26 March 2001.
Contact Mark Wade with any corrections or comments.
Conditions for use of drawings, pictures, or other materials from this site..
© Mark Wade, 2001 .