The fool wonders, the wise man asks. - Benjamin Disraeli
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 182, Part I, 17 September 1999


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 182, Part I, 17 September 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern
Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the
staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document.  Back issues of
RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at
RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part I

* U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS RUSSIA ISN'T LOST

* ST. PETE EXPLOSION LABELED JUST ORDINARY POLITICAL VIOLENCE

* KYRGYZ OPPOSITION POLITICIAN DELIVERS HUMANITARIAN AID TO
FUGITIVES IN SOUTH

END NOTE: AMBIGUOUS ANNIVERSARY
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

RUSSIA

U.S. SECRETARY OF STATE SAYS RUSSIA ISN'T LOST... Addressing
an audience at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
in Washington on the U.S.'s policy towards Russia, U.S.
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright argued that "The
suggestion made by some that Russia is ours to lose is
arrogant; the suggestion that Russia is lost is simply
wrong." She added that she doesn't agree with the view of
some that the task of transforming Russia into a functioning
pluralist society is "hopeless," but agreed that it is
"Herculean." She urged "President [Boris] Yeltsin's
government" to make fighting corruption a "priority" and
dismissed as "fantasies" the beliefs of some Russian
officials that the furor over corruption stems from "a desire
by the West to embarrass Moscow or to electoral politics here
in the U.S." JAC

...AND PLEDGES SUPPORT FOR CONTINUED AID. Albright defended
U.S. aid programs, saying that they are designed to support
"good people doing the right things." She called Congress-
proposed cuts of 25-30 percent in U.S. assistance to Russia
and other newly independent states "unacceptable," in part
because "most bilateral assistance supports
nonproliferation." On the issue of aid that might have been
embezzled, she noted investigation of the issue is
continuing, but "we are obviously more than concerned--in
fact, outraged--if some of these allegations are true." JAC

RUSSIAN OFFICIALS TO SEEK PROOF IN MONEY LAUNDERING CASE...
The Russian State Duma will send a delegation to attend
hearings in the U.S. Congress on the laundering of Russian
money through the Bank of New York scheduled for 21 and 22
September, Interfax reported on 16 September. The
announcement of the Duma's plans accompanies complaints by
Viktor Ivanov, deputy director of the Federal Security
Service, on the same day that U.S. law enforcement officials
have not provided "any documents that could confirm reports
on the Bank of New York case, which are extensively
circulated by the U.S. mass media." Interpol's British
Secretary-General Raymond Kendall told Reuters the same day
that the money laundering scheme was the biggest his agency
has ever seen; however, he also noted that "it is interesting
that we haven't yet seen any proof of illegal activity." JAC

...WHILE CONTINUING TO ASSERT SCANDAL MANUFACTURED. Foreign
Minister Igor Ivanov on 16 September accused some Western
publications of engaging in a campaign to "spoil Russia's
image," commenting that this casts "a shadow over Russia and
violates its bilateral relations with other countries."
Finance Minister Mikhail Kasyanov sounded a similar note,
saying that allegations in the Bank of New York scheme are
part of a campaign to discredit Russia. Former Economics
Minister and Duma deputy Aleksandr Shokhin speculated in an
interview with "Nezavisimaya gazeta" on 14 September that the
scandal was "ordered" in part because the fiscal year in the
U.S. ends on 30 September and "this scandal is a form of
pressure on Russia to squeeze something out of the debtors or
at least try to prove the innocence of Western companies to
their shareholders," since Russia is "a gangster state, and
that is why fund managers lost so much money." JAC

IMF DISMISSES SKURATOV ALLEGATIONS... An unidentified senior
IMF official dismissed as "nothing new" accusations by former
Prosecutor-General Yurii Skuratov that Russia's Central Bank
sold $3.9 billion from an account to where IMF loan monies
had been deposited to a small group of Russian banks, AFP
reported on 16 September. Skuratov claimed that this money
was then used by these banks to convert their GKOs into
dollars just before the mid August 1998 devaluation of the
ruble. According to the agency, the official said that "in
1998 and before, the Russian Central Bank had been
intervening in exchange markets, which is legal and is done
other places." However, the official added that the IMF is
awaiting further clarification about how the bank manages its
reserves. The previous day, an official with the Russian
Audit Chamber told Reuters that their investigation revealed
no illegal use of the IMF funds by the Central Bank. JAC

