The fool wonders, the wise man asks. - Benjamin Disraeli
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 151, Part II, 5 August 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 151, Part II, 5 August 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT PLEDGES TO SEEK RE-ELECTION IN
2001

* DJINDJIC SAYS MILOSEVIC OUT BY NOVEMBER

* MENINGITIS EPIDEMIC IN ROMANIA

End Note: CRIMES OF WAR
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT PLEDGES TO SEEK RE-ELECTION IN
2001... Alyaksandr Lukashenka told Russian journalists
in Minsk on 4 August that he will seek another five-year
term in 2001, when his extended, seven-year tenure
expires. "I will persuade people in a civilized way that
I can represent their interests for another five years
after 2001," AP quoted him as saying. Lukashenka denied
that he is a dictator but admitted that there are
"elements of authoritarian rule" in his regime.
According to him, economic processes in Belarus, as a
country in a "transition period," cannot be allowed to
"drift along on their own." JM

...CHIDES RUSSIA FOR NOT HEEDING HIS ADVICE. Lukashenka
also castigated Russia's leadership for failing to heed
his advice not to withdraw nuclear missiles from
Belarus. He said he had warned Russian President Boris
Yeltsin that NATO would immediately embrace former
Soviet allies in Eastern Europe. "This is exactly what
happened: as soon as the missiles were withdrawn,
Eastern Europe joined NATO," Interfax quoted him as
saying. He also complained that Russia did not respond
to his appeal to form a joint front against NATO. "The
result was military intervention by the alliance in the
Balkans," Lukashenka concluded. JM

YOUNG BELARUSIAN OPPOSITIONIST SEEKS POLITICAL ASYLUM IN
POLAND. Uladzimir Antonau, an activist of the opposition
Youth Front, has requested political asylum in Poland,
Belapan reported on 4 August. In a public statement,
Antonau explained his move by pointing to the
"authoritarian rule that is strengthening in Belarus."
This year, Antonau was arrested twice for his
participation in opposition protest actions and was
expelled from a Minsk university. JM

UKRAINIAN CURRENCY CONTINUES TO LOSE VALUE. Ukraine's
interbank market, which is used by the National Bank to
set its official exchange rate, quoted $1 at more than
4.7 hryvni on several occasions on 4 August, breaching
the government's lower trade limit of $4.6 hryvni to $1
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 4 August 1999), AP reported.
National Bank Chairman Viktor Yushchenko said on 5
August that Ukraine faces a currency crisis as a
consequence of soaring fuel costs, dpa reported. An
analyst told AP that commercial banks, in order to raise
their profits, may trigger devaluation since the central
bank has no reserves to intervene. Meanwhile, the IMF is
pressing the bank not to impose additional currency
controls. JM

UKRAINIAN PRESIDENT ORDERS PRIVATIZATION OF ENERGY
SECTOR. Leonid Kuchma on 3 August signed a decree
ordering the sale of 26-35 percent of shares in four
energy giants that control thermal power plants and are
majority-owned by the state, AP reported. At the same
time, Kuchma ordered the sale of majority stakes in
seven regional electricity distributors and of 26-45
percent of shares in another 12 such companies. This
attempt to privatize Ukraine's energy sector comes three
months after the Prosecutor-General's Office moved to
revoke privately owned stakes in seven energy-
distribution companies on charges of financial
machinations. JM

ESTONIA OPENS HUNGARIAN REPRESENTATION. Estonia on 4
August opened its first-ever diplomatic representation
in Hungary. Charge d'Affaires Lembit Luht presented his
credentials to the Hungarian Foreign Ministry and will
start work on establishing the new embassy in Budapest.
Estonia's ambassador to Hungary, Mart Laanemae,
currently resides in Vienna. Estonia is aiming to open
representations in nearly all NATO countries, having
opened embassies in most EU countries (except
Luxembourg) by 1997. Cuts in the 1999 budget have
postponed plans to open an embassy in Ottawa. Hungary,
meanwhile, has announced that its embassy in Tallinn
will be opened by October. MH

POLISH ANTI-COMMUNISTS LAUNCH POSTER CAMPAIGN AGAINST
'MURDERER.' The group Radical Anti-Communist Action
(RAAK) has decorated downtown Poznan with some 700
posters proclaiming that "A Murderer Lives Next Door to
You," PAP reported on 4 August. The posters give the
full name of Colonel Wladyslaw L as well as his address
and telephone number, noting that he gave orders to
shoot at protesting workers in the Gdansk shipyard in
1970. "Ten people died and 83 were injured.... We are
deliberately violating the law on the protection of
personal data, but this leads us to believe that we will
be summoned to court and will finally look the murderer
in the face," RAAK leader Wojciech Wybranowski
commented. "I do not feel guilty of having given that
order," Wladyslaw L. told PAP, adding that he will sue
the RAAK. JM

CZECH SENATE RATIFIES EUROPEAN SOCIAL CHARTER. The
Senate on 4 August approved the ratification of the
European Social Charter, which lays down the basic
social and economic rights of citizens in EU
countries, CTK reported. The Chamber of Deputies
approved its ratification on 8 July. MS

HAVEL AIDE ATTACKED BY SKINHEADS. Three skinheads on 4
August assaulted Jana Chalupova and Jakub Polak in a
restaurant close to the district court of Karvina,
northern Moravia, CTK reported. Chalupova is head of
the Department for Public Relations at the
presidential office, while Polak is representing in
court the family of a Rom who was killed by skinheads
last year. Five skinheads are currently being tried in
the Karvina district court on charges of several
racially motivated crimes, breaching the peace, and
causing bodily harm. MS

IMF WARNS SLOVAKIA. The IMF on 4 August urged Slovakia
to curb its budget and current account deficits and
warned that large deficits and weak banks may threaten
the economic gains of recent years, Reuters reported.
The fund said that strains in the banking and
corporate sectors have become increasingly visible,
while taxes and government spending are too high. It
added that the austerity measures announced by the
government in May were "strong and courageous" and
expressed the hope that the parliament will soon
approve the remaining government measures. But the
fund also warned that a slowdown in economic growth
could "complicate efforts to reduce deficits."
Slovakia's current account deficit last year was 10
percent of GDP, while economic growth was 4.4 percent,
down from 6.5 percent in 1997. MS

MAJORITY OF SLOVAKS SUPPORT GOVERNMENT RESHUFFLE. More
than half of Slovaks (57.4 percent) believe that the
restructuring of Premier Mikulas Dzurinda's cabinet is
necessary, according to a poll conducted by Polis
Slovakia. Jan Baranek, Polis Slovakia's director-
general, told CTK on 4 August that 28.7 percent of
respondents see no reason why the cabinet should be
reshuffled, while 13.9 percent expressed no view on
the subject. The Hungarian Coalition Party is calling
for a government reshuffle and is supported by other
members of the ruling coalition in that bid (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 4 August 1999). MS

HUNGARIAN PREMIER CRITICIZES ROMANIA OVER UNIVERSITY
PROJECT. Viktor Orban on 4 August told Hungarian Radio
that the Romanian leadership "lacks the political
will" to set up a Hungarian-language state university.
As long as such will is absent, recent legislation
providing for such a university "does not help much,"
he said. Orban said that during his visit to Romania
in late July, he discussed with the leaders of the
Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania (UDMR) how
to overcome these obstacles "by other means." UDMR
honorary chairman Bishop Laszlo Tokes's statement that
the Hungarian Churches in Transylvania are "ready to
set up a Christian university" was "brilliant," Orban
said, adding that this could be an alternative. The
Hungarian premier noted that he has "promised" ethnic
Hungarians in Transylvania that by 2002 they will have
Hungarian-language education from the nursery to
university. He added that he will keep that promise.
MS

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

DJINDJIC SAYS MILOSEVIC OUT BY NOVEMBER. Serbian
Democratic Party leader Zoran Djindjic told Reuters on 5
August that "by mid-September, rallies across Serbia
will gain momentum, and [Yugoslav President Slobodan]
Milosevic will probably call for elections in November."
Djindjic added that Milosevic in the meantime is
unlikely to use force against the demonstrators lest he
drive still more people into the ranks of the
opposition. This year's elections will be for a
transition government to replace Milosevic, Djindjic
noted. He stressed that neither he nor the Serbian
Renewal Movement's Vuk Draskovic nor any other prominent
politician should serve in the transitional government.
Djindjic suggested that such a government should hold
office for one year, after which new elections should
take place. PM

DRASKOVIC: KFOR PLAYS INTO MILOSEVIC'S HANDS. Draskovic
said that any transitional government should include
both supporters and opponents of Milosevic, the
Frankfurt-based Serbian daily "Vesti" reported on 5
August. He appealed to members of Milosevic's Socialist
Party of Serbia to reach an agreement with opposition
parties on forming such a government. In Rome, Draskovic
said on 4 August that KFOR's failure to protect Serbian
civilians in Kosova "gives ammunition to [anti-Western]
forces in Serbia, first of all to President Milosevic,"
Reuters reported. Draskovic stressed that "there is not
a single Serbian policeman or Serbian soldier" in
Kosova. The result has been "the exodus of the Serbs,
the ethnic cleansing of Serbs," he concluded. PM

GELBARD MEETS WITH SERBIAN OPPOSITION LEADERS. U.S.
special envoy Robert Gelbard met in a Montenegrin
coastal town on 4 August with Djindjic and other
prominent opposition leaders. They included the Alliance
for Change's Vladan Batic, the Social Democrats' Vuk
Obradovic, the Civic League's Goran Svilanovic, and
senior banker Dragoslav Avramovic, "Vesti" reported.
Gelbard also held a separate meeting with Draskovic, who
has repeatedly refused to form a coalition with the
other opposition parties. The theme of Gelbard's talks
was that all opposition parties should sink their
differences and concentrate on removing Milosevic from
office. PM

BELGRADE ATTACKS OPPOSITION OVER GELBARD MEETINGS.
Serbian state-run television said in a broadcast on 4
August that the opposition leaders who met with Gelbard
are "traitors...bent on completing the job NATO failed
to accomplish in 78 days" of air strikes. The official
Tanjug news agency called the leaders "quislings...[and]
NATO's extended hand in Serbia and Yugoslavia." Tanjug
added that the opposition wants "to topple the legally
elected Yugoslav and Serbian leaderships [and replace
them] with stooges of the Western military alliance." In
response, Social Democratic spokesman Slobodan Orlic
told "Vesti" that the opposition is willing to meet with
anyone if it is "in the interest of Serbia and its
citizens" to do so. PM

SERBIAN STUDENT GROUP CALLS FOR ELECTIONS. The Belgrade
student organization Otpor (Resistance) issued a
"Declaration for the Future of Serbia" on 4 August. The
manifesto calls for free and fair elections "under the
control" of the OSCE. The text stressed that all
democratic forces should unite to oust Milosevic, who
must be "held accountable for the policies he has
conducted over the past 10 years," AP reported. PM

MILOSEVIC FAILS TO EXPAND GOVERNMENT'S BASE. Serbian
Prime Minister Mirko Marjanovic failed on 4 August to
convince leaders of Draskovic's party and of the League
of Vojvodina Hungarians to join his government, RFE/RL's
South Slavic Service reported. In Podgorica,
Montenegro's governing Democratic Socialist Party said
in a statement that it will not take part in similar
talks that Yugoslav Prime Minister Momir Bulatovic has
slated for 5 August. Bulatovic told "Vesti" that the
opposition should outline its program if it thinks it
can run the country better than his government has. PM

BULATOVIC WANTS 9,600 POLICE FOR KOSOVA. Bulatovic said
in Belgrade that he hopes that Serbian police can begin
to return to Kosova in September, "Vesti" reported on 5
August. He noted that there are "2,400 Serbian holy
places" in the province and wants four policemen to
guard each of them. There were some 9,600 police in
Kosova before the fighting began, he added. PM

KOSOVAR SERBS DISAPPOINTED BY RUSSIAN 'IDLENESS.' A
Kosovar Serb, whose brother was killed by ethnic
Albanians in Kamenica recently, told "The Daily
Telegraph" of 5 August that the Russian KFOR soldiers
"sit behind their checkpoints and oil their engines" but
offer little protection to local Serbs. A Canadian
doctor of Serbian origin said that "the Serbs were
waiting for the Russians as though it were the Second
Coming and when they arrived nothing happened, the
situation only got worse." Since the deployment of KFOR,
17 Serbs have been kidnapped in the Kamenica region
alone, while nine others have been found dead. Those who
were kidnapped are believed to have been killed by
ethnic Albanians. FS

KOUCHNER VISITS MASS GRAVE SITE... UN Special
Representative Bernard Kouchner visited a mass grave
site near Mitrovica on 4 August, AP reported. Kouchner
said that it was the first time he had been confronted
with "the reality of mass murder." He added that the
experience helped him understand the level of animosity
that still exists in the province. Investigators have
identified 72 graves in and close to an existing
cemetery and have retrieved 40- 50 bodies for autopsies
since late July. The bodies appeared to have been
transported to the site between April and June. A
spokesman for the Hague-based war crime tribunal said
that "some of them appear to have been tortured." Most
were shot at close range, and about a third of the
corpses were those of women. FS

...WARNS KOSOVA CONFLICT IS NOT OVER. Kouchner told AP
in Mitrovica on 4 August that "people believe all over
the world that now the war [in Kosova] is over.... That
is not true, because of the families' suffering.... It's
a long story. It's always a long story." Kouchner
acknowledged that his earlier estimate of 11,000 ethnic
Albanian bodies in Serbian mass graves was inaccurate
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 3 August 1999). He added that
there are no reliable or official figures because
investigations are far from finished. FS

SHOOT-OUT BETWEEN ALBANIANS, FLEEING SERBS. A Serb
travelling in a convoy of refugees leaving Kosova and an
ethnic Albanian were killed in a shoot-out near the
Kosova-Serbian border southeast of Prishtina on 4
August, Reuters reported. The exchange of fire began
after ethnic Albanians threw rocks at the convoy, which
was guarded by U.S. forces. Elsewhere, in Viti three
armed Albanians killed a 39-year-old Serbian man in his
bed and beat up his mother, Beta reported, citing
sources in the Serbian Orthodox Church. FS

TRIBUNAL PROSECUTOR WARNS UCK. In The Hague, Graham
Blewitt, who is the war crimes tribunal's deputy chief
prosecutor, warned the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) that
it will "fall into the tribunal's jurisdiction" if it
conducts an "ethnic cleansing campaign." He added: "I am
saying that in the hope that it may act as a deterrent,"
Reuters reported. FS

GANG WAR BREAKS OUT IN NORTHERN ALBANIA. Unidentified
attackers blew up a car on a bridge between Valbona and
Bajram Curri on 4 August, killing two people and
injuring three. Less than an hour later, two people died
in a shoot-out in Bajram Curri. Local police chief Veli
Myftari told an RFE/RL South Slavic Service
correspondent that "a gang organized the ambush of a
rival [criminal] group with a remotely controlled
explosive device.... The situation is under control, and
special forces from Kukes and Tirana have arrived." He
did not release the identity of the victims pending an
investigation. Albanian police officials pledged last
week to launch a campaign against armed gangs in that
northern region. FS

POLICE SEARCH ANGERS ALBANIAN OPPOSITION. Democratic
Party Deputy leader Genc Pollo told Reuters on 4 August
that police searched the home of legislator Myslim
Murrizi the previous day and seized two licensed hunting
rifles. As a legislator, Murrizi enjoys immunity from
such searches. Meanwhile in Johannesburg, South Africa,
the trial of Leka Zogu, who is the pretender to the
Albanian throne, began. He is charged with illegal arms
possession, dpa reported. FS

CROATIAN MINISTER APPEALS TO HAGUE COURT. Justice
Minister Zvonimir Separovic said in Zagreb on 4 August
that he has written to the Hague-based war crimes
tribunal regarding Croatia's role in the 1992-1995
Bosnian conflict. He asked that the court allow the
Croatian government to present its response to a court
prosecutor's recent statement alleging President Franjo
Tudjman is responsible for war crimes in Bosnia (see
"RFE/RL Balkan Report," 27 July 1999). PM

TUDJMAN SACKS TRANSPORT MINISTER. On 4 August, Tudjman
removed Zeljko Luzavec from his post as minister of
transportation, maritime affairs, and communications.
The President's Office said in a statement that Tudjman
holds Luzavec responsible for the recent "collapse" of
the transportation system to and from the island of Pag
at the height of the tourist season. PM

BOSNIAN SERB LEADER REPUDIATES BORDER AGREEMENT. Zivko
Radisic, who is the ethnic Serbian member of the Bosnian
joint presidency, told a press conference in Banja Luka
on 4 August that he does not endorse the recent border
delineation agreement between Bosnia and Croatia (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 4 August 1999). He said that he
signed the agreement only "because the signing was part
of the scheduled events" at the 29-30 July Balkan summit
in Sarajevo. PM

MENINGITIS EPIDEMIC IN ROMANIA. The Health Ministry on
5 August announced that a meningitis epidemic has
broken out in Iasi, Suceava, Botosani, Bacau, and
Neamt Counties, Romanian Radio reported. The previous
day, Iasi Mayor Constantin Simirad declared the town
an "epidemic zone" in order to force the water utility
company to renew supplies to homes that have been
disconnected owing to unpaid bills. Doctors in the
northwestern city of Baia Mare reported the outbreak
of 350 cases of hepatitis, while three people in Buzau
were reported to have died of letospirosis, a disease
transmitted to humans by animals. Poverty,
malnutrition, and poor hygiene are the main causes of
the illnesses, Reuters reported on 3 August.
Meanwhile, Bucharest garbage collectors went on strike
on 4 August, and doctors say the epidemic may now
spread to the capital. MS

ROMANIAN LIBERAL LEADER ANNOUNCES RETIREMENT IN 2001.
Mircea Ionescu-Quintus, the octogenarian National
Liberal Party chairman, announced on 3 August that he
will step down at the next party congress, which is
scheduled for 2001, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau
reported. Ionescu-Quintus also said he will propose
that the mandate of the PNL chairman be limited to two
four-year terms. On 4 August, the PNL chairman said
Justice Minister Valeriu Stoica, who is now PNL first
deputy chairman, is "best placed" to succeed him. But
he added that "there will surely be more than one
candidate" for the party leadership. MS

MOLDOVAN POLITICIANS REBUFF PRESIDENT. Former
President Mircea Snegur, leader of the Party of
Revival and Conciliation, told RFE/RL on 4 August that
the draft project on instituting a presidential system
in Moldova indicates that President Petru Lucinschi
wants to introduce an "authoritarian system." Deputy
parliamentary chairman Iurie Rosca told journalists in
Chisinau that Lucinschi intends to "institute a
presidential dictatorship." Rosca said that "Lucinschi
and his camarilla...[intend] to do away with the
division of powers and transform the judiciary...and
the legislature into mere decorative artifacts." He
added that the draft worked out by the presidential
commission shows that the mentalities inherited from
the previous regime have survived behind a pro-
European and democratic facade, RFE/RL's Chisinau
bureau reported. MS

SHARP DROP IN MOLDOVAN FOREIGN TRADE. Moldovan foreign
trade volume dropped by 52.1 percent in the first half
of 1999, compared with the same period last year,
RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported on 3 August, citing
data released by the Economy and Reform Ministry. The
total value of trade in this period was $447.3
million. The ministry said that the drop is largely
attributable to the sharp reduction in trade with CIS
countries, which dropped by 56.6 percent. Trade with
other countries dropped by 46.8 percent, owing to a
major reduction in imports. Moldovan exports to CIS
countries from January-June increased by 5.4 percent.
MS

SENIOR BULGARIAN POLICEMAN CAUGHT TAKING BRIBE. Mikhail
Dimitrov, head of Sofia's Economic Police, was caught on
4 August taking a $75,000 bribe from a local
businessman, Reuters reported. Kiril Radev, chief of the
Central Service on Fighting Organized Crime, told
Bulgarian Radio that Dimitrov had been under
surveillance. MS

END NOTE

CRIMES OF WAR

by Christopher Walker

	Four years ago, the name "Srebrenica" became known
to the world as the site of one of the most gruesome
atrocities of the Bosnian war. Some 8,000 men and boys--
Bosnian Muslims--had been rounded up and slaughtered by
Bosnian Serb troops.
	More recently in Kosovo, the world learned of new
place names--Bela Crkva, Djakovica, Izbica, and Velika
Krusa--in which the latest round of war-time horrors has
occurred, allegedly at the hands of Serbian military and
paramilitary forces during the conflict with NATO.
	International authorities estimate that more than
10,000 civilians may have been killed in Kosovo. In the
month since the NATO bombing ended, the international
peacekeeping force that entered Kosovo has been
confronted with another cycle of atrocities, apparently
committed in revenge by ethnic Albanians, against
Serbian civilians who have chosen to remain in the
province. Thus, while the names of the towns have
changed in former Yugoslavia, the barbaric methods used
to redress grievances have not.
	Last month in New York City, a panel of journalists
and authors assembled to discuss the subject of war
crimes during an event organized by the Freedom Forum at
the Newseum/NY.
	The occasion for this meeting was the publication
of a new book entitled "Crimes of War: What the Public
Should Know." This work, a collaborative effort of more
than 90 authors and photographers, defines the major war
crimes and provides a range of important information for
journalists and the public on international humanitarian
law. "The goals of the book are to recover from five
decades of obscurity the standards for judging what is
permitted in conflict from what is criminal", said Roy
Gutman, who won a Pulitzer Prize for his work uncovering
Serb-run concentration camps during the Bosnian war and
is co-editor of the book as well as director of the
Crimes of War Project.
	The "Crimes of War" book has been published within
the framework of the broader Crimes of War Project.
According to Gutman, the project, a non-profit charity,
intends to build on the basis of the book a series of
educational and training programs. The organizers of
this effort intend to hold a seminar for reporters in
Washington DC on war coverage and war crimes and then
possibly take it on the road to regions of conflict.
	In addition, there will be a web site--located at
www.crimesofwar.org--associated with the Crimes of War
project. At first, this site will contain mainly
highlights of the book but eventually will include
articles about Kosovo, major rulings by the Hague
tribunal, and other important international humanitarian
topics, such as the Pinochet case.
	The hope of a "New World Order" envisioned in the
aftermath of the Berlin Wall's collapse has been
dampened by the outbreak of regional conflicts, many of
which have been characterized by their ferocity and
impact on civilian populations.
	Gutman notes that "in the early 1990s we saw a
wholesale regression to barbaric practices in war--
barbarism in Bosnia and Rwanda, uncontrolled and
continuing conflict in Sudan, revived and savage
conflict in Angola and other places, to name a few.
[That is] not to say this didn't occur during the Cold
War era, but this time around, the major powers, instead
of attempting to curb the violence by influencing their
clients or in some cases encouraging their clients,
turned away, closed their eyes, or even denied what was
going on."
	The recent panel discussion in New York devoted
attention to both the advances and weaknesses of the
evolving institutional framework on war crimes since the
start of this decade. In the absence of a permanent
International Criminal Court, two ad-hoc tribunals have
been established, one for the former Yugoslavia, the
other for Rwanda.
	Gutman observes that "until the Hague and Rwanda
tribunals were set up by the UN Security Council after
the two genocides in Bosnia and Rwanda, there
had been no place to investigate judicially the
allegations nor to indict, try, or convict violators.
And even though these two instances are ad hoc and
region-specific, there may well be an international
criminal court in the next decade."
	The tribunal for the former Yugoslavia has, in
fact, indicted a considerable number of alleged war
criminals, including Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic and other leading figures.
	But while the tribunal has produced a significant
number of indictments, some of the panelists at the
Freedom Forum discussion questioned whether there is an
unequal application of resources and political attention
devoted to crises on the European continent, as compared
with those in other parts of the world, such as Africa.
	Other participants questioned the resolve of the
Tribunal. Kati Marton, former chairman of the board of
the Committee to Protect Journalists, criticized the
failure of the international community to arrest
indicted Bosnian war criminals Ratko Mladic and Radovan
Karadzic.
	In the final analysis, sufficient public awareness
is crucial to the determination and effectiveness with
which international judicial bodies carry out their
obligations to the world community.
	 And as Gutman points out, "in a state of
ignorance, the public will hardly be likely to insist
that the laws be observed."

The author is a New York-based analyst specializing in
East European affairs (intrel@aol.com)
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