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RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 168, Part II, 30 August 1999


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 168, Part II, 30 August 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern
Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the
staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL
Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web
site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* POLISH DEFENSE OFFICIAL RESIGNS OVER SUSPECTED TIES TO
COMMUNIST SECRET SERVICES

* NORWAY CALLS FOR MACEDONIA TO FREE PEACEKEEPER

* HOLBROOKE: 'PROGRESS, PROBLEMS' IN KOSOVA

End Note: BULGARIA'S ECONOMY ANAEMIC UNDER CURRENCY BOARD
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

BELARUSIAN TRADE UNIONS ANNOUNCE NATIONWIDE PROTEST. The
Federation of Trade Unions will hold a nationwide protest on
30 September over deteriorating living standards, Belarusian
media reported on 27 August. Valyantsina Palevikova,
secretary of the federation, told "Zvyazda" that the
government has failed to comply with its pledge to increase
real wages in 1999. According to Palevikova, those wages
dropped 4 percent from January-June, instead of increasing by
34 percent, as the government had promised. Trade unionists
said on 27 August that the federation also opposes the
presidential decree on labor discipline, which introduces
limited-duration contracts for all categories of Belarusian
workers. JM

BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION LEADER IN LITHUANIA GETS MORE SUPPORT.
Former Supreme Soviet Chairman Stanislau Shushkevich, World
Association of Belarusians Chairman Radzim Haretski, and
Ivonka Survilla, chairwoman of the emigre Belarusian
Democratic Republic, signed a document in Vilnius on 27
August repeating that Alyaksandr Lukashenka's term as
Belarus's legitimate president is over. The document also
pledges support for Supreme Soviet Chairman Syamyon
Sharetski, who is now living in Lithuania and who de jure
became Belarusian head of the state on 20 July. Meanwhile,
Sharetski has unofficially met with German and U.S. diplomats
in Vilnius, seeking to enlist their support in his effort to
undermine Lukashenka's presidency in the international arena,
dpa reported on 27 August. JM

KUCHMA EMPOWERS FINANCE MINISTRY WITH SHAPING TAX POLICIES.
Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma has signed a decree putting
the Finance Ministry in charge of taxation policies, a key
requirement for the IMF to resume its $2.6 billion aid
program to Ukraine, AP reported on 27 August. The decree
deprives the State Tax Administration of policy-making duties
and orders the Finance Ministry to set tax collection targets
and propose new taxes. The State Tax Administration retains
the right to monitor tax collection. JM

UKRAINIAN INDEPENDENT TELEVISION CHANNEL SAYS IT FACES
CLOSURE. Tax authorities in Kyiv on 26 August ordered that
the bank account of the private STB television station be
closed because of the station's failure to submit tax
documents for examination, AP reported on 27 August. STB
President Dmytro Prykordonnyy told journalists that his
station cannot submit the required documents because they are
being held by eight other state bodies. "I haven't dealt with
television proper for the past two months. Instead, I've been
working with the nine controlling agencies," Prykordonnyy
commented. He added that the channel will have to close in
September unless it is granted access to its money. STB has
vowed to give equal air time to each of the leading
candidates in the upcoming presidential ballot. JM

UN COMMITTEE CRITICISES LATVIA'S TREATMENT OF ALIENS... The
UN Committee on Racial Discrimination, while recognizing
Latvia's efforts in achieving social stability and
legislative reform, sharply criticized the country's
treatment of its national minorities, LETA reported on 27
August. The report tagged Latvia for the country's sluggish
naturalization process, which affects more than 25 percent of
residents, and said Latvia should provide educational
opportunities in minority languages. In addition, the
committee urged Latvia to encourage its residents to rethink
their understanding of "racial discrimination." MJZ

...LEAVES LATVIAN LAWMAKERS STEAMING ABOUT RUSSIAN INFLUENCE.
LETA reported on 28 August that most Latvian lawmakers
rejected the findings of the UN committee report. People's
Party deputy Aleksandrs Kirsteins told LETA that "[the
report] says nothing and means nothing... The reality is that
more children are being educated in the Latvian language."
Fatherland and Freedom deputy Juris Dobelis said the UN
criticism is baseless, because "taking into account the
reality of the situation in Latvia, it is impossible to
implement all of the demands made by international
organizations." Dobelis also criticized the country's
"politicians who were unable to convince [others] in the
international arena that another country is to a much greater
extent responsible for the situation in Latvia," referring to
Latvia's half-century of occupation by the Soviet Union.
Latvia's Way deputy Edvins Inkens was surprised by the
report's findings. "Until now, only Russia's UN
representatives expressed such views," he commented. MJZ

NEW CONFLICT OF INTEREST CHARGES FOR VENTSPILS MAYOR. "Diena"
reported on 28 August that new documents have been submitted
to the Latvian Prosecutor-General's office linking Ventspils
Mayor Aivars Lembergs to Multinord AG, which has holdings in
major companies operating in Ventspils. This third set of
documents includes checks paying dividends from Multinord AG
to Lembergs. Lembergs is being investigated for conflict of
interest and failure to make proper financial disclosures, as
required by law. AB

FURTHER RUSSIAN REACTION TO COUP PLOTTERS' SENTENCING IN
LITHUANIA. According to BNS on 27 August, the Russian Foreign
Ministry believes that the verdict handed down to the 13
January 1991 coup plotters is political persecution. At the
same time, the ministry acknowledged that the court's
decision is "an internal affair of sovereign Lithuania." The
Russian Foreign Ministry voiced special concern about the
fate of 70-year-old Stanislav Mitskevich, who is a Russian
citizen and received a four-year jail term, along with five
other defendants. It is thought that Mitskevich may have fled
the country because he failed to appear in court for the
sentencing. AB

POLISH DEFENSE OFFICIAL RESIGNS OVER SUSPECTED TIES TO
COMMUNIST SECRET SERVICES. Deputy Defense Minister Robert
Mroziewicz resigned on 27 August after Lustration Prosecutor
Boguslaw Nizienski had queried the accuracy of his lustration
statement denying any collaboration with the Communist-era
secret services (see "RFE/RL's Newsline," 27 August 1999).
Meanwhile, "Rzeczpospolita" reported on 28 August, citing
"unofficial sources," that Nizienski also queried the
lustration statement by Deputy Premier and Interior Minister
Janusz Tomaszewski. Tomaszewski told "Rzeczpospolita" that he
does not know anything about such a step, while Nizienski,
speaking to "Gazeta Wyborcza"on 29 August, refused to confirm
the "Rzeczpospolita" allegation. JM

POLAND'S WALESA HOLDS CONFERENCE ON POVERTY... Former
President Lech Walesa invited 37 top politicians and
economists of all political stripes to discuss poverty in
Poland at the Lech Walesa Institute on 27 August. Some well-
known politicians--including parliamentary deputy speaker
Marek Borowski of the Left Democratic Alliance and Finance
Minister Leszek Balcerowicz of the liberal Freedom Union--
failed to appear, claiming the conference was part of
Walesa's presidential election campaign. Walesa is the first
politician who announced his intention to run in the 2000
elections (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 16 August 1999). JM

...WHILE JARUZELSKI PLEDGES TO ATTEND TRIAL FOR 1970
MASSACRE. A district court in Gdansk has summoned another
former Polish president, General Wojciech Jaruzelski, to
appear in court in connection with the massacre of 44 people
by the police and the army during the 1970 riots in Gdansk,
Gdynia, Szczecin, and Elblag. The court ruled that because of
his poor health, Jaruzelski will stand trial in Warsaw, where
he lives. "I shall stand before the court without fear," the
76-year-old Jaruzelski told PAP. Jaruzelski, who was defense
minister in 1970, is accused, along with 11 other communist
decision-makers, of indirect involvement in the massacre. JM

CZECH PRESIDENT THREATENS TO QUIT. Vaclav Havel on 28 August
said he will resign his post if the parliament approves
constitutional amendments that would limit his prerogatives,
CTK reported. Under changes currently being drafted by the
Social Democratic Party (CSSD) and the Civic Democratic Party
(ODS), the president would lose the power to name the premier
after an election, appoint Central Bank members, or grant
amnesties. Havel said that those changes would "turn the
president into a mechanical puppet," adding that they are
being drafted out of "intense hatred [for] or fear" of
himself. Havel also rejected CSSD-ODS criticism of the new
Impulse '99 civic initiative, saying that the reaction of
people who believe that politics is only a matter for
political parties shows "the misery of our public and social
life" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 26 July and11 August 1999). MS

INDEPENDENT CANDIDATE WINS CZECH SENATORIAL ELECTION. Vaclav
Fischer, who owns a travel agency chain and a charter
airline, won the 27-28 August by-election to replace the late
ODS Senator Vaclav Benda. Fischer garnered 71.24 percent of
the vote, well ahead of Jirina Jiraskova of the ODS, who came
in second. His victory means that the CSSD and the ODS have
lost their three-fifths majority in the 81-seat chamber and
may now be unable to push through their envisaged
constitutional changes. MS

BAHAMAS REINTRODUCE VISAS FOR SLOVAK CITIZENS. The Foreign
Affairs Ministry on 27 August announced that the Bahamas have
reintroduced visa requirements for Slovak citizens as of 15
September, SITA reported. The ministry said the decision was
"a delayed reaction" to a similar step taken by the U.K. last
fall. The Bahamas are a member of the Commonwealth. MS

HUNGARIAN PREMIER IN SLOVAKIA. Viktor Orban, meeting with his
Slovak counterpart, Mikulas Dzurinda near Bratislava on 27
August, said the Hungarian government "views relations with
Slovakia above all through the [eyes] of ethnic Hungarians"
living there, Duna Television reported. Orban said that "the
extent of our satisfaction [with these relations] depends on
the extent to which Hungarians in Slovakia are able to say
that they are all right, are not discriminated against, and
can feel at home" in the country. Chairman of the Slovak
Coalition Party Bela Bugar, who also participated in the
meeting, said the recently passed law on the use of minority
languages in contacts with the authorities is only "a gesture
for the EU." MS

HUNGARY EXTENDS INVESTIGATION AGAINST RUSSIAN BUSINESSMAN.
Officials from the Hungarian Tax Office said that tax
authorities have extended an investigation into companies
controlled by Semyon Mogilevich, who is suspected of being a
leading figure in the international "Russian mafia,"
Hungarian media reported on 30 August. A U.S. official
commented, however, that Hungarian authorities are putting up
obstacles to cooperation between U.S. and Hungarian law
enforcement agencies, noting that Mogilevich was able to
leave Budapest before an investigation into his activities
had ended there. A Hungarian government official expressed
"shock" at that remark, pointing out that U.S. authorities
have not issued an arrest warrant for Mogilevich. He added
that there are no reasons to restrict Mogilevich's personal
freedom in Hungary. MSZ

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

NORWAY CALLS FOR MACEDONIA TO FREE PEACEKEEPER. A vehicle
driven by two Norwegian KFOR soldiers hit a car carrying
Macedonian Minister without Portfolio Radovan Stojkovski, his
wife, and daughter on 28 August southeast of Skopje. The
Stojkovskis died in the crash. Their driver and the two
soldiers were injured. The two soldiers, who had been driving
on the left side of the highway, refused to take a breath
test. Spokesmen for the Macedonian government and KFOR
engaged in mutual recriminations over the incident. On 29
August, Macedonian police arrested the Norwegian driver in
the hospital. The next day, Norwegian Foreign Minister Knut
Vollebaek said on Norwegian television that Macedonian
authorities violated their agreement with KFOR, which
specifies that peacekeepers must be prosecuted in their home
countries. Vollebaek demanded the driver's release. The
second Norwegian has meanwhile arrived in Kosova. PM

RED CROSS: SERBS HOLD 2,000 KOSOVARS. A spokeswoman for the
International Committee for the Red Cross said in Geneva on
30 August that the Serbian authorities are holding at least
2,000 ethnic Albanians from Kosova in Serbian prisons. She
said that the prisoners include those who have been in
Serbian jails for a long time, those taken to Serbia during
the recent conflict, and those sent to Serbian jails when
Serbian forces left Kosova in June. Among those held is
student leader Albin Kurti (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 August
1999). On 27 August, several thousand people held a silent
march through Prishtina to demand the prisoners' release.
Among those participating was the UN's Bernard Kouchner. PM

HOLBROOKE: 'PROGRESS, PROBLEMS' IN KOSOVA. U.S. Ambassador to
the UN Richard Holbrooke said in Prishtina on 29 August that
"sometimes forging a peace is more difficult than winning a
war." He added that "this place has been a mess for a long
time, but a different kind of mess. The war was messy, the
decade that preceded the war was messy, the history back to
1912 was messy...and the [current] task is immense." He
praised the role of the UN and of KFOR. Holbrooke said after
meeting with Serbian Orthodox Archbishop Artemije that any
attack on cultural monuments is a "criminal, vandal act."
Holbrooke noted that ethnic Albanian leader Hashim Thaci
assured him that he would do "anything in his power" to make
Kosova a pluralistic society. The ambassador stressed that
"the most important thing is that Albanians now can decide
about their own destiny and that NATO forces are here to
provide security for everybody." PM

EXPLOSION DAMAGES MONUMENT IN PRISHTINA. A blast from an
explosive charge weakened the foundations of the communist-
era Brotherhood and Unity Monument in central Prishtina on 28
August. No one was injured. KFOR peacekeepers subsequently
removed additional explosive charges from the monument. PM

DRASKOVIC DRAWS CLOSER TO MILOSEVIC. Vuk Draskovic's Serbian
Renewal Movement issued a statement in Belgrade on 29 August
accusing KFOR and the UN mission in Kosova of being
"essentially in close cooperation with the [Kosova]
Liberation Army." KFOR and the UN thereby "help accomplish
the most monstrous plans of the Albanian terrorists and
separatists," AP reported. The Serbian authorities made
similar charges against the U.S. last week (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 27 August 1999). In an apparent reference to
Draskovic, opposition leader Veran Batic said on 30 August
that one of the foundations of Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic's rule is the group of opposition leaders who
cooperate with him. The other sources of Milosevic's power
are "electoral fraud, media manipulation, and repression,"
Batic added. PM

VEDRINE: SERBIA COULD LOSE CLAIM TO KOSOVA. French Foreign
Minister Hubert Vedrine told "Le Figaro" of 28 August that
Serbia must replace Milosevic if it wants to keep Kosova. The
minister stressed: "If the regime does not change, the
sovereignty of Yugoslavia...will be increasingly contested.
Conversely, the installation of a democratic regime boosts
the chances for a combination of Yugoslav sovereignty and an
autonomous [Kosova]." In a warning to the ethnic Albanians,
Vedrine said that "nothing will be possible if security is
not assured for all. That is a precondition for [the broad-
ranging self-government that] is to follow." He nonetheless
rejected the Serbian proposal to set up ethnic Serbian
"cantons" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 26 August 1999). Vedrine
argued that "we have to find other methods to ensure security
and coexistence." PM

MONTENEGRIN MINISTER WARNS CLANS. Interior Minister Vukasin
Maras said in Podgorica on 29 August that the government will
firmly oppose any attempt by "tribes" to secede from
Montenegro and attach the territory they inhabit to Serbia,
RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. He was referring to a
gathering of the Vasojevic clan in the north the previous
day. Speakers at that meeting said that they will "defend
Yugoslavia by all means" and secede from Montenegro should
that republic withdraw from the Yugoslav federation.
Observers note that clans form the basis of Montenegrin
society and play a key role in political life. PM

DJILAS: MONTENEGRO KEY TO CHANGE. Sociologist and political
commentator Aleksa Djilas, who is the son of leading
communist-era dissident Milovan Djilas, said that the most
serious threat to Milosevic comes from Montenegrin President
Milo Djukanovic, the Frankfurt-based Serbian daily "Vesti"
reported on 30 August. Djilas stressed that the Serbian
opposition is not sufficiently united to challenge Milosevic
successfully. Djilas argued that sooner or later Milosevic
will have to agree to Djukanovic naming a new federal prime
minister. That will mark the end of Milosevic's grip on
power, the commentator continued. PM

