|Vazhno ne to, dolgo li, a pravil'no li ty prozhil. - Seneka|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 217, Part I, 8 November 1999
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 217, Part I, 8 November 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part I * RUSSIAN MILITARY DENY SCHISM OVER CHECHEN WAR * OVR RELEASES PARTY PLATFORM * TAJIK PRESIDENT RE-ELECTED End Note: RUSSIAN ECONOMY IMPROVING WHILE MOSCOW REMAINS STUBBORN xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx RUSSIA RUSSIAN MILITARY DENY SCHISM OVER CHECHEN WAR. In a joint statement released in Moscow on 6 November, Defense Minister Igor Sergeev and Chief of General Staff Anatolii Kvashnin rejected as "lies, slander, and misinformation" Russian media reports that some senior generals have threatened to resign to protest plans by the presidential administration to begin peace talks in Chechnya. The previous day, Kvashnin's first deputy, Colonel-General Valerii Manilov, had said that he is confident that the Russian military and civilian leadership will act in tandem and that the military operation will continue until "terrorists" and "bandits" on Chechen territory are wiped out. But the next day, the commander of the western Chechen front, Major-General Vladimir Shamanov, again affirmed in an interview with Russian state television that he will resign if ordered to halt his troops' advance in Chechnya (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 5 November 1999). LF CHECHEN PRESIDENT APPEALS TO CLINTON, UN... Aslan Maskhadov has written to U.S. President Bill Clinton to ask the U.S. to "use its influence as a defender of the rights...of peoples" to stop "the genocide of the Chechen people," Reuters and Interfax reported on 7 November. Maskhadov said in that missive that Moscow launched the war in Chechnya to deflect attention from internal problems within the Russian leadership. That move, he said, was in violation of the May 1997 bilateral agreement, in which Moscow pledged not to use force against Chechnya. Maskhadov has also sent a similar appeal to the UN and has written to the leaders of states that will attend the OSCE Istanbul summit in 18-19 November to ask them to raise the Chechen issue at that forum. LF ...EXPRESSES READINESS FOR PEACE TALKS. On 6 November, Chechen Premier Kazbek Makhashev quoted Maskhadov as saying at a cabinet session that he is ready for "any form of negotiations" to stop the war and the death of civilians" Interfax reported. Maskhadov added that his North Caucasus colleagues could contribute to resolving the crisis. But the "Frankfurter Rundschau" on 4 November quoted Ingushetia's President Ruslan Aushev as saying that the Russian Defense Ministry sabotaged a meeting between Maskhadov and other North Caucasus leaders scheduled for late October by refusing to guarantee Makhsadov's safe transit to Yessentuki, in Stavropol Krai, where that meeting was to take place. Speaking in Moscow on 5 November, Russian First Deputy Chief of General Staff Colonel-General Manilov said Maskhadov must first distance himself from "terrorists" such as Basaev and Khattab before any peace talks can begin, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported. LF RUSSIA RESUMES BOMBING OF GROZNY. Russian aircraft and artillery subjected Grozny and other Chechen towns, including Bamut, Gudermes, Urus-Martan, and Gekhi, to intensive bombing and artillery attack on 6- 7 November. Chechen spokesmen said that 38 civilians were killed and more than 100 injured in Grozny, while Reuters reported that four died in Gekhi. Chechen field commander Shamil Basaev said on 6 November that few Chechen fighters have been hit by the bombing, but other Chechen military sources told Reuters the following day that they have withdrawn from Bamut, west of Grozny, and 28 of their men were killed and 26 wounded in heavy fighting in the villages of Samashki, Alkhan-kala, and Zakan-Yurt. In Mozdok, a spokesman for the Russian military command told Interfax on 5 November that Russian troops control approximately 40 percent of Chechnya. LF SHOIGU PLANS TO SEND DISPLACED PERSONS BACK TO CHECHNYA. Russia's Minister for Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu told journalists in Moscow on 6 November that a list is shortly to be made public of 17 localities in the Russian-controlled districts of Chechnya to which displaced persons may return from Ingushetia and North Ossetia, ITAR-TASS reported. Shoigu added that there is a reserve of tents, bedding, and equipment to house 30,000 people in those localities, and that the Russian authorities will guarantee