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RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 161, Part II, 19 August 1999
________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 161, Part II, 19 August 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * BELARUS AGAIN LOSES 'BATTLE FOR HARVEST' * KEY BOSNIAN TOWN TO REMAIN UNDER JOINT CONTROL * SERBIAN REGIME TO OFFER EARLY ELECTIONS? End Note: WHO GETS WHAT, WHEN, AND HOW xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE BELARUS AGAIN LOSES 'BATTLE FOR HARVEST.' Premier Syarhey Linh on 18 August informed President Alyaksandr Lukashenka that this year's harvest will be smaller than last year's because of "unfavorable weather and other objective reasons," Belarusian Television reported. Belarus will thus be forced to buy grain abroad. The report gave no figures. Last year, Belarus harvested some 5 million tons of grain, down from 6 million tons in 1997. Linh and Lukashenka noted that the lower grain yield means that budget expenditures will have to be reduced in all areas, except the social sphere. JM MINSK OSCE MISSION HEAD OUTLINES POLITICAL DIALOGUE GOALS. Hans Georg Wieck, head of the OSCE monitoring and consultative group in Minsk, published an article in the 18 August "Belorusskaya delovaya gazeta" outlining the OSCE's expectations of the planned talks between the authorities and the opposition in Belarus. According to Wieck, the talks should aim at "seeking sufficient common grounds for the adoption of a law on holding free and fair elections, ensuring access of the opposition to the media, and creating a parliament with significant functions and powers." JM UKRAINE, MOLDOVA SIGN BORDER TREATY. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma and his Moldovan counterpart, Petru Luchinschi, meeting in Kyiv on 18 August, signed a treaty defining the border between the two countries. Under a protocol attached to the treaty, Ukraine will control an 8 kilometer section of the Odesa-Izmail road as well as the strip of land on which that part of the road crosses Moldovan territory. In exchange, Moldova will receive a 100-meter strip of land along the Danube River, thus obtaining access to the Black Sea and the possibility of building an oil terminal. The two sides also signed agreements aimed at boosting trade and customs cooperation. JM OFFICIAL CASTS DOUBT ON UKRAINIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS' VALIDITY. Mykhaylo Ryabets, head of the Central Electoral Commission, said on 18 August that the Supreme Court's order to register the six presidential candidates who were originally rejected by the commission may threaten the validity of the entire ballot. The court ruled that the commission had violated procedures while checking voters' signatures. However, it did not comment on the validity of signatures submitted by the six candidates. Since those candidates did not produce the required number of signatures (at least 1 million), presidential hopefuls who lose the 31 October vote will be able to appeal the election results and have the elections invalidated, Ryabets argued. JM ESTONIAN PARLIAMENT DEBATES WTO MEMBERSHIP. Lawmakers on 18 August gave preliminary approval to legislation ratifying the country's decision to join the World Trade Organization, ETA reported. In the fall session, the parliament will continue work on the bill as well as other legislation aimed at bringing Estonia into compliance with WTO rules. According to the news agency, if Estonia does not become a member of the international trade body "before October 30, [its] membership may be postponed for years." MJZ ESTONIA WILLING TO GRANT RESIDENCY TO JAILED RUSSIAN ACTIVIST. The Estonian Citizenship and Migration Department is willing to issue a residence permit to jailed Russian activist Oleg Morozov, BNS reported on 18 August. The Russian citizen is due to be released from jail on 19 August after serving a 20-day sentence for violating the country's aliens law. Morozov refuses an Estonian residence permit, as required by the aliens law, on the grounds that he was born and raised in the country while it was occupied by the Soviet Union. MJZ LATVIAN COALITION PARTNERS DISAGREE ON STATE LANGUAGE LAW. The three ruling coalition parties disagree over when the vetoed state language law should be reconsidered by the parliament. According to LETA, the head of the People's Party parliamentary faction, Gundars Berzins, said on 18 August that the parliament should adopt an amended law in November because "it is important [for Latvia] to demonstrate an ability to act." Fatherland and Freedom and Latvia's Way, on the other hand, want to see consideration of any new amendments delayed