...AS SKURATOV'S SWISS TRAVEL PLANS SCUTTLED AGAIN.
Meanwhile, Skuratov's plans to travel to Switzerland over the
weekend to meet with Swiss Attorney General Carla del Ponte
were canceled when the Swiss embassy in Moscow did not
provide him with a visa, "The Moscow Times" reported on 17
September. Skuratov's plans to visit Switzerland in May were
also scrapped when his newly issued passport was canceled by
Russian authorities. Earlier this month, Skuratov's apartment
and dacha were searched by Russian law enforcement officials
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 September 1999). JAC

RUSSIA WARNS U.S. CONGRESS OVER IRAN BILL. The Russian
Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 16 September calling
the legislation adopted by the U.S. House of Representatives
on 14 September "openly anti-Russian" and warning that the
legislation "could influence in the most negative way
Russian-American cooperation in the area of non-proliferation
and export controls." The ministry threatened that if the
bill became law "it will be necessary for us to re-assess the
entire situation concerning Russian-American cooperation on
non-proliferation issues, as well as on a range of other
military-political issues that stand at the core of our joint
efforts to ensure a strategic balance and international
stability." The legislation in question would impose either
economic sanctions or suspend military aid to countries that
help Iran build nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons.
The next round of U.S.-Russian negotiations on the ABM and
START-III treaties was scheduled to begin on 17 September.
JAC

ST. PETE EXPLOSION LABELLED JUST ORDINARY POLITICAL
VIOLENCE... An explosion in an apartment block in St.
Petersburg on 17 September triggered fears that a new
terrorist bombing following the previous day's explosion in
Volgodonsk had occurred. However, Interior Minister Vladimir
Rushailo declared that the blast--which killed at least two
people--was "definitely not connected" with recent terrorist
acts. He noted that the editor-in-chief of a St. Petersburg
newspaper lived in that apartment building and he may have
been the intended target of the blast, according to Interfax.
JAC

...AS DEATH TOLL IN VOLGODONSK RISES. The number of dead from
the 16 September apartment blast has risen to 17, according
to the Rostov Oblast's web site (http://www.rostov.ru). Three
persons remain unidentified. The power of the blast measured
100-150 kilograms of TNT, Interfax reported on 16 September.
JAC

YELTSIN SUGGESTS STROEV WAS MISQUOTED. Presidential spokesman
Dmitrii Yakushkin said on 17 September that the statement by
Federation Council chairman Yegor Stroev in "The New York
Times" the previous day that President Yeltsin's resignation
would benefit the country was a "misunderstanding" (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 16 September 1999). The same day, the
upper legislative chamber rejected a proposal to put an
appeal to Yeltsin to resign before the end of his term on the
chamber's agenda. Sixty senators supported the proposal--
thirty less than necessary, according to Reuters. "Moskovskii
komsomolets" reported on 17 September, referring only to
unnamed Kremlin sources, that Prime Minister Vladimir Putin
may soon challenge the Kremlin by insisting on the dismissal
of First Deputy Prime Minister Nikolai Aksenenko and Fuel
Minister Viktor Kalyuzhnii. According to the daily, which is
close to Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov, Putin was angered over
these officials' handling of management issues at the energy
pipeline company Transneft (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 15 and 16
September.) JAC

NAZDRATENKO CONTINUES PRESS PRESSURE. A newspaper that has
recently published several articles critical of Primorskii
Krai Governor Yevgenii Nazdratenko was abruptly informed that
it must vacate its new offices within a week, according to
"EWI's Russian Regional Report" on 16 September. With a print
run of 40,000, the newspaper, "Moskovskii Komsomolets v
Vladivostoke," is one of the most popular newspapers in the
region, according to the publication. Other media outlets in
the krai have also been subject to pressure including
independent Radio Lemma, which in July also received an
eviction notice and had its electricity cut off. JAC

IVANOV SAYS GENERALS MUST NOT MAKE POLICY STATEMENTS. Russian
Foreign Minister Ivanov told Interfax on 16 September that a
warning by Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov that Russia may
withdraw its troops from Kosova "should be taken with a large
pinch of salt," (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 15 September 1999).
Ivanov stressed that "only the president, the prime minister,
and the foreign minister can make foreign policy statements."
Ivanov, however, warned that "the formation of a paramilitary
agency under any name can only make political settlement more
difficult." He was referring to the planned Kosovo Corps. FS

