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RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 163, Part II, 23 August 1999
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 163, Part II, 23 August 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT TO MEET OPPOSITION 'WITHIN FRAMEWORK' OF 1996 BASIC LAW * OPEN SPLIT IN SERBIAN OPPOSITION RANKS * KOSOVA ALBANIANS PREVENT RUSSIANS FROM ENTERING RAHOVEC End Note: LONG SHADOW OF AN OLD AGREEMENT xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT TO MEET OPPOSITION 'WITHIN FRAMEWORK' OF 1996 BASIC LAW. Alyaksandr Lukashenka on 20 August said he is ready to hold a dialogue with political parties and public associations on the "improvement of the election legislation within the framework of the constitution currently in force," Belarusian Television reported. Lukashenka repeated his earlier pledge to hold "free and fair parliamentary elections in 2000" while taking into account "opinions of all political forces" in Belarus. This means that Lukashenka intends to organize elections to the National Assembly, which he created following the 1996 controversial referendum on the constitution. JM BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION LEADER SAYS LUKASHENKA'S ACTS ILLEGAL. Syamyon Sharetski, speaker of the opposition Supreme Soviet, said in Vilnius on 23 August that all documents signed by Lukashenka after 20 July are illegal since Lukashenka's legitimate term expired on that date, Belapan reported. JM UKRAINE HOPES FOR WORLD BANK LOAN TO PAY ARREARS... Deputy Labor Minister Olena Haryacha said on 20 August that the government currently owes 1.9 billion hryvni ($413 million) in unpaid pensions and 1 billion hryvni in wage arrears. Despite President Leonid Kuchma's order to clear those debts by October, only a fraction of those amounts has been paid to date. Deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Tyhypko said the same day that the World Bank has tentatively agreed to provide a $100 million loan in September to pay back pensions and wages. He added, however, that the loan is conditional on the continuation of the IMF's aid program. JM ...LOOKS FOR MONEY IN ANOTHER EUROBOND ISSUE. The Finance Ministry on 20 August announced that it has issued Eurobonds worth 538 million German marks ($292 million), which will mature in February 2001 at an annual interest rate of 16 percent, Interfax reported. The ministry has received confirmation from the Luxembourg Stock Exchange that it has included the Eurobonds in its listing. In February and May 1998, Ukraine floated the first issue of Eurobonds, worth 1 billion German marks. JM PARLIAMENTARY SPEAKER URGES UKRAINIANS TO ELECT 'SAVIOR OF MOTHERLAND.' Oleksandr Tkachenko said in a statement marking the eighth anniversary of the country's independence that "on the threshold of the third millennium, Ukraine has abandoned progressive development and walks the path of self- destruction," Interfax reported on 21 August. Tkachenko noted that 80 percent of Ukrainians are now living below the poverty line. Meeting with Crimean parliamentary and local deputies in Simferopol the previous day, he said that the 31 October presidential elections, in which he is a candidate, will be a turning point in Ukrainian history, since the people "must elect not simply a president but a savior of the Motherland," ITAR-TASS reported. If elected president, Tkachenko intends to reach an agreement with Russia and Belarus on the "creation of a single economic space and a defense union." JM BALTS MARK 60TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOLOTOV-RIBBENTROP PACT. Estonians, Latvians, and Lithuanians on 23 August marked both the 60th anniversary of the pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union that cost them their independence and the 10th anniversary of the Baltic Way, the 600 kilometer human chain extending from Tallinn through Riga to Vilnius. The chain marked a boost in the Baltic States' efforts to recover their freedom. Polish President Aleksander Kwasniewski, who arrived in Tallinn on 23 August to meet with Estonian officials, took part in the celebrations, BNS reported (see also "End Note" below). PG ZHIRINOVSKII CALLS FOR RADICAL MEASURES AGAINST BALTS. Vladimir Zhirinovskii, the leader of the Russian Liberal Democratic Party, told a Russian media outlet on 20 August that Moscow should adopt "radical measures" against all three Baltic countries, BNS reported. He said that "the Balts are laundering illegal money in the North Caucasus" and "supporting the terrorists" there in a variety of other ways. PG ESTONIAN, JAPANESE DEPUTIES DISCUSS RUSSIAN BORDER ISSUES. Japanese parliamentary deputies met with their Estonian counterparts in Tallinn on 19 August to discuss their border problems with the Russian Federation, BNS reported on 21 August. The Japanese deputies are members of the special Okinawa and Northern Territories committee of the Diet. The Estonians are members of the Estonian parliament's Foreign Relations Committee. PG RIGA URGES NON-CITIZENS TO ACCEPT ALIENS PASSPORTS. The Latvian Citizenship and Migration Administration on 20 August again called on all permanent residents of Latvia who are not citizens to obtain aliens passports, BNS reported. If the number of applicants does not increase, approximately 100,000 of people in this category will not have such documents by 1 January 2000 deadline. PG LANDSBERGIS SAYS NATO SHOULD FOCUS ON RUSSIA. During a meeting with visiting U.S. Congressional staffers, Vytautas Landsbergis, the speaker of the Lithuanian parliament, said that NATO should focus on the democratization of Russia even as it maintains its traditional role as a defense alliance, BNS reported on 21 August. Arguing that his country should be included in the alliance, Landsbergis said Lithuania would be a contributor and not just a consumer of security. In other news, Landsbergis decided to give up land he had purchased at a favorable price after his action sparked criticism in Vilnius, according to BNS. PG LITHUANIA TO INCREASE CONSULAR PRESENCE IN KALININGRAD. The Lithuanian Foreign Ministry last week proposed increasing the size of its consulate in Kaliningrad, BNS reported on 21 August. The Russian government has already agreed to this step. Currently, the only other country with consular representation in Kaliningrad is Poland. PG INVESTIGATION OPENED INTO CLASH BETWEEN POLISH FARMERS, POLICE. Prosecutors have opened an investigation into the 19 August clash between police and protesting farmers who blocked a road at Bartoszyce, in northern Poland. Police used batons, tear gas, a water cannon, and rubber bullets to disperse the farmers, who started hurling stones and other objects after the road was cleared. Eighty-three policemen and a dozen civilians were injured in the clash. Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz said the government must "put those responsible for the rioting in the dock," PAP reported. Balcerowicz added that farmers' protests in Poland are provoked not by the government's agricultural policy but by people who "try to profit from problems of the Polish countryside." JM CZECH OFFICIAL CALLS FOR OPENING COMMUNIST POLICE ARCHIVES. In a statement released on the 31st anniversary of the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, Jitka Seitlova, deputy chairwoman of the Civic Democratic Alliance-Freedom Union's parliamentary group in the Senate, said the archives of the former Czechoslovak secret police must be opened. The Czech Republic, she said, must follow the example of Poland and Germany, CTK reported on 20 August. The next day, the Office for the Documentation and Investigation of Communist Crimes said that 85 percent of those whose past is being investigated for such crimes will not be prosecuted if no charges are brought against them by 29 December, when the statute of limitations will go into effect, CTK reported. MS AUSTRIAN FOREIGN MINISTER SAYS BENES DECREES MUST BE ABOLISHED. Wolfgang Schuessel says he will demand that the 1945 Benes decrees, under which the Sudeten Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia, be abolished as a condition for the Czech Republic's admission to the EU, CTK reported on 21 August. The news agency cited a press release by the Organization of Expelled Sudeten Germans, according to which Schuessel made that statement at a meeting with the association's chairman, Franz Neubauer. The press release said Schuessel and the association's leaders agree that there is "a great historical parallel" between the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans and that of the Kosovar Albanians. In both cases, it added, it is necessary to "restore full-scale respect for human rights and the rule of law." MS FORMER SLOVAK PREMIER SAYS HE WILL NOT TESTIFY IN ABDUCTION INQUIRY. Vladimir Meciar told Slovak Radio on 21 August that he does not intend to testify in the investigation into the abduction of former President Michal Kovac's son in 1995, CTK and SITA reported. Meciar said the parliament has no right to relieve him of his secrecy oath, as the police had demanded. He commented that he learned about the abduction only after the crime was committed and that he has no knowledge of the Slovak Counter-Intelligence Service's alleged involvement in the kidnapping. He warned the government to "stop the circus" of the investigation, saying that those now seeking to investigate him are doing so out of "revenge" and are themselves "committing crimes." MS FINLAND REFUSES ASYLUM TO SLOVAK ROMA. The Finnish immigration authorities have so far processed and rejected 300 applications for asylum filed by Slovak Roma who arrived in Finland in late June, CTK reported on 20 August. The agency cited a Finnish official as saying the Immigration Office is likely to process all the 1,200 or so applications by late October or early November. MS HUNGARIAN FAR-RIGHTISTS WANT UN PROTECTORATE FOR VOJVODINA. Ten thousand supporters of the extreme-right Hungarian Justice and Life Party rallied on 20 August--Hungary's national holiday--to call for re-drawing Hungary's borders to include part of Yugoslavia's Vojvodina province, Hungarian media reported. Party chairman Istvan Csurka told the demonstrators that Vojvodina must be placed under UN supervision to protect Hungarians there from "daily injustices" and to prevent "another genocide in the area." Foreign Minister Janos Martonyi rejected Csurka's "irresponsible proposals," saying the Hungarian government "does not want to change the borders but the nature of borders." MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE OPEN SPLIT IN SERBIAN OPPOSITION RANKS. Vuk Draskovic, who heads the Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO), said that "there will be [no alliance] of the opposition under any circumstances," "The Daily Telegraph" reported on 23 August. He stressed that any new government must come to power through elections, repeating his call for an early vote. Draskovic added that he will not recognize any "street cabinet elected on the streets" through mass protests. He warned that mass demonstrations could lead to civil war. Democratic Party leader Zoran Djindjic, who is Draskovic's main rival, again demanded the resignation of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic as a precondition for holding new elections. Djindjic stressed that "politics is not made in cabinets any more, but on the streets and squares," according to the London-based daily. PM WHAT MAKES DRASKOVIC SO ADAMANT? Many members of the opposition Alliance for Change believe that Draskovic has concluded at least a tacit alliance with Milosevic, the "Berliner Zeitung" reported on 21 August. Both men support early elections (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 August 1999). The Berlin daily added that Milosevic's secret police may have incriminating evidence about corruption among Draskovic's supporters in the Belgrade city government. PM OPPOSITION ALLIANCE TELLS MILOSEVIC TO GO. Vladan Batic, who is one of the leaders of the Alliance for Change coalition, said in Belgrade on 20 August that Milosevic must resign by 21 September. If he does not, the opposition will hold protests throughout Serbia until he goes. Forms of protests will include civil disobedience and a general strike, he added. Batic stressed that "there will be no turning back" for the alliance. PM EIU SAYS YUGOSLAVIA POOREST COUNTRY IN EUROPE. The London- based Economist Intelligence Unit said in a report released on 23 August that the recent conflict in Kosova will ultimately cost Yugoslavia some $64 billion. The study added that the war inflicted "tremendous damage" on the economy and infrastructure. This will cause GDP to shrink by more than 40 percent in 1999, making Yugoslavia Europe's poorest country. The per capita GDP in Yugoslavia for 1999 is expected to be $880, compared with $905 in Albania. GDP will remain at a level well below that of 1989 for some time to come, the report concluded. PM VOJVODINA'S ETHNIC HUNGARIANS SET UP PROVISIONAL NATIONAL COUNCIL. Three out of the six political organizations representing the region's ethnic Hungarians--the Alliance of Vojvodina Hungarians (SVM), the Democratic Union of Vojvodina Hungarians, and the Vojvodina and Hungarian Civic Movement-- have formed the National Council of Vojvodina's Hungarians, the BBC reported, citing Tanjug of 20 August. Subotica Mayor and SVM chairman Jozsef Kasza was elected head of the 55- strong council, which is composed of federal, republican, and regional ethnic Hungarian deputies, as well as municipal councilors representing the three organizations. Hungarian Radio said that the council will act as a "mini-parliament" of ethnic Hungarians living in Yugoslavia. A meeting of the Vojvodina branch committee of the Socialist Party of Serbia said the setting up of the council is a "political provocation." MS DRASKOVIC SAYS WEST SEEKS 'GREATER ALBANIA.' Draskovic told Belgrade's Studio-B Television on 21 August that NATO seeks to set up "a large Albanian Islamic state in the Balkans." He added that Western countries intervened recently in Kosova "to purge all Serbs from [the province], to take part in the biggest crime...to help create a large Albanian state in the Balkans. That's what they are doing." He did not elaborate. Draskovic also charged that unnamed Western countries "even want to mark all Serbian houses in [Kosova], saying it would help protect them. But that would mean yellow ribbons, like those Nazis imposed on Jews," AP reported. Observers note that Serbian paramilitaries instructed local Serbs to clearly identify their homes as Serbian during the Operation Horseshoe ethnic cleansing campaign in the spring of 1999. PM SERBS DEMAND OWN ENCLAVES IN KOSOVA. Kosova Serb leader Momcilo Trajkovic said in Prishtina on 21 August that Kosova's dwindling Serbian minority is not secure from attacks by ethnic Albanians. He concluded that "the multi- ethnic [Kosova] has failed. We think that cantonization could stop the ongoing tragedy of the Serbian people." UN Special Representative Bernard Kouchner said he "will study" the proposal, but observers note that the UN is committed to a multi-ethnic Kosova. Ethnic Albanian spokesmen rejected Trajkovic's demand outright. Observers note that "cantonization" was one of the models suggested at various times between 1992-1995 as a possible solution for the Bosnian conflict. Critics charged that it would make permanent the results of ethnic cleansing. PM KOSOVA ALBANIANS PREVENT RUSSIANS FROM ENTERING RAHOVEC... Russian peacekeepers heading for Rahovec on 23 August turned back after encountering a "huge roadblock" set up by local ethnic Albanians, Reuters reported. Dutch troops have been deployed in that town, but KFOR commander General Sir Mike Jackson on 20 August ordered them to leave to make room for the Russian contingent. An older man who emerged as the ethnic Albanians' spokesman told Colonel Andrei Serdukov, who is the deputy commander of the Russian contingent, that his troops are not welcome. The man argued that Russian mercenaries took part in Serbian atrocities in the area earlier this year. He added: "We will stay here until someone comes to tell us that Russians are not coming to Rahovec." Serdukov replied that "no one will come to tell you that because there is an international agreement that the Russian army will come" to the town. FS ...AFTER SERBS TURN IN 600 WEAPONS. An unspecified number of Serbian inhabitants of Rahovec had handed over around 600 weapons to KFOR as of 22 August, Reuters reported. KFOR the previous day put up posters throughout the town's Serbian neighborhood listing the names of those who had received weapons from Serbian forces during the recent conflict. The posters ordered them to turn in their weapons or face arrest. They also warned that the peacekeepers will begin house-to-house searches after the deadline expires. KFOR nonetheless extended the deadline, arguing that the collection of weapons is proceeding successfully but not yet finished. KFOR also arrested three Serbian war crimes suspects there on 20 August. Meanwhile in Prishtina, KFOR officials declined to confirm claims by Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) General Agim Ceku that the UCK has met the second disarmament deadline, which expired on 19 August. They argued that KFOR must draw up a complete inventory before confirming compliance (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 August 1999). FS UNMIK TAKES OVER MITROVICA HOSPITAL. A UN administration was installed on 22 August in a hospital in northern Mitrovica, which will employ ethnic Albanian and Serbian medical workers. Kouchner said that the hospital-- located in the Serbian-dominated part of the city--is "a symbol in my eyes and it must be a symbol of the future [of Kosova].... It will be a place where everyone [will] work in tolerance, a symbol of life together." On 20 August, French KFOR troops escorted two Albanian families back to their homes in northern Mitrovica, while angry Serbs shouted curses at the peacekeepers. FS DEL PONTE: TIME TO ARREST MAJOR WAR CRIMINALS. Carla Del Ponte told the "International Herald Tribune" of 21 August that she intends "to go after [top war criminals] aggressively because they should be brought to trial." She was referring specifically to Milosevic, paramilitary Zeljko "Arkan" Raznatovic, former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic, and former Bosnian Serb military commander General Ratko Mladic. Del Ponte is slated to succeed Louise Arbour in September as chief prosecutor for the Hague-based war crimes tribunal. PM CROATIAN VETERANS PROTEST REOPENING BORDER CROSSSING. Some 500 Dubrovnik-area veterans of Croatia's 1991-1995 conflict with Serbian forces rallied on 21 August to protest the recent reopening of the Ivanica border crossing to Serbian- held eastern Herzegovina and the town of Trebinje (see "RFE/RL Newsline, 6 August 1999). The veterans charged that the international community and Croatian government did not take local sensitivities into account when they decided to reopen the crossing, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. The veterans and many local people want several people living in eastern Herzegovina charged with war crimes for their alleged roles in the 1991 shelling of Dubrovnik. They include Trebinje Mayor Bozidar Vucurevic. That town has long been a Serbian nationalist stronghold. PM ALBANIAN PREMIER ORDERS CHECKS ON HIGH OFFICIALS. Pandeli Majko on 20 August ordered the Finance Ministry to conduct checks on the personal business activities and the wealth of high-ranking government, customs, and tax officials, dpa reported. Majko also instructed the ministry to report its findings to him on a monthly basis. The orders come amid persistent press allegations of government personnel's involvement in corruption and smuggling. A government spokesman said that "the government is concerned that the high [level] of corruption may pose a serious threat to its efforts to revive the economy and to the future of the country in general." He added that unspecified international donors have asked "the government...to fight corruption and smuggling in order to benefit from the [Balkan stability] pact's economic projects." Majko also ordered the National Information Service to install hidden cameras at border crossing points. FS ANTI-DEFAMATION LEAGUE REBUKES ROMANIAN FOOTBALL FEDERATION. Kenneth Jacobson, assistant national director of the U.S. Anti-Defamation League, said on 20 August that the Romanian Football Federation (FRF) is "sidestepping the issue" in its response to the International Federation of Amateur Football (FIFA) complaint about the anti-Semitic activities of FRF Vice President Dumitru Dragomir, AP reported. In response to FIFA's request that the FRF launch an inquiry into the anti- Semitic articles printed in the weekly "Atac la persoana," whose director is Dragomir, FRF president Mircea Sandu replied that the Romanian Information Service and the Prosecutor-General's Office informed him that "there are no anti-Semitic organizations in Romania." Jacobson says that the question is whether the Romanian authorities "are willing to stand up against racialism and do something about it," not whether organizations openly declare that they are anti- Semitic. MS OPPOSITION PARTY DEPUTY LAUNCHES ANTI-SEMITIC ATTACK ON SENATE CHAIRMAN. Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR) deputy Miron Mitrea told a PDSR meeting in Focsani that Senate Chairman Petre Roman, who recently announced his candidacy for the presidency, should run rather "for chief rabbi," "National" reports on 23 August. Roman's father, a communist official, was Jewish. In response to a query by the daily, Mitrea denied his remarks were anti-Semitic, saying that "he who believes that being a Jew is shameful must be considered an anti-Semite." He added that it is apparently for this reason that Roman hides his Jewishness. Roman has said that he is a member of the Romanian Orthodox Church and has even published his baptism certificate. MS MOLDOVAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT REJECTS COMMUNIST PARTY APPEAL. The Constitutional Court on 20 August rejected an appeal by the Party of Moldovan Communists (PCM) against the parliament's confidence vote in Ion Sturza's cabinet in March, Infotag reported. The PCM said the vote was invalid because the majority vote resulted from the absentee ballot of deputy Ilie Ilascu, who is imprisoned in Tiraspol. The court said it is not within its prerogatives to rule on the matter, since this would constitute a "breach of the principle of division of power" between the three branches of government. MS BULGARIANS FAIL TO DEMOLISH DIMITROV MAUSOLEUM. An attempt to demolish the mausoleum of Bulgaria's first communist leader ended in failure on 21 August. The building did not collapse as planned after engineers set off a remote-controlled blast of some 600 kilograms of explosives. The building remained standing, although it tilted slightly to the left. A second attempt also failed. Reuters quoted an onlooker as saying the building was "just as stiff as communism," while AP quoted a communist sympathizer as commenting that "there is just not enough ammunition to destroy our ideas." The mausoleum will now be demolished by bulldozers and cranes. MS END NOTE LONG SHADOW OF AN OLD AGREEMENT By Paul Goble Today marks the 60th anniversary of the Molotov- Ribbentrop Pact, the deal between Hitler and Stalin that touched off World War II and that continues to cast a shadow over Eastern Europe and relations between Moscow and the West. On 23 August 1939, German Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop and his Soviet counterpart, Vyacheslav Molotov, signed a non-aggression pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. Because this agreement eliminated the immediate threat to Germany of a two-front war, it freed Hitler to launch the attack on Poland that began World War II. And because it allowed Germany to acquire numerous militarily important supplies from the USSR, it helped to power Nazi victories in Europe in 1939 and 1940. But even more important, this agreement--and especially a secret protocol, the existence of which both Berlin and Moscow long denied--drew a new line in Eastern Europe between a German and a Russian sphere of influence, a line that allowed Stalin to put pressure on and then absorb the three Baltic countries. If much of the importance of the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact was made irrelevant by Hitler's decision to attack the Soviet Union in June 1941 and by the eventual defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945, the sphere of influence the pact gave to Moscow over Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania has had a much longer life. Virtually all Western governments followed the U.S. in refusing to recognize as legitimate Stalin's occupation of these three small countries. Most maintained ties with the diplomatic representatives of the pre-occupation authorities and adopted other measures to show their non-recognition of what the Soviet Union had done. And that policy, one that Baltic leaders have always said encouraged them in their struggle against the occupation, continued until August 1991 when Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania successfully achieved the restoration of their state sovereignty as full members of the international state system. But in an important sense, Moscow's sphere of influence as defined by this pact continues to play a role in the thinking of both Russian and Western leaders. Until almost the end of the Soviet period, Moscow officials denied the existence of the secret protocol to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. And when they could no longer deny that, they retreated to an insistence that the Sovietization of the Baltic States in 1940 had nothing to do with that accord. However, as Baltic, Russian, and Western historians have demonstrated, Stalin occupied Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania when he did only because of the assurances Hitler had given him that these countries lay within Moscow's sphere of influence. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, the situation has changed again, but it is still the case that many in Moscow call for Western recognition that the Baltic countries lie within a Russian sphere of influence. And they advance as the basis for that claim the notion that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania were part of the Soviet Union. In the past, most Western officials were careful to speak about the existence of 12 Soviet republics and three occupied Baltic states and thus to implicitly reject Moscow's pretensions in this regard. But more recently, senior Western officials and various Western academic experts have made ever more references to the supposed existence of "15 former Soviet republics." These call into question the West's non-recognition policy. Moreover, they are taken by Moscow as an implicit recognition that the Soviet borders are still a dividing line in Europe. That pattern, in turn, has encouraged some in the Russian capital to assume that Moscow can deal with the Baltic countries in much the same way it has dealt with its other neighbors, an assumption that threatens not only the security of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania but also the stability of Europe as a whole. As a result and despite all the talk about a Europe without new lines of division and about the future inclusion of everyone in all international structures, such comments and assumptions appear to reinforce just such a line--one drawn 60 years ago by two of the most evil figures of our time. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. 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