the safety of those who choose to return. The previous day, Russian Interior Minister Vladimir Rushailo had said that the "main task" of Russian federal agencies in the "liberated" districts of Chechnya is to create a "normal standard of living" for the Chechen population there. Despite such assurances, another 4,000 civilians crossed the border from Chechnya into Ingushetia on 6 November, raising the number of displaced persons to more than 199,000, according to Interfax. LF FORMER GROZNY MAYOR PARDONED... President Boris Yeltsin has pardoned former Grozny mayor Beslan Gantemirov, who was sentenced in 1998 to six years' imprisonment on charges of having embezzled 54 billion undenominated rubles allocated to Chechnya from the state budget for reconstruction, Caucasus Press reported. Gantemirov is a former commander of the late Djokhar Dudaev's bodyguards. He split with Dudaev in 1993 and joined the domestic Chechen opposition. He has repeatedly claimed that the charges against him were fabricated to protect senior Russian officials. In a lengthy interview published in "Nezavisimaya gazeta" last December, Gantemirov said he believes that at some stage he will be in a position again "to serve Chechnya" (see "RFE/RL Caucasus Report," Vol. 1, No. 43, 23 December 1998). LF ...AND IS IN LINE FOR LEADING POSITION? Malik Saidullaev, who heads the pro-Moscow Chechen State Council, told Interfax on 5 November that he considers Gantemirov "a most acceptable figure" for the post of Chechen premier. "An energetic and courageous person must hold the post of the prime minister and restore order in the republic," Saidullaev said. He added that he considers Gantemirov was made "a scapegoat." Gantemirov might be named premier at a congress of the Chechen diaspora to be held in Moscow on 12 November, according to ITAR-TASS. LF OVR RELEASES PARTY PLATFORM. The Fatherland-All Russia alliance released its election manifesto on 5 November. The alliance, which is headed by former Prime Minister Yevgenii Primakov, declared its goals as promoting a strong government, socially oriented market reform, the crackdown on crime, and powerful armed forces, according to Interfax. More specifically, according to "Kommersant-Daily" on 6 November, the group calls for lowering taxes and freezing rents and gasoline prices. The daily, which is controlled by business magnate Boris Berezovskii, a prominent foe of OVR, concluded that the party's economic policy promises to be "no more destructive than the November theses of [Soviet leader] Vladimir Illyich [Lenin]." However, Mikhail Dmitriev of the Carnegie Moscow Center suggested recently that all major parties appear to have more realistic tax policies than was the case during the last State Duma election. Those parties believe that a priority of economic reform should be reducing some of the tax burden on producers at the expense of consumers. JAC INVESTIGATORS DROP BEREZOVSKII CASE... An investigator at the Prosecutor-General's Office, Nikolai Volkov, announced on 5 November that his office has dropped the criminal investigation" into business magnate Berezovskii on charges of money laundering and "illegal entrepreneurship." The investigation of two former executives of Aeroflot, Nikolai Glushkov and Boris Krasnenker, will continue, Volkov said. Suspended Prosecutor-General Yurii Skuratov told "The Moscow Times" the next day that he was aware of "pressure applied to Volkov" by Berezovskii. Volkov denied that either the instigation of charges against Berezovskii or the subsequent dropping of those charges was politically motivated. JAC ...AS BEREZOVSKII DUBS PUTIN PRESIDENTIAL SUCCESSOR. Berezovskii told reporters on 6 November that Prime Minister Putin "is better than the other candidates on today's political market." He added that Yeltsin's successor must be strong-willed and that Putin is the most suitable person from that point of view. In an interview with "Kommersant-Daily" the same day, Putin rejected some media outlets' attempts to portray him exclusively as a law-enforcement official. He noted that he also spends a significant amount of time on economy policy (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 5 November 1999). Also on 6 November, Russian newspapers continued to speculate on Putin's possible dismissal, with "Izvestiya" suggesting that Emergencies Minister Shoigu or Interior Minister Vladimir Rushailo might replace him. JAC COMMUNISTS GATHER TO REMEMBER REVOLUTION. The 82nd anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution on 7 November drew crowds across Russia, the largest of which appeared to