BILDT: REFORM MUST ACCOMPANY BALKAN RECONSTRUCTION. Carl
Bildt, who is UN Secretary- General Kofi Annan's senior envoy
to the Balkans, said in New York that southeastern Europe
needs thorough-going political and economic reforms in
addition to development assistance. Bildt stressed that old-
style communist systems remain in place in much of the region
and that "crony capitalism" predominates in some post-
communist societies like Croatia and Bosnia, the
"International Herald Tribune" reported on 30 August. Bildt
identified Serbia as the core of the problem. "It's such a
big chunk of land in the middle of the Balkans that if it
does not reform itself, it will be very difficult to do
anything substantial with the rest. Serbia is the core nation
of the region," Bildt concluded. PM

DID BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL RISK ARREST IN VIENNA? Unknown
persons leaked the secret list of war criminals indicted by
the Hague-based tribunal to the Bosnian Serb authorities
"weeks ago," Reuters quoted the Dutch daily "De Volkskrant"
as saying on 30 August. The daily argued that General Momcilo
Talic knew that he was on the list and risked arrest last
week in Vienna (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 27 August 1999). The
newspaper quoted an unnamed former Bosnian Serb military
official as saying that Talic "was blinded by power and
status.... He thought that his senior position in the army
rendered him" immune from arrest. PM

CROATIA PREPARING TO EXTRADITE 'TUTA'? A Zagreb county court
may soon decide to extradite Mladen "Tuta" Naletilic to The
Hague, where he is wanted for war crimes in conjunction with
the 1993-1994 Croatian-Muslim conflict in Bosnia-Herzegovina,
"Novi List" reported on 30 August. Croatia's failure to
extradite Tuta has led to serious tensions in its relations
with the tribunal and with Washington (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
27 August 1999). AP reported that some Croatian authorities
are reluctant to extradite Tuta lest he implicate top
officials in his testimony. PM

MOLDOVAN PREMIER IN ROMANIA. Ion Sturza unexpectedly arrived
in Romania on 27 August on a visit scheduled to begin three
days later. After meeting with President Emil Constantinescu
the next day, Sturza said that prospects for improving
relations "have never been better" because both countries are
ruled by centrist coalitions. He added that Moldova is
particularly interested in the development of the
transportation links between the two countries and in energy
deliveries. Romania, he said, must become a "main electricity
supplier" for Moldova. He also said that Romania will assume
a 51 percent stake in the Moldovan Tirex Petrol Company. With
regard to the pending basic treaty between the two countries,
Sturza said the governments must "take over [from experts]
the finalization" of that document, adding that he hopes it
will be ready for signing by year's end. On 30 August, Sturza
is scheduled to meet with Prime Minister Radu Vasile and the
chairmen of the parliament's two chambers. MS

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT RE-WRITES HISTORY. Speaking at ceremonies
marking Moldova's Independence Day on 27 August, President
Petru Lucinschi said the day marks "the common denominator of
our national history throughout the 640 years that passed
since [the first declaration of] Moldovan statehood,"
RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported. For the first time since
independence was declared in 1991, a military parade took
place in Chisinau to mark the anniversary. MS

DIMITROV MAUSOLEUM DEMOLISHED IN SOFIA. Workers in Sofia on
28 August completed the dismantling of the mausoleum that
housed the body of Communist leader Georgi Dimitrov, BTA
reported. Dimitrov's body was removed from the tomb and
cremated in 1990 (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 23 August 1999). MS

BULGARIAN PARTIES BRACE FOR LOCAL ELECTIONS. The two parties
representing ethnic Turks--the Movement for Rights and
Freedoms and the Party of Democratic Changes--have concluded
an agreement on cooperation in the October local elections,
BTA reported. leader Also on 28 August, the Liberal
Democratic Alternative (LDS) and the Euro-Left signed an
agreement on "pragmatic cooperation." LDS leader and former
President Zhelyu Zhelev, said the agreement lays the
foundation for a new liberal centrist formation. MS

END NOTE

BULGARIA'S ECONOMY ANAEMIC UNDER CURRENCY BOARD

By Michael Wyzan

	In July 1997, in the aftermath of a severe economic
crisis, Bulgaria introduced a currency board arrangement
(CBA), under which the exchange rate is fixed to the Deutsche
mark and the only changes in the money supply must arise from
inflows and outflows of foreign currency.
	Such an arrangement, which has also been adopted by
transition countries Bosnia-Herzegovina, Estonia, and
Lithuania, is designed to instill credibility in economic
policy. It has been universally successful in bringing down
inflation and interest rates to acceptable levels. A study by
IMF economists found that countries employing CBAs have lower
inflation and more rapid economic growth.
	The Bulgarian experience corroborates the results of
that study as far as inflation is concerned. After
experiencing 578.6 percent consumer price inflation (December
to December) in 1997 (242.7 percent in February 1997 alone),
such inflation was just below 1 percent in 1998 and stood at
1.7 percent in the 12 months to July 1999. The fall in the
national bank's annual base interest rate was equally
dramatic, from a peak of 300 percent in September 1996 to the
current 4.42 percent.
	Bulgaria's experience with economic growth, however, has
been less encouraging. While GDP was up by 18.9 percent in
the first quarter of 1998 over the very depressed first
quarter of 1997, the recovery quickly ran out of steam. For
1998 as a whole, the rate of GDP growth was only 3.5 percent,
and this indicator fell by 0.7 percent in the first quarter
of 1999, even before the effects of the Kosova crisis began
to be felt. The official forecast is for GDP to grow by 1.5
percent this year, although many observers expect a decline.
Industrial production was down by 16.2 percent in the first
quarter, compared with the first three months of 1998.
	Wages have recovered to pre-crisis levels under the CBA,
even if production has yet to do so. The average monthly wage
in the public sector, which had fallen to $25 in February
1997, recovered by May 1999 to $124--close to the post-
communist peak of $128 in September 1993. The unemployment
rate, at 13.04 percent in May, has moved in no particular
direction during the CBA era.
	The rapid rise in wages may not have led to higher
unemployment, but some argue that it has played a role in
Bulgaria's deteriorating current account balance. From
January-May, the current account deficit was $433.5 million,
up from $88.2 million a year earlier. This is a significant
change for a country that has typically run surpluses or
small deficits.
	Behind the current account imbalance during the first
five months stands a trade deficit of $357.4 million (up from
$48.5 million a year earlier). While growing trade and
current account imbalances are common after successful
macroeconomic stabilizations, it is striking that in Bulgaria
these deficits result from declines in exports, rather than
increases in imports as the economy expands. Both exports and
imports were lower during the period January-May, compared
with the same period in 1998, but exports fell by 22.7
percent and imports by only 5.6 percent.
	There are a number of factors that contributed to the
export collapse. Some are related to the crisis in Kosova,
which cut off trade with Yugoslavia and trade routes to the
EU through that country (some 50 percent of Bulgarian exports
were transported through Yugoslavia before the war). Another
factor is the continuing effect of the Russian crisis, which
has caused a significant drop in trade with that country.
Exports to Russia were only $39.7 million from January-March,
compared with $272 million during that period last year.
	Under the CBA, there is not much scope for growth of the
money supply when the country is running current account
deficits and receiving relatively little foreign direct
investment ($85.2 million in the first four months, down from
$199.2 million during that period last year).
	Moreover, only a small share of the credit generated has
gone to enterprises. Banks, which were burned during the pre-
CBA era by enterprises that never repaid loans, would rather
lend to the government or foreigners. However, there has been
improvement on this front. Whereas loans to enterprises
accounted for 23.7 percent of banks' financial assets at the
end of 1997, that figure had risen to 32.1 percent by the end
of 1998.
	Large persistent current account deficits will make the
CBA difficult to sustain. To avoid such strains, Bulgaria
will have to do a better job in placing its exports on
Western markets and/or in attracting foreign investment.
Estonia, whose economy has performed well under the CBA
(which was introduced in 1992), has excelled in both
respects.

The author is a research scholar at the International
Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria.
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