NATO AND RUSSIA AGREE ON KEY ISSUES OVER KOSOVA. Russia's
permanent representative to NATO, Ambassador Sergei Kislyak,
told ITAR-TASS on 16 September in Brussels that NATO and
Russian diplomats agreed the previous day that it is
necessary to demilitarize the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) by
19 September. He added that both sides also agree that
Russian peacekeepers must be deployed in the town of Rahovec
(see Part II). He added that NATO and the Russians are
"continuing to work on this problem," but did not elaborate.
FS

RUSSIAN POLITICIANS PROPOSE PLANS TO CONTAIN CHECHEN THREAT.
Former Premier Sergei Stepashin told NTV on 16 September that
Moscow should impose political, economic, and military
sanctions on Chechnya if Grozny fails to extradite the
persons responsible for the terrorist bombings in Buynaksk,
Moscow, and Volgodonsk, ITAR-TASS reported. (Daghestani
officials claim to have already apprehended several persons
responsible for the Buynaksk bomb.) State Duma deputy and
former Russian Border Troops commander Andrei Nikolaev called
for the establishment of a 5-15 kilometer demilitarized zone
along Chechnya's borders with other federation subjects.
State Duma speaker Gennadii Seleznev argued that Russian
troops have the right to annihilate guerrillas on Chechen
territory, according to Interfax. He added that Moscow should
ignore European pressure to abolish capital punishment and
sentence the guerrilla leaders to death. LF

CHECHEN OFFICIALS, BEREZOVSKII SAY PHONE TRANSCRIPT
FABRICATED. Former Chechen Foreign Minister Movladi Udugov
said on 16 September that the alleged tape of conversations
held between himself, Chechen Deputy Prime Minister Kazbek
Makhashev, and oligarch Boris Berezovskii is a forgery, Turan
reported. NTV broadcast that conversation on 15 September, in
which Berezovskii discussed with the two Chechens cash
payments for measures to destabilize the North Caucasus.
Makhashev also denied that the tape was genuine, adding that
he is not so stupid as to discuss such matters over the
telephone, according to ITAR-TASS. Berezovskii too has denied
the authenticity of that conversation and intends to sue
"Moskovkii Komsomolets," which published a transcript of it,
according to "Izvestiya" on 17 September. LF

CHECHENS PROTEST ONGOING RUSSIAN AIR STRIKES. Over 25,000
people gathered in Grozny on 16 September to protest the
ongoing Russian air strikes against dozens of towns and
villages in southern Chechnya, Interfax reported. President
Aslan Maskhadov said that over 200 people have been killed in
those raids, which Russian air force commander Anatolii
Kornukov told ITAR-TASS on 16 September are directed solely
at guerrilla bases. Maskhadov again denied any Chechen
participation in terrorist bomb attacks in Russian cities,
according to Interfax. He claimed that "Chechnya has become a
card in the hands" of unnamed world powers that aim to oust
Russia from the Caucasus. LF

PUTIN GIVES ORDERS FOR OIL PIPELINE BYPASSING CHECHNYA. Prime
Minister Putin told Fuel and Energy Minister Kalyuzhnii at a
cabinet meeting on 16 September to draft plans for an oil
pipeline bypassing Chechnya, Interfax reported. The Russian
government gave the go-ahead for construction of such a
pipeline in late 1997, intending to have it completed by late
1998 (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 18 September 1997). LF

CHERKESS, ABAZINS VOTE FOR AUTONOMY. At an extraordinary
congress on 16 September of organizations representing the
Cherkess, Abazin, and some Russian and Cossack communities of
the Republic of Karachaevo-Cherkessia, the 900 delegates
voted in favor of the restoration of the Cherkess Autonomous
Oblast as part of neighboring Stavropol Krai, Interfax and
Caucasus Press reported. That move was taken to protest the
14 September inauguration as the republic's president of
Karachai Vladimir Semenov, whose 16 May election victory
against Cherkess Stanislav Derev is seen as invalid by the
Cherkess population. The congress named Derev to head the new
autonomous formation and charged him with forming its
government, according to "Nezavisimaya gazeta" on 17
September. Also on 16 September, a group of Derev's
supporters blocked the main highway from Cherkessk, the
republic's capital, to Stavropol to demand Semenov's
resignation. Semenov told Interfax in Moscow in 16 September
after talks with Prime Minister Putin the previous evening
that Moscow recognizes him as the republic's legitimate
president. LF