be in St. Petersburg. Around 18,000 people marched down that city's Nevskii Prospekt to Dvortsovoi Square and sang the "Internationale," Interfax reported. In Moscow, according to that agency, some 5,000-7,000 people gathered to hear Communist Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov and others on the square located opposite the former KGB headquarters. The western city of Belgorod and the industrial Urals city of Chelyabinsk also attracted crowds of 5,000 and 4,000, respectively, ITAR-TASS reported. Attendance was thinner in the Far Northern cities of Murmansk and Petrozavodsk, where about 500 turned out. Also on 7 November, Western agencies reported that the granddaughter of former Soviet leader Iosif Stalin, Nadezhda Stalin, died. Stalin's second wife, who was her grandmother, also died on 7 November. JAC HUMAN RIGHTS ADVOCATES EXPLORE NEW AREAS. Human rights activists in Ufa, the capital of the Bashkortostan Republic, filed a lawsuit in a Moscow district court saying that the rights of Russian television viewers are being violated, "Kommersant-Daily" reported on 5 November. Those activists claim that television commercials on Russian Public Television, Russian Television, and NTV account for 30-50 percent of air time, compared with the world average of only 10-13 percent. The district court has refused to hear the case and referred it to a municipal court. If rejected there, the activists plan to take the case to the European Court of Human Rights. Meanwhile in Ulan Ude, the capital of the Republic of Buryatia, a human rights center succeeded in arranging for a telephone to be installed in the home of local resident Ivan Tabituev, according to "Izvestiya" on 6 November. Tabituev first applied for a phone in 1965. JAC GERMANY URGES RUSSIA, NATO TO REPAIR RELATIONS. Speaking two days before the 10th anniversary of the fall of the Berlin wall, German Ambassador to Moscow Ernst-Joerg von Studnitz urged Russia and NATO to seek to improve their relations. The ambassador told Interfax on 7 November that if one side refuses to do so, the situation in the world "may become complicated again." "We have tried to make relations between the West and Russia move for the better but have been unable to make this come true so far," the agency quoted him as saying. JC BALLOT ORDER READIED FOR DUMA ELECTIONS. Representatives of 28 movements or blocs drew lots on 5 November to determine the order in which their groups will appear on the ballot for the 19 December State Duma elections. The small Conservative Party of Russia drew the top spot, followed by Duma Deputy Sergei Baburin's Russian All-People's Union and Women of Russia. None of these parties is expected to attract enough votes to overcome the 5 percent barrier for entry to the Duma. Of the major parties, Yabloko is listed sixth, Unity 14th, OVR 19th, the Communist Party 20th, and Our Home Is Russia 25th. JAC U.S. EMBASSY'S Y2K PLANS CRITICIZED. "The New York Times" reported on 8 November that "although the State Department is planning to withdraw hundreds of government employees and their families from Russia and other former Soviet republics before 1 January, experts at the U.S. embassy in Moscow have concluded there is virtually no risk to diplomats from the year 2000 computer problem." The daily also reports that the estimated cost to the U.S. government is $5,000 per person for 15 days of leave and that estimates for the total cost of withdrawing personnel range from $8-$1.25 million. The newspaper noted that "the U.S. is spending $7.5 million this year under its program to create civilian jobs for scientists in Russia's closed nuclear cities." Interfax reported on 5 November that the U.S. appears to be the only leading Western country considering changes to the operation of its embassy in Russia during the millennium transition. JAC TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA ARMENIAN PRESIDENT IN MOSCOW. Robert Kocharian met with Prime Minister Vladimir Putin and Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov Moscow on 5 November. Kocharian also had what ITAR-TASS described as a "very warm and cordial" meeting with Russian President Boris Yeltsin at the latter's Ogarevo residence, at which Kocharian expressed thanks for Russia's expressions of support following the killings of eight senior Armenian officials in late October. The talks focused on bilateral relations and the prospects for resolving the Karabakh conflict. Armenian Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian and Defense Minister Vagharshak Harutiunian, who accompanied the Armenian president, held meetings with their Russian counterparts. LF NEW SUSPECT DETAINED IN ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT SHOOTINGS. Armenian parliamentary deputy Mushegh Movsisian was detained for questioning on 4 November in connection with the 27 October shootings in the Armenian parliament, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported on 6 November. On 5 November, opposition parliamentary deputy Arshak Sadoyan told RFE/RL that legislators will propose creating an ad hoc committee to conduct an independent investigation into the killings and deliver a "political assessment." Also on 5 November, replacements were named for five of the slain Miasnutyun deputies who were elected to the parliament on the bloc's party list in the 31 May poll. LF AKSENENKO DISCUSSES CHECHNYA, VISAS WITH AZERBIJANI PRESIDENT... Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai Aksenenko and Energy Minister Viktor Kalyuzhnyi met with senior Azerbaijani officials in Baku on 5 November. President Heidar Aliev told Aksenenko that Azerbaijan condemns terrorism and regards the fighting in Chechnya as Russia's internal affair, according top Interfax. But Aliev also denied that arms and mercenaries are entering Chechnya via Azerbaijani territory. He said the proposed introduction of visas for Azerbaijanis wishing to enter Russia will aggravate the situation on Azerbaijan's border with the Russian Federation as the large Lezgin, Dargin, and Avar minorities are divided between the two countries. Aliev added that according to the Bishkek agreement on visa-free travel between CIS states, Azerbaijan should be notified 90 days in advance of the introduction of a visa requirement. LF ...FAILS TO PERSUADE AZERBAIJAN TO SHIP MORE OIL VIA RUSSIA. Meeting with Natik Aliev, president of Azerbaijan's state oil company SOCAR, Aksenenko failed to persuade the oil chief that it would be advantageous for Azerbaijan to agree to export oil via the northern pipeline bypassing Chechnya, which is scheduled for completion by mid-2000, rather than to continue lobbying for construction of the planned Baku-Ceyhan export pipeline. (Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Georgia are scheduled to sign a framework legal agreement on that project at the upcoming OSCE Istanbul summit, and Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze discussed the project with his Turkish counterpart, Suleyman Demirel, in a telephone conversation on 6 November, ITAR-TASS reported.) Kalyuzhnyi offered to allow Azerbaijan to increase from 5 million tons to 12-15 million tons the amount of oil it exports annually via Russia. But SOCAR President Aliev said his company will abide by its agreement to export 5 million tons annually until 2003, according to ITAR-TASS. LF GEORGIA AGAIN CONDEMNS RUSSIAN VISA REQUIREMENT. Speaking on Georgian state television, Minister of State Vazha Lortkipanidze said Russia's plans to introduce visas for Georgian citizens wishing to enter Russia is aimed at drawing Georgia into the conflict in the North Caucasus, Caucasus Press reported on 6 November. The previous day, Georgian Ambassador to Moscow Malkhaz Kakabadze said Russia proposed introducing those visas as of 1 January. Kakabadze added that Georgia sees no reason for the visa requirement but will begin talks with Moscow on its implementation. Of the 2,202 Russians who took part in a recent poll, the overwhelming majority (2,048) expressed support for the introduction of visas for citizens of Georgia and Azerbaijan entering the Russian Federation, according to "Segodnya" on 5 November. LF THIRD PARTY QUALIFIES FOR REPRESENTATION IN GEORGIAN PARLIAMENT. Georgian Central Electoral Commission officials on 7 November announced updated results of the party-list vote in the 31 October parliamentary elections, Caucasus Press reported. According to those data, three parties will be represented in the new parliament. The Union of Citizens of Georgia will retain its absolute majority, having polled 41.85 percent of the party list vote to receive 85 of the 150 seats allocated under the proportional system. The Union for the Democratic Revival of Georgia polled 25.65 percent (51 seats) and the bloc Industry Will Save Georgia 7.8 percent (14 seats). LF KAZAKHSTAN'S PARLIAMENT PASSES DRAFT BUDGET FOR 2000. A joint session of both chambers of Kazakhstan's parliament passed next year's budget in the second and final reading on 5 November, Interfax reported. The budget provides for expenditures of 404.8 billion tenge ($276 million) and revenues of 340.3 billion tenge, the deficit being equal to 3 percent of GDP. Passage of the budget removes the final obstacle to a new three-year IMF loan program. Prime Minister Qasymzhomart Toqaev thanked parliamentary deputies for their "realism" in endorsing the draft, adding that it might have to be amended to meet social requirements. But "Nezavisimaya gazeta" predicted on 4 November that the IMF demand for more effective tax collection will drive many Kazakh industrial enterprises to bankruptcy. LF ARCHIVES OF HUMAN RIGHTS BUREAU IN KAZAKHSTAN DESTROYED BY FIRE. Records dating back six years were destroyed by fire at the Human Rights and Legality Bureau in Almaty on 4 November, RFE/RL's bureau in the former capital reported on 8 November, quoting the bureau's director, Yevgenii Zhovtis. The cause of the blaze is unclear. LF KAZAKHSTAN'S FOREIGN MINISTER WARNS AGAINST ISLAMIC THREAT. Speaking in Moscow on 6 November, Yerlan Idrisov said that Kazakh security forces have launched an operation against "foreign bandit formations" that infiltrated southern Kazakhstan from neighboring Uzbekistan, AP reported. Three days earlier, a Kazakh Interior Ministry press secretary in Astana denied that unidentified gunmen crossed into Kazakhstan from neighboring Uzbekistan (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 4 November 1999). LF TAJIK PRESIDENT RE-ELECTED... Imomali Rakhmonov polled 96 percent of the vote in the 6 November presidential poll, in which 98 percent of the country's 2.8 million electorate participated, Reuters reported on 7 November, quoting Central Electoral Commission spokesman Davlatali Davlatov. Russian and CIS observers said they registered no violations of voting procedure. The OSCE did not send election observers, saying that democratic conditions had not been created for the vote. LF ...AFTER TAJIK OPPOSITION WITHDRAWS BOYCOTT. Hours before polling stations opened on 6 November, United Tajik Opposition (UTO) leader Said Abdullo Nuri lifted the opposition boycott on the poll in return for the release from prison of 93 Tajik fighters and for unspecified concessions related to the conduct of the parliamentary elections scheduled for February 2000, Reuters and AP reported. Affirming that "peace and reconciliation are more important than personal ambition," Nuri also agreed that the UTO will resume its participation in the work of the Commission for National Reconciliation. The opposition had withdrawn from that body and declared a boycott of the elections to protest restrictions on the participation of opposition candidates in the presidential poll. LF TAJIK OPPOSITION FIGURE CLAIMS POLL WAS RIGGED. Davlat Usmon of the Islamic Renaissance Party, which forms the backbone of the UTO, told journalists in Dushanbe on 7 November that he believes the outcome of the poll was rigged and that only 20- 30 percent of voters had participated. A minimum turnout of 50 percent is required for the poll to be valid. Usmon said he will call for the poll to be annulled. Usmon had been registered as a candidate by the Central Electoral Commission, despite having failed to collect the required 145,000 signatures in his support, and insists that his registration was illegal According to official returns, Usmon garnered just 2 percent of the vote, losing even in the Karategin valley in eastern Tajikistan where support for the Islamic Renaissance Party is traditionally strong, according to ITAR-TASS. LF UZBEK GUERRILLAS WITHDRAW FROM TAJIKISTAN. Some 450 Uzbek Islamic militants who had seized a dozen hostages in southern Kyrgyzstan in August left Tajik territory on 5-6 November, together with some 100 Uzbek civilians, ITAR-TASS reported on 6 November. The militants belong to a group headed by Djuma Namangani, who had promised during talks on 4 November with UTO leader Nuri to withdraw from Tajikistan to Uzbekistan. Tajikistan's Minister for Emergency Situations Mirzo Zieyev, a former UTO commander who helped negotiate the release of the hostages seized in Kyrgyzstan, monitored the Uzbek withdrawal. According to him, the withdrawal proceeded without incident, according to ITAR-TASS. LF END NOTE RUSSIAN ECONOMY IMPROVING WHILE MOSCOW REMAINS STUBBORN by Sophie Lambroschini The IMF delegation arriving in Moscow on 8 November will seek to determine the extent of Russia's progress in making its financial transactions easily traceable or what economists call "transparent." The world lending institution has set conditions that Russia must meet in order to receive the second installment, worth $640 million, of a $4.5 billion loan. The IMF released the first installment in July, but the second one was frozen in September after