|V druzhbe, kak i v lyubvi, chasche dostavlyaet schast'e to, chego my ne znaem, nezheli to, chto nam izvestno. - F. Laroshfuko|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 136, Part II, 15 July 1999
________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 136, Part II, 15 July 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * PRICES TO INCREASE IN BELARUS? * RUGOVA RETURNS TO KOSOVA * NO PROGRESS IN BELGRADE-PODGORICA TALKS End Note: MOLDOVA AND THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM: LITTLE COUNTRY, BIG QUESTION xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE PRICES TO INCREASE IN BELARUS? First Deputy Prime Minister Vasil Dalhalyou told Belarusian Television on 14 July that President Alyaksandr Lukashenka has instructed him to make profitable "in the near future" the production of basic foodstuffs, including meat, milk, and bread. Dalhalyou said the government will have to make "moves" in its pricing policy to obtain that goal. In particular, he suggested that the price of milk will be increased. He also said the government is considering introducing limits on subsidized electricity supplies and raising public transport fares. JM BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT CREATES COUNCIL TO PROMOTE PRIVATE BUSINESS. Lukashenka on 13 July signed an edict setting up a Council for the Development of Entrepreneurship in Belarus, which is to be a consultative body under the presidential administration. According to Belarusian Television, the council will "render integrated state support to the development of non-state-owned economic entities as well as to restructuring the economy and forming competitive [economic] relations." Lukashenka, who formerly called private businessmen "lousy fleas," may have been forced to make this concession to private entrepreneurship by the urgent need to fill the virtually empty state coffers. JM UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT CONTINUES TO KILL KUCHMA'S BILLS. Lawmakers on 13 July turned down President Leonid Kuchma's amendments to the law on value-added tax, Info Bank reported. Kuchma proposed that VAT rates for resold goods and services be determined by the original purchase price, not the sale price, arguing that the provision would generate more budget revenues. The same day, the parliament rejected a presidential bill on tax privileges for newly created small businesses. Intelnews reported that the parliament also failed to ratify a Polish-Ukrainian agreement on a $20 million credit line offered by Poland last year. The loan was intended to finance joint economic projects, in particular manufacturing Polish "Bizon" grain harvesters in Kharkiv and Kovel. JM UKRAINE TO PAY OVERDUE BOND TO ING BARINGS IN FULL. The Finance Ministry announced on 14 July that Ukraine will pay an overdue $155 million bond to the Dutch-based ING Barings bank on 2 August (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 14 July 1999). The sides agreed that Ukraine will make another issue of Eurobonds, nominated in German marks, to raise the money to meet the debt. The bonds are to be sold to a group of investors selected by both the government and ING Barings. The cabinet spent more than a month trying to persuade ING Barings to allow it to pay off 20 percent of the bond and convert the rest into three-year bonds. The bank did not agree to restructure the debt because it had resold the Ukrainian bond to other investors and would have had to persuade them to reschedule as well, AP reported. JM FINNISH FOREIGN MINISTER IN BALTIC STATES. Tarja Halonen made a whirlwind tour of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania on 14 July. After meeting with Estonian Foreign Minister Toomas Hendrik Ilves, she hinted that Latvia and Lithuania may be invited to EU accession negotiations later this year: "One shouldn't be taking rumors seriously, but I have heard as preliminary information that Latvia and Lithuania have done well," BNS quoted her as saying. In Riga, Halonen called on President Vaira Vike-Freiberga not to sign the controversial language law (see below). And in Vilnius, referring to the reported linkage between Lithuania's EU chances and the fate of the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, Halonen said it is "reasonable to take account of member states' viewpoint" since the decision on negotiations must be unanimous among all EU states, according to ELTA. Finland currently holds the rotating EU presidency. MH LATVIAN LANGUAGE LAW SENT BACK TO PARLIAMENT. President Vaira Vike-Freiberga sent back the controversial language law to the parliament late on 14 July. LETA reported that the president objected to seven points, which she said must be legally precise. She noted that the decision to send back the bill was "difficult." LETA commented that a parliamentary committee must review the objections made by Vike-Freiberga, but if the parliament rejects those objections, she must promulgate the law. The law, which governs language usage, has received negative assessments from the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the European Commission, and others for provisions on the private sector and public gatherings (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 7 July 1999). The law originally passed overwhelmingly last week by a 73 to 16 vote. MH LITHUANIAN SOCIAL SECURITY FUND BORROWS AGAIN. The Lithuanian social insurance fund SODRA has received yet another guarantee from the government of additional borrowing. The fund, which is mired in financial difficulties, currently owes 184 million litas ($46 million) to commercial banks, ELTA reported. The government order will help the fund obtain a 20 million litas loan to be used for pensions and other payments. It is estimated that the fund's deficit will reach 350 million litas by year's end. MH POLISH GENERAL STAFF REORGANIZED. Defense Minister Janusz Onyszkiewicz on 14 July signed new Defense Ministry regulations to introduce "far-reaching changes" in the General Staff so that it can better cooperate with NATO, PAP reported. According to those regulations, the General Staff is a planning rather than command body, and the number of the staff's generals dropped from 47 to 28. "Rzeczpospolita" commented on 15 July that the new regulations do not affect the General Staff chief, who, according to the law on the Defense Ministry, commands the armed forces on behalf of the defense minister. JM CZECH PREMIER CONSIDERING CABINET RESHUFFLE. Milos Zeman on 14 July said after meeting with President Vaclav Havel that he is considering a reshuffle of the cabinet and has briefed the president on his ideas, Reuters reported. Zeman said the changes could be announced around 22 July, on the first anniversary of his minority Social Democrat (CSSD) government. After meeting with Zeman, Havel received Finance Minister Ivo Svoboda, who has often been at odds with other cabinet members. CTK, citing anonymous sources, said that apart from Svoboda, cabinet members who may be replaced are Industry and Trade Minister Miroslav Gregr, Health Minister Ivan David, and Transportation and Communication Minister Antonin Peltram. MS CZECH PRESIDENT OBJECTS TO PLANS TO CURTAIL PREROGATIVES. Havel told journalists on 14 July that he has "reservations" about the plan by a joint commission of the CSSD and the opposition Civic Democratic Party to curtail presidential prerogatives. Havel said that reducing the right of the president to grant judicial pardons amounted to "systematic nonsense." He also said that introducing the constitutional duty of the head of state to appoint the leader of the largest parliamentary group to form a new government after elections would signal "mistrust in the president's common sense." He spoke after Zeman briefed him on the planned changes. MS SLOVAK HUNGARIAN ETHNIC PARTY WANTS SCHUSTER TO RETURN LAW TO PARLIAMENT. Leaders of the Hungarian Coalition Party (SMK) on 14 July called on President Rudolf Schuster not to promulgate the minority language law passed by the legislature last week but to return it to the parliament. Schuster, who met with the SMK leaders within the framework of meetings with all parliamentary party groups, pledged to set up a team of experts and decide on the issue after receiving their advice, CTK reported. MS HUNGARY TO MAKE MORE ARMED FORCES CUTS. Prime Minister Viktor Orban told Hungarian Radio on 14 July that a resolution recently approved by the government and kept secret till now stipulates that the military must undergo further change. "Due to expenditures that occurred during the Kosova crisis, the armed forces have reached the limit of their spending," he said, adding that "development projects promised upon accession to NATO have been halted." "Nepszabadsag" reported that the government intends to reduce the armed forces to 35,000- 40,000 from the present 55,000. In other news, the Defense Ministry has banned the staff of its Strategic and Defense Research Institute from publishing, after some analysts released articles critical of NATO's air strikes in Yugoslavia, "Vilaggazdasag" reported on 15 July. MSZ/MS HUNGARY'S SOCIALISTS SUBMIT BILL ON PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. The opposition Hungarian Socialist Party (MSZP) submitted to the parliament on 14 July a motion to amend the constitution to allow direct presidential elections. Other parliamentary parties had indicated earlier that they will not support the motion. MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE RUGOVA RETURNS TO KOSOVA. Kosovar shadow-state President Ibrahim Rugova returned to Kosova from Italy via Macedonia on 15 July, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from the scene. Several thousand onlookers cheered and chanted "Rugova, Rugova" when he crossed into Kosova in a convoy of four diplomatic vehicles. He told his well- wishers that he is very happy to be entering a "free Kosova" with an international presence. He said he will work to rebuild Kosova's democratic and economic life and to obtain independence for the province. The previous day, Rugova's adviser, Alush Gashi, told RFE/RL's South Slavic Service that Rugova's "first meeting will be with UN Special Representative Sergio Vieira de Mello. Afterward, [he will meet his] Democratic League of Kosova's [LDK] leaders in Prishtina [and] give a press conference." Gashi stressed that "Rugova, as the founder of the LDK and the first president of the Republic of Kosova...is the most beloved and honored citizen of the republic.... I believe that his reception will...help Kosova move ahead." FS ARBOUR CONFIDENT MILOSEVIC WILL END UP IN THE HAGUE. Louise Arbour, who is the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia's chief prosecutor, said in Prishtina on 13 July that "we have launched a process that is irreversible. There is now an indictment issued by an international body that has the force of law," an RFE/RL South Slavic Service correspondent reported. She added: "I can assure you that...while Mr. Milosevic thought that he could keep me out of Kosova [in January], he will not be able to keep himself out of The Hague." Arbour met with KFOR commander General Sir Mike Jackson, Vieira de Mello, and international war crimes investigators to discuss cooperation between the tribunal, KFOR, and local courts. On 14 July, she visited a massacre site in Celina, where British forensic specialists recently discovered the bodies of 21 people, including 11 children and seven women, shot dead at close range. FS ALBANIA, GREECE, MACEDONIA COORDINATE STABILITY PACT PROJECTS. Foreign Ministers Georgios Papandreou (Greece), Paskal Milo (Albania), and Aleksandar Dimitrov (Macedonia) met on the island of Agios Ahilios, Lake Prespa, on 14 July and agreed to present several joint projects at the Balkan stability pact summit in Sarajevo on 29 and 30 July. The projects include a pilot program allowing local residents easier cross-border travel in a 20 kilometer-wide border area within each country. Papandreou said that the program aims at allowing residents "more ability to travel...while making sure we are strict on border crime and illegal immigration," AP reported. The ministers also pledged to launch annual joint meetings of the three countries' prime ministers. Milo told an RFE/RL South Slavic Service correspondent in Tirana after the meeting that other projects on the agenda involve the development of road and rail transport, telecommunications, and energy supplies. FS ALBANIAN HIJACKS GREEK BUS AFTER POLICE ALLEGEDLY DESTROY HIS DOCUMENTS. An Albanian immigrant armed with hand grenades hijacked a bus carrying 50 passengers near Thessaloniki on 14 July. He released all but eight people and forced the driver to drive close to the Albanian border near Florina. A stand-off with police continued there on 15 July. The man told Greek television by mobile telephone: "I have been in the country for nine years without doing anything bad, but recently [the police] picked me up to deport me. They beat me." He added that he no longer has access to his bank account because the police destroyed his documents. The man demands safe passage to Albania, $780,000 in ransom, and two automatic weapons. Police stepped up checks on Albanian immigrants after a similar hijacking in May (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 31 May 1999). FS NO PROGRESS IN BELGRADE-PODGORICA TALKS. The first day of talks between Serbian and Montenegrin political leaders on the future of the Yugoslav federation ended without result, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported from Belgrade on 14 July (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 14 July 1999). Spokesmen for the governing Socialist Party of Serbia (SPS) of Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic and the United Yugoslav Left (JUL) of his wife, Mira Markovic, said the Montenegrin delegation did not present any new or concrete proposals for discussion. PM DJUKANOVIC: MONTENEGRO WILL BE EQUAL TO SERBIA OR INDEPENDENT. Montenegrin President Milo Djukanovic said in Ringelia, Norway, on 14 July that "what we have proposed to the Serbs is a platform for a redefinition of our relations on a new, democratic basis. We hope they will responsibly consider the proposal and give a reply." Djukanovic stressed that he hopes Montenegro will become a complete equal of Serbia in a "democratic Yugoslavia." He added, however, that "the issue of independence for Montenegro will be...an inevitable alternative" if the Serbs do not agree to democracy and equality. The population of Serbia is more than 10 times that of Montenegro. PM TENSIONS CONTINUE BETWEEN PODGORICA, ARMY. Djukanovic said that any leading Yugoslav army officers who committed war crimes should be "legally held accountable," RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported from Podgorica on 14 July. Elsewhere, the Montenegrin cabinet said in a statement that unnamed army commanders stationed in Montenegro recently violated the principle of civilian control over the military by publicly criticizing several policies of the Montenegrin government. The statement added that the army acted illegally when, "on Belgrade's orders," it recently confiscated deliveries of humanitarian aid to Montenegro from abroad. PM DEMONSTRATION IN SUBOTICA. Some 5,000 people attended a rally in the Vojvodina town of Subotica on 14 July to call for Milosevic's resignation. In Valjevo, a local court sentenced two participants in a recent scuffle with police to five and 10 days in jail, respectively. In Leskovac, a local court continued proceedings against nine anti-Milosevic protesters for allegedly damaging the home of the pro-Milosevic mayor in a recent demonstration, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. In Cacak, police confiscated the tape of a RFE/RL correspondent who was covering opposition activities in that town, the independent daily "Danas" reported. Elsewhere, General Nebojsa Pavkovic, who commands the troops in southern Serbia, said that the army remains loyal to Milosevic, who is its commander-in-chief, the BBC's Serbian Service reported. PM IS MILOSEVIC PLANNING TO CHANGE THE ELECTION LAW? Vuk Draskovic, who is the mercurial leader of the Serbian Renewal Movement, said in Belgrade that Milosevic will soon try to change the electoral system from that of proportional representation to one based on the principle of first-past-the-post, "The Daily Telegraph" reported on 15 July. The changes would enable him to rout the divided opposition in local elections by combining the votes of the SPS, JUL, and Vojislav Seselj's Radicals. Draskovic charged that the proposed changes indicate that Milosevic will "fight" to remain in power and that the result could be "civil war." PM DID ARKAN SEEK TO PLEA-BARGAIN? Indicted war criminal Zeljko Raznatovic "Arkan" recently contacted Belgian police through his lawyer to see if the Hague-based war crimes tribunal would reduce the charges against him if he agreed to testify against Milosevic, the "Berliner Zeitung" reported on 14 July (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 14 July 1999). Belgian officials confirmed that Arkan had contacted them, but they provided no details. The officials said that they told Arkan that the war crimes tribunal does not engage in plea-bargaining and that they have not heard from him since. Arkan told journalists by telephone that the story is "crazy," Reuters reported. London's "The Independent" wrote on 15 July that the story suggests that "senior figures in the Milosevic regime are thinking hard about life after the fall of their president and protector." PM SERBIAN RADIO BROADCASTS RFE/RL PROGRAMS 'BY MISTAKE.' Radio Majdanpek, which is part of the network of state- run Radio-Television Serbia (RTS), rebroadcast programs of RFE/RL and the VOA on 13 July, the private Beta news agency reported from Belgrade the following day. A spokesman for Radio Majdanpek told Beta that the rebroadcasting was done "by mistake" and that the transmission began "automatically" when Radio Majdanpek finished its own program. He did not elaborate. Beta added that the station's officials do not expect the authorities to punish them for the rebroadcasting, which is illegal under a 1998 Serbian law. Beta noted, however, that Radio Majdanpek will henceforth broadcast only programs of RTS once it has finished transmitting its own material. Majdanpek is located east of Belgrade near the Romanian frontier. PM CROATIAN PRIME MINISTER CANCELS TRIP TO SLOVENIA. Prime Minister Zlatko Matesa cancelled a trip to Slovenia scheduled for 14 July, the state-run news agency Hina reported. The reason was that Croatian and Slovenian officials have still not reached an agreement on the use of power produced by the two countries' joint nuclear power plant in Krsko, Slovenia. The funding, management, and use of Krsko is one of the questions that have bedeviled Croatian-Slovenian relations since 1991, when the two countries became independent. PM ROMANIA SAYS LOSSES FROM YUGOSLAV EMBARGO TO TOTAL NEARLY $1 BILLION. Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Simona Miculescu told journalists on 14 July that the losses suffered by the Romanian economy as a result of