TRANSCAUCASIA AND CENTRAL ASIA

OSCE CHAIRMAN-IN-OFFICE VISITS YEREVAN. On the first leg of a
tour of the South Caucasus originally scheduled for April
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 8 April 1999), Knut Vollebaek held
talks in Yerevan on 16 September with President Robert
Kocharian, Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian, parliament
deputy chairman Ruben Mirzoyan, and Arkadii Ghukasian,
president of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh Republic,
Noyan Tapan reported. At a press conference after those
meetings, Vollebaek expressed approval of the recent direct
talks between Kocharian and his Azerbaijani counterpart,
Heidar Aliev, saying that the Minsk Group and the OSCE are
ready to rejoin the negotiating process, in which, he added,
representatives of Karabakh should also be included. He
suggested that there is no need for a new draft peace plan
for Karabakh, given that previous Minsk Group initiatives are
still on the table. Vollebaek also greeted Oskanian's
announcement that Armenia is releasing three Azerbaijani
prisoners of war as a gesture of good will. LF

ARMENIA, IMF REACH AGREEMENT. Armenian Finance Minister Levon
Barkhudarian said on 16 September that the Armenian
government and the IMF have reached agreement on the terms of
the release of a vital new $28 million loan tranche, which
will almost certainly be made available by the end of 1999,
RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported. That agreement also paves
the way for disbursement of a $25 million World Bank loan to
cover Armenia's budget deficit. Originally expected in June,
the IMF and World Bank loan tranches were frozen due to a
higher-than-projected budget deficit. The Armenian parliament
last month approved the government's package of austerity
measures aimed at reducing that deficit (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 30 August 1999). The freezing of the funds has led
to widespread wage arrears in the public sector. Barkhudarian
said the government will pay all back salaries and pensions
by mid-October provided that the World Bank makes the money
available. LF

PACE PRESIDENT IN GEORGIA. Lord Russell Johnston, head of the
parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe, held talks
in Tbilisi on 14 September with Georgian Minister of State
Vazha Lortkipanidze and President Eduard Shevardnadze,
Caucasus Press reported. Those talks focused on the prospects
for the admission of Armenia and Azerbaijan to full
membership of the Council of Europe, the possibility of
Georgian mediation in the Karabakh conflict, and the
situation in the North Caucasus. Shevardnadze argued that
Armenia and Azerbaijan should be admitted simultaneously to
full membership of the Council of Europe. Shevardnadze
emphasized the importance of the planned meeting under the
aegis of the U.S. of the prime ministers of the three South
Caucasus states, adding that Russia, Turkey and the OSCE may
also be invited to send representatives, "Nezavisimaya
gazeta" reported on 17 September. The meeting is to focus on
the security problems in the South Caucasus. LF

JOURNALISTS CALL FOR MORE KAZAKH-LANGUAGE BROADCASTING. Union
of Journalists of Kazakhstan chairman Kamal Smailov told a
press conference in Almaty on 15 September that of the 150
hours of programming broadcast weekly by the electronic
media, only 10 percent is in Kazakh, RFE/RL's bureau in the
former capital reported. The Law on the State Languages
requires that a minimum of 50 percent of all broadcasts
should be in the Kazakh language. LF

ANOTHER CACHE OF EXPLOSIVES DISCOVERED IN KAZAKHSTAN.
Security officials have discovered 1.5 tons of the explosive
ammonal, together with 190 electric detonators, in a
warehouse in a town near Almaty, Interfax reported on 16
September. In late August, police found grenades, detonators
and two explosive devices in an abandoned garage in Astana
(see RFE/RL Newsline," 31 August 1999). LF