several financial scandals suggested possible misuse of previous loans. The conditions include tighter spending policy, regular audits of the Russian Central Bank's dealings with its affiliated structures in other countries, an audit of the Russian Savings Bank, and the adoption of international accounting standards. According to Russian media reports, Russian authorities have balked at these new conditions. Aleksandr Livshits, the Russian minister responsible for relations with international financial organizations, complained last month that the West is imposing higher standards of transparency on Russia than it is applying to itself. Russia's relations with the fund have been increasingly strained over the past several months amid allegations that the country has misused earlier loans and increased its military budget to finance the war in Chechnya. But Russian authorities express optimism that they will receive the installment. And they also express a stiff-necked determination to continue their economic policies, despite IMF criticism. Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin announced at a cabinet meeting last week that positive economic trends are continuing: GDP growth totaled 1.8 percent in the third quarter of 1999, inflation is under control, and tax revenues are higher than expected. All these indicators are plus points for a country struggling to emerge from the economic crisis of 1998. John Paul Smith is a London-based expert in emerging markets with the investment firm Morgan Stanley. In a presentation to investors last week, he was guardedly optimistic about the Russian economy, saying "there is a clear potential for a shift to more positive factors." He noted that the economic situation is better than anyone could have predicted. Smith attributed this to a pick-up in industrial production and the rise in global oil prices. He added that there has been an improvement in the fiscal situation owing to small-scale reform in collecting taxes. Smith warned, however, that Russian policymakers should not interpret this improvement as the start of an overall economic regeneration. He said the rise in industrial production is mainly owing to the devaluation of the ruble and the resulting cheapness of Russian goods on world markets. Smith also noted that Russia should build on the benefits of the devaluation by implementing further economic reforms. He warned that if the federal government increases expenditures too much, these advantages might be squandered. This is precisely what the IMF is worried about. A tough budgetary policy was one of the IMF's conditions for releasing the loan installment. But budgetary restraint is one of Russia's main "little sins," as the finance minister puts it. Last month, Russia increased its military budget to fund the war in Chechnya, triggering complaints from the IMF. Russia argued that the Chechen war is being financed by the extra revenues collected. And this month, the State Duma approved an extra $6 billion rubles on spending. The government said it has to accept the increase to get the budget past the leftist-dominated Duma. So far, these explanations have not convinced the IMF. Russian officials are suspecting the West of using financial blackmail to force Moscow to compromise on Chechnya. Putin, for his part, has said that Russia will not sacrifice its national interests for what he called "financial lollipops." Unified Energy Systems head Anatolii Chubais, who is also a former prime minister and former Russian contact person for the international financial organizations, has tried to defuse these tensions. "In the list of conditions it is not written that the Bank of New York will not work with Russian importers," he commented at a press conference in Moscow last week. 'In the list of conditions it does not say that Russia should not fight terrorism in Chechnya. I am categorically against pulling the IMF into semi-political decisions on that [issue]. If this does not happen, if the IMF fulfills its obligations, if Russia fulfills its obligations in regard to its interest, then there is a real chance of solving the problem [of releasing the second loan installment] by early December. But even if the second installment of the loan is released, it will not provide Russia with any cash. The loan would be used exclusively to repay Russia's debt to the fund, bypassing Russian institutions completely and ending up back in IMF coffers. The author is an RFE/RL correspondent based in Moscow. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. 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