until early next year. MJZ LATVIA'S RESIDENTS GENERALLY SATISFIED WITH INTERETHNIC RELATIONS. BNS reported on 17 August that 56.5 percent of Latvia's residents believe that relations among Latvia's various ethnic groups are good or very good, while just under 12 percent think they are bad or very bad. According to a Latvijas Fakti opinion poll, slightly more than 50 percent of those questioned said that fears about losing ethnic identity as a result of social integration are unfounded and that such integration is necessary for Latvia to develop a unified civil society. Ethnic Latvians were much more positive concerning interethnic relations than non-Latvians: 17 percent of non-Latvians thought those relations were bad or very bad, while only 7.5 percent of ethnic Latvians concurred with that assessment. MJZ POLISH FARMERS THREATEN TO DESTROY IMPORTED GRAIN... Marian Zagorny, head of the Farmers Solidarity national protest committee, has presented Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek with an ultimatum, Polish Radio reported on 18 August. The committee threatens that unless the prime minister halts grain imports and explains the principles of his grain importing policy to farmers, it will destroy shipments of imported grain at rail and road border crossings. JM ...WHILE POLICE DEMAND WAGE HIKES. Police trade union activists on 18 August demanded wage hikes and punctual wage payments, PAP reported. "This is not an actual threat, but we will ask our unions to start protests if our demands are not met," police union leader Andrzej Szary commented. JM INVESTIGATION OF CZECH EX-FINANCE MINISTER TO 'TAKE MONTHS.' Police investigator Vaclav Kutilek told CTK on 18 August that the investigation of former Finance Minister Ivo Svoboda and his adviser Barbara Snopkova will "take several more months, owing to the complexity of the investigation." Svoboda, Snopkova, and her son, Stanislav Kratochvil, are suspected of causing losses to creditors of the Liberta company, which manufactures baby-strollers. Snopkova is also being investigated for "breach of duties." Svoboda and Snopkova are alleged to have ordered all money belonging to the loss-making company to be sent to a bank account before all claims of Liberta's creditors were met. Before opening bankruptcy procedures, they allegedly split the company into two parts--a profit-making company owned by Svoboda and Snopkova, which was later sold to Kratochvil, and a loss-making one, which was then liquidated. MS ROMA LEAVING CZECH REPUBLIC. Some 50 families from Plzen left the Czech Republic this year because of their economic situation and racial discrimination, Jan Puska from the Plzen branch of the Romany Civic Initiative told CTK on 17 August. He said another two families are about to leave the town and others are making preparations to do so. Puska said their destination is the U.K. or Canada, where "they gain in six months more than what they would earn in the Czech Republic in a lifetime." He warned that all Roma might leave the country unless the government takes steps to secure their existence. MS SLOVAKIA LAUDS FINNISH DECISION ON ROMA ASYLUM- SEEKERS. A spokesman for Pal Csaky, deputy premier in charge of minority issues, said on 18 August that Bratislava "welcomes" Finland's decision to return unsuccessful Roma asylum-seekers from Slovakia to those countries from which they flew to Helsinki, CTK reported, citing a Czech Foreign Ministry official. TASR reported the same day that asylum-seekers who flew from Prague will be returned to the Czech Republic. But Czech police sources said that it would be "logical" for the Finnish authorities to send the Roma directly to Slovakia. The sources said that if the Roma are flown to Prague, they will not be allowed to leave the airport's transit area and will be sent on to Bratislava. If they ask for refugee status in the Czech Republic, they will be placed in refugee camps until their request is processed. MS SLOVAK CONSTITUTIONAL COURT REJECTS LEXA APPEAL. The Constitutional Court on 18 August rejected an appeal by Ivan Lexa, former head of the Slovak Counter- Intelligence Service, against his prosecution for participating in the abduction of former President Michal Kovac's son and other crimes, CTK reported. Lexa's appeal follows a court ruling that Premier Mikulas Dzurinda's annulment of the amnesty granted by his predecessor, Vladimir Meciar, to Lexa and others was unconstitutional. The prosecuting authorities has said that court's ruling has no "retroactive validity." MS SLOVAK COMMUNISTS CRITICIZE JUSTICE MINISTER. The Slovak Communist Party (KSS) on 16 August criticized Justice Minister Jan Carnogursky for his intention to set up a Bureau for the Crimes of Communism. Carnogursky said the bureau will be established through a law passed by the parliament or through a Justice Ministry order. The KSS said that a lawyer of Carnogursky's reputation should know that communism was never established in Czechoslovakia, which had "only reached the stage of building socialism." The KSS added that at a time when crime is thriving in the country, Carnogursky wants to "feed parasites...to examine the so-called crimes of communism," SITA reported. MS HUNGARIAN DEFENSE MINISTER SAYS KOSOVA CRISIS PROVES NEED FOR ARMY REFORM. Janos Szabo told MTI on 18 August that the Kosova crisis "highlighted the fact that the [Hungarian] army does not have the necessary capabilities to handle the country's present and future challenges." He said that a "strategic re- examination" of the army's needs and capabilities is now under way and will reflect the "radically altered circumstances arising from Hungary's NATO membership and the lessons drawn from how the Kosova crisis was handled." Szabo said that the purpose of the examination is to "create an army that can be financed in the long-term and that reflects the demands of the times." MS SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE KEY BOSNIAN TOWN TO REMAIN UNDER JOINT CONTROL. International mediators have decided that Brcko will remain permanently under the joint administration of the Republika Srpska and the mainly Muslim and Croatian federation, AP reported on 19 August. The decision makes permanent an interim ruling in March. The Serbs want to keep control of the town, which is a key transportation link between the eastern and western halves of the Republika Srpska. The Muslims and Croats also want access to Brcko's rail and river port facilities. The Muslims and Croats stress that they constituted the majority in the town before the 1992-1995 war and that to assign it to the Serbs would make permanent the results of wartime ethnic cleansing. Brcko was the one territorial issue so thorny that negotiators could not resolve it at the 1995 Dayton peace conference. PM HIGH TURNOUT AT SERBIAN OPPOSITION RALLY. Some 25,000 people attended a protest meeting in Nis against Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic on 18 August, Reuters reported. This was the largest turnout at any of the recent opposition rallies in Serbia. Zoran Zivkovic, who is the mayor of that city, told the crowd: "We cannot keep suffering any longer." Social Democratic leader Vuk Obradovic said unidentified persons tried to force his car off the road while he was en route to Nis. Democratic Party leader Zoran Djindjic appealed to those present to attend the major opposition rally slated for 19 August in Belgrade. He added that Kosovar Serb leaders Momcilo Trajkovic and Bishop Artemije will be there. The news agency reported that cheap gasoline and basic foodstuffs have "suddenly reappeared" in Nis after months of shortages. PM U.S. CALLS ON SERBIAN OPPOSITION TO UNITE. State Department spokesman James Rubin said in Washington on 18 August that "the more unified [the Serbian opposition] acts, the quicker the chances are that Milosevic will leave the scene, and the quicker therefore the chances are that the people of Yugoslavia and Serbia will be able to live the life they deserve to.... We are under the impression that the vast majority of the Serbian people believe that President Milosevic must go and that the time has come for him to go," Rubin added. Observers note that the Serbian opposition is highly fractious and that one of the key problems is personal rivalries between prominent leaders. PM WARNINGS OF 'PROVOCATIONS' AT SERBIAN OPPOSITION RALLY. Nebojsa Covic, who heads the Democratic Alternative party, said in Belgrade on 18 August that the regime is preparing to stage "provocations and incidents" at the rally slated for the following day, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. Elsewhere, a spokesman for Belgrade police said that police arrested an unidentified man "with a highly explosive device." The spokesman warned of possible bomb attacks at unspecified "mass public gatherings," AP reported. PM SERBIAN REGIME TO OFFER EARLY ELECTIONS? Ivica Dacic, who is a spokesman for Milosevic's Socialist Party of Serbia, said in Belgrade on 18 August that the government is willing to hold early elections "if that's what the opposition wants." Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Vojislav Seselj added: "Whenever [the opposition] want, we can discuss the terms and the date" of the vote. It is unclear what offices would be voted on in the elections. A recent poll suggests that Vuk Draskovic's Serbian Renewal Movement (SPO) would get 18 percent of the vote and the opposition umbrella group Alliance for Change 15 percent. Milosevic's backers would take 14 percent and Seselj's party 8 percent, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. PM WHAT IS DRASKOVIC'S ROLE? A spokesman for Draskovic told the BBC on 19 August that a report by the private Beta news agency that Draskovic recently met with Milosevic to plan early elections is "a joke." Observers note that early elections would benefit Draskovic's party more than most other opposition groups, many of which are smaller and less well organized than the SPO. Early elections would also give Milosevic an opportunity to divide the opposition by playing the parties off against each other. And they would benefit the regime by distracting attention from opposition calls for Milosevic to resign. Most opposition parties insist that Milosevic must go before new elections can be held. The opposition also wants a new election law, fair access to the media for all parties, and a large-scale presence of foreign election monitors. PM ANTI-MILOSEVIC CHANTS AT KEY SOCCER MATCH. Electric flood lights went out for 45 minutes at a Belgrade stadium on 18 August during the Yugoslavia-Croatia match of the Euro 2000 qualifiers. Crowds began to chant "Slobo go" and "you sold out" Kosova. They also voiced anti-Croatian slogans, including "kill Ustashe," which is a Serbian pejorative for Croats. The BBC reported that the players were aware of the potentially politically explosive nature of the match between the sportsmen from the two rival countries "and played to an uninspired 0-0 draw." PM VALJEVO PROTEST LEADER BADLY BEATEN. Serbia's Helsinki Committee for Human Rights said in a statement on 18 August that it is "deeply concerned" over the recent arrest and beating of Bogoljub Arsenijevic by Belgrade police (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 18 August 1999). Arsenijevic is in a prison hospital in Valjevo with a broken jaw and shoulder. PM PESIC FLEES TO MONTENEGRO. Veteran Serbian opposition leader Vesna Pesic, who arrived in Podgorica on 18 August, said she wants to "remove [herself] from what is happening in Serbia." Pesic denied recent charges by several prominent Milosevic supporters and the Pancevo public prosecutor's office that she has called for the violent overthrow of the regime (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 17 August 1999). She added that she has largely withdrawn from active participation in politics in recent months. In Pancevo, a spokesman for the prosecutor's office said that he is not sure if that office will press charges against Pesic, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. If convicted, she could face up to 20 years in prison, AP noted. PM NGOS SAY MILOSEVIC REGIME BLOCKS AID TO SERBIAN REFUGEES. Officials of Yugoslav Action, which includes the confederation of independent trade unions and some 50 NGOs, said in Belgrade on 19 August that the authorities are preventing aid collected abroad from reaching Serbian refugees from Kosova. One spokeswoman said that the regime does this to force the refugees to go home. She noted that the authorities followed a similar policy in regard to Serbian refugees from Croatia. PM UNHCR ESTIMATES THAT 180,000 SERBS HAVE LEFT KOSOVA. UNHCR spokesman Ron Redmond told Reuters in Prishtina on 18 August that so far around 180,000 Serbs have fled Kosova. He added that attacks on those who remain are still commonplace. And he estimated that fewer than 50,000 Serbs have stayed in the province. "We have no intention of conducting any large-scale evacuations. Sometimes, however, we have little or no choice but to take some vulnerable individuals to safety and we will continue to do so when necessary," he said (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 17 August 1999). FS ITALIAN PEACEKEEPERS WOUNDED WHILE GUARDING CHURCH. Unidentified attackers shot and wounded two Italian soldiers guarding a Serbian Orthodox church building in Gjakova, a KFOR official told AP on 19 August. The previous day, KFOR soldiers seized 50 rifles and ammunition in two separate raids in Gjakova and Prizren. FS UNMIK, KFOR URGE ALBANIANS TO COOPERATE. UN Special Representative Bernard Kouchner and KFOR commander General Sir Mike Jackson issued a joint statement on 18 August in Prishtina calling on ethnic Albanians to cooperate with the peacekeepers and the civilian UN Mission in Kosova (UNMIK). The statement condemned "the illegal and threatening activities that have been taking place," referring to crimes committed by ethnic Albanian thugs against ethnic minorities. It stressed that "we will...only succeed in generating a secure environment with the full cooperation of the local population." Jackson and Kouchner expressed understanding for the fear of many Kosovar Serbs and Roma. The two men stressed: "We are dealing with the situation.... We are providing extensive protection for Serb and other minority communities and individuals." FS ALBANIA, CROATIA PLEDGE TO INCREASE COOPERATION. Croatian Foreign Minister Mate Granic and his Albanian counterpart, Paskal Milo, agreed in Tirana on 18 August to increase bilateral cooperation in the fields of agriculture, transport, telecommunications, tourism, and education, an RFE/RL South Slavic Service correspondent reported. Albanian Prime Minister Pandeli Majko also met with Granic and proposed a meeting between the two countries' leaders and those of Montenegro to draw up joint projects within the framework of the Balkan stability pact. FS BELGRADE RECRUITING 'FEDERAL POLICE' IN MONTENEGRO. Unidentified people sought to recruit Montenegrins in Bijelo Polje for an unspecified Yugoslav "federal police force," RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported on 18 August. The new recruits are almost all supporters of Yugoslav Prime Minister Momir Bulatovic, who is Milosevic's chief backer in Montenegro. Observers note that police functions are a republican and not a federal prerogative. The Montenegrin police are generally loyal to President Milo Djukanovic, who is Bulatovic's arch- rival. PM ROMANIA, RUSSIA AGREE ON DEBT SETTLEMENT. Returning from Moscow on 18 August, Finance Ministry State Secretary Gheorghe Banu said he and his Russian counterpart, Alexei Kutrin, have signed an agreement on settling Russia's $21.7 million debt to Romania, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. Under the agreement, Russia will deliver machinery by 31 December 2000. Banu noted, however, that no agreement has been reached on the dispute concerning Romanian investments in Ukraine's Kryvyy Rih mineral extraction complex. Bucharest says it invested some 93.4 million transferable rubles before the breakup of the former Soviet Union. The Russian side insists on tripartite negotiations involving Ukraine. According to Banu, a trilateral meeting might take place by the end of next month. MS ROMANIAN NATIONALIST PARTY TO SUE PRESIDENT. Party of Romanian National Unity (PUNR) chairman Valeriu Tabara said on 18 August that his formation will sue President Emil Constantinescu for calumny, Mediafax reported. Tabara was responding to Constantinescu's interview with CNN earlier this month, in which he said "extremist parties" such as the PUNR are unlikely to pass the electoral hurdle in the parliamentary elections scheduled for 2000. Tabara said he expects the PUNR to win at least 10 percent in those elections. He also announced he accepts his party's nomination as its presidential candidate in the 2000 ballot. MS MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT APPEALS TO CONSTITUTIONAL COURT. President Petru Lucinschi has asked the Constitutional Court to rule that the parliament's 2 July decision to amend the election law was unconstitutional, Infotag reported on 18 August. Under the amendment, the president's right to call a referendum was curtailed to three times during his four-year mandate. Lucinschi is also challenging the provision that the parliament must approve holding a plebiscite and that the Central Electoral commission must declare a plebiscite invalid if less than three-fifths of registered voters participate. MS GERMANY EXTRADITES BULGARIAN AIRLINE OFFICIAL. Vesselin Kalaydzhiev, manager of the Balkan Airlines Berlin office, has been extradited from Germany at the request of the Bulgarian Prosecutor-General's office, BTA reported on 17 August. Kalaydzhiev has been charged with embezzlement and use of falsified documents. MS END NOTE WHO GETS WHAT, WHEN, AND HOW By Michael Shafir When voters in a Prague electoral district go to the polls later this month to elect a replacement for the late Vaclav Benda, a lot more will be at stake than just another by-election. Benda represented the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) in the upper house. Should the mandate go to one of the minor parties represented in the house, the ODS and the Social Democratic Party (CSSD) may be unable to secure the constitutional changes they agreed to pursue when they concluded the so-called "opposition pact," whereby the minority cabinet of the CSSD rules in exchange for the ODS's control over the chairmanships of the two parliamentary houses. To ensure passage of the constitutional amendments, a three-fifths majority is required in each house. The combined CSSD-ODS forces command that majority in the Chamber of Deputies (137 out of 200 deputies), but should Benda's mandate be lost to any formation outside the "opposition pact," the CSSD-ODS will not have the 49 (out of 81) senatorial votes necessary to implement those changes. Safeguarding Benda's seat, however, is only the first hurdle that the two political rivals-turned- partners have to overcome. A considerably higher hurdle is agreeing on the scope of those constitutional changes. The first objective is to limit the presidential prerogatives, making it impossible for Vaclav Havel or any of his successors to repeat the 1997 appointment of a non-party figure as premier. Rather, the president would be obliged to appoint as premier the head of the strongest party that can garner a parliamentary majority. But while Prime Minister Milos Zeman and ODS chairman Vaclav Klaus still see eye to eye on this goal--as well as on curtailing other presidential prerogatives--they have disagreed over the second objective, namely reducing the parliamentary representation of smaller political formations. A joint commission of the two parties set up after the 1998 elections has been unable to come up with a formula satisfying both sides, and a new commission embarked upon that task earlier this month. The ODS and the CSSD are determined to change the existing Hagen-Bischoff system of the proportional distribution of seats, which is one of the systems more friendly toward small parties, though not the friendliest. The ODS wanted to introduce a majority system, but in the face of CSSD opposition, it agreed to maintain the proportional system. To reduce the parliamentary weight of minor parties, the CSSD and the ODS agreed to implement what political scientists call "reducing district magnitude"--in other words, increasing the number of electoral districts while cutting the number of representatives elected from each of these districts. That change would obviously put larger parties at an advantage. While it has been agreed that 35-36 districts are to replace the existing eight, disagreement emerged over the system to replace the Hagen-Bischoff one, as well as over when the change would go into effect. The ODS wants the Hagen-Bischoff formula replaced by the "Imperial system." The latter is rarely encountered in post-World War II democracies--for a very good reason: the system gives a kind of bonus to the large parties, producing parliamentary majorities where they do not exist in the electorate. Of all systems, the Imperial most resembles what Douglas W. Rae termed the "manufactured majority." Moreover, the system encourages political corruption, as the case of pre-1938 Romania demonstrates. In that country, as one observer put it, it was not electorates that changed governments, but governments that changed electorates. Why the ODS would prefer that system is obvious: while enjoying around 30 percent of support at present, the ODS would benefit under an Imperial system in that it would not only be the strongest party in the parliament but, given the bonus, would be sufficiently strong to form a government by itself. Precisely for this reason, the CSSD--aware that its popularity is at low ebb and that its chances of emerging as the strongest formation in the next elections are slim--would prefer to replace the Hagen- Bischoff system with the d'Hondt system of proportional distribution. Considerably more widespread than the Imperial, the d'Hondt favors larger parties but distorts electoral support less than does the Imperial and provides for the reduced representation of small parties. Czech political scientist Rudolf Kucera calculated that under the d'Hondt system, the CSSD last year would have gained 90 (instead of 74) mandates in the Chamber of Deputies and the ODS 74 (instead of 63). The small Christian Democratic Party and the Freedom Union would have had 10 (instead of 20) and five (instead of 19) mandates, respectively. In other words, even if the CSSD does not emerge as the strongest party in 2002, it could still hope to form a coalition with one of the minor parties. The disagreement over the timing of implementing the change of system again reflects opposing calculations. The ODS wants the new election law, which necessitates amending the constitution, to go into effect one year after its approval. The CSSD, on the other hand, fears that this would terminate the "opposition agreement" and the ODS would opt for early elections. It therefore wants the changed electoral law to become effective only as of 1 January 2002. That is hardly surprising, particularly when one bears in mind Harold Laswell's definition of politics as "who gets what, when, and how." xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message. 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