KYRGYZ PRESIDENTIAL AIDES DENY GERMAN MEDIA REPORT. Two aides
to Kyrgyzstan's President Askar Akaev on 16 September said a
report in the Berlin daily "Der Tagesspiegel" that Akaev may
return to academic work rather than contend next year's
presidential poll is incorrect and based on a
misunderstanding, Reuters and RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau
reported (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 16 September 1999).
Presidential press spokesman Kanybek Imanaliev explained that
in referring to "elections of a new president" in 2000, Akaev
had not excluded the possibility that he would run himself.
Presidential aide Gulnara Myrzhambetova said that the
Constitutional Court ruled in 1998 that Akaev had been
elected president of Kyrgyzstan only once (in December 1995)
since the adoption of the present constitution in May 1993,
and may therefore seek re-election for a second term. Akaev
was first elected president in October 1991. The 1993
constitution bans one individual from serving three
consecutive terms. LF

KYRGYZ OPPOSITION POLITICIAN DELIVERS HUMANITARIAN AID TO
FUGITIVES IN SOUTH. Former Bishkek mayor Feliks Kulov, the
most authoritative potential challenger to Akaev in next
year's presidential poll, on 16 September delivered food,
clothing, and medication worth some $5,000 to villagers who
fled their homes in Batken Raion to escape from the Uzbek
guerrillas who entered the region in August and took
hostages, RFE/RL's Bishkek bureau reported. Kulov publicly
blamed the National Security Ministry, which he headed from
1996 to March 1998, for the hostage crisis. LF

IRANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ENDS VISIT TO TAJIKISTAN. Visiting
Dushanbe on 13-15 September, Kamal Kharrazi met with his
Tajik counterpart, Talbak Nazarov, President Imomali
Rakhmonov, and Prime Minister Yahyo Azimov to discuss
expanding bilateral relations, in particular economic
cooperation, and the civil war in Afghanistan, which they
agreed should be resolved through further meetings of the so-
called "Six Plus Two" group under the aegis of the UN, Asia
Plus-Blitz reported. Kharrazi also discussed the situation in
Afghanistan with that country's ousted president, Burhanuddin
Rabbani, who likewise called for a new meeting as soon as
possible of the "Six Plus Two" group," Nezavisimaya gazeta"
reported on 17 September. Kharrazi and United Tajik
Opposition (UTO) leader Said Abdullo Nuri discussed the
possible participation of both Iran and Tajikistan in
securing the release of the four Japanese geologists held
hostage in Kyrgyzstan by ethnic Uzbek guerrillas, according
to ITAR-TASS. Nuri said the UTO has already sent
representatives at Kyrgyzstan's request to try to mediate
with the guerrillas. LF

END NOTE

AMBIGUOUS ANNIVERSARY

by Jan Maksymiuk

	Poland marks the 60th anniversary of the Soviet invasion
today. While Polish armies were involved in an unequal but
heroic fight against Nazi Germany, some 600,000 Soviet troops
moved into Poland on 17 September 1939. The 25 border guard
and police units in eastern Poland were no match for the
Soviet forces. On 25 September, German and Soviet troops met
along the length of the demarcation line that had been
determined in a secret protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop
Pact of 23 August 1939. Three days later, Berlin and Moscow
signed a friendship and border treaty erasing Poland from the
map of Europe for almost six years.
	The Soviet annexation of eastern Poland was presented by
Moscow as the "liberation of Belarusian and Ukrainian
brothers from the oppression of Polish landlords." Eyewitness
accounts testify that most Belarusians and Ukrainians greeted
the Soviet troops as friends, if not liberators, and promptly
cooperated in organizing a Soviet system of power. "Popular
assemblies" of western Belarus and western Ukraine were
swiftly elected in October 1939 and requested the unification
of the newly conquered areas with the Belarusian SSR and
Ukrainian SSR, in particular, and with the USSR in general.
	Historians have cited many reasons for this Belarusian
and Ukrainian attitude toward the Soviet invasion. Two appear
especially persuasive.
	First, pre-war Poland--which experienced a measure of
democracy during its initial years of independence but became
an authoritarian state following Jozef Pilsudski's coup
d'etat in May 1926--did not develop a policy toward its
ethnic minorities that those minorities, accounting for
nearly 30 percent of the country's population, found
acceptable. Belarusians and Ukrainians were especially
treated by the state as second-rate citizens in terms of
their civil rights. In Poland's "eastern outlands" (kresy
wschodnie, the name applied to eastern parts of pre-war
Poland), economic, social, and ethnic inequality and
injustice were widespread.
	Second, Belarusians and Ukrainians suffered under the
delusion--skillfully promoted by Soviet propaganda at the
time--that Soviet Belarus and Soviet Ukraine embodied the
national statehood that they so intensely desired. The
Polish-Soviet border was hermetically sealed, as a result of
which Polish Belarusians and Ukrainians were completely
unfamiliar with the real state of affairs in the Soviet Union
(as, incidentally, was the rest of Europe). Therefore, even
anti-Communists among Belarusian and Ukrainian political
circles in pre-war Poland generally welcomed the unification
of all Belarusian and Ukrainian ethnic territories as an "act
of historical justice."
	Some 20 months later, when Hitler's armies invaded the
Soviet Union, many people in western Belarus and Ukraine who
had greeted Stalin's soldiers were now somewhat inclined to
welcome the Germans as the "liberator." From September 1939
to June 1941, Stalin's persecution machine was used against
not only "Polish landlords" but also their allegedly
liberated victims: Belarusian and Ukrainian peasants. The
legendary communist paradise proved a socio-economic hell for
those hapless "brothers" of the Soviet Union.
	The 1945 Yalta Conference endorsed the Polish-Soviet
border foreseen by the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (with some
post-war corrections), leaving Poland without its former
"eastern outlands." For more than 40 years, the official
Soviet interpretation of the 17 September 1939 military
operation as the "liberation of the oppressed" prevailed in
Poland's communist historiography. Only after Solidarity took
over in 1989 were Polish historians able to openly identify
the invasion by its proper name.
	Belarusian and Ukrainian historians, or at least those
who have renounced the Soviet historiography tradition, offer
interpretations of the significance of the 17 September
anniversary that are more ambiguous. The notion of
"liberation" appears to be gradually disappearing from their
versions. However, there is hardly any historian in Belarus
and Ukraine who would take issue with the argument that the
Soviet invasion against Poland 60 years ago was "positive"
for their nations in so far as it unified formerly divided
nations into one political organism. That organism collapsed
in 1991 and gave birth to two independent states--Belarus and
Ukraine.
	At a recent conference of Belarusian historians in
Minsk, one delegate spoke for many when he argued that the
Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its territorial consequences
cannot be viewed as separate from the Polish-Bolshevik Treaty
of Riga in 1921. Under that treaty, Warsaw and Moscow
arbitrarily carved up between themselves Belarusian and
Ukrainian ethnic territories without taking into account the
interests of the indigenous people who inhabited them.
According to this line of argument, the Soviet Union in 1939-
-even in the role of an aggressor--ensured that justice was
done by bringing Belarusians and Ukrainians together.
	Whether Polish historians will accept such a viewpoint
remains to be seen. Currently, the differing attitudes toward
the Soviet invasion 60 years ago are reflected in the planned
official commemorations of the anniversary. Polish President
Aleksander Kwasniewski has visited sites in Russia and
Ukraine of the mass murders of Polish officers taken prisoner
by Soviet troops in 1939. Belarus's Alyaksandr Lukashenka
will preside over official events in his country marking the
60th anniversary of the reunification of Belarus. And Lviv in
Ukraine will host a congress of anti-Communists from Eastern
Europe who will discuss Soviet repression in the 1930s and
early 1940s. When history serves different policies, a single
historical interpretation is the exception rather than the
rule.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word subscribe as the subject of the message.

HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message.

For subscription problems or inquiries, please email
hermanoval@rferl.org
________________________________________________
CURRENT AND BACK ISSUES ON THE WEB
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/
_________________________________________________
LISTEN TO NEWS FOR 25 COUNTRIES
RFE/RL programs are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour LIVE
Broadcast Studio. http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html
_________________________________________________
REPRINT POLICY
To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble via
email at GobleP@rferl.org or fax at 202-457-6992
_________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE STAFF
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org
* Julie A. Corwin, CorwinJ@rferl.org
* Jan Maksymiuk, MaksymiukJ@rferl.org
* Fabian Schmidt, SchmidtF@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org

FREE-LANCE AND OCCASIONAL CONTRIBUTORS
* Asta Banionis, Pete Baumgartner, Victor Gomez, Dan Ionescu,
Zsolt-Istvan Mato, Jolyon Naegele, Matyas Szabo, Anthony
Wesolowsky, Marins J. Zvaners

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
_________________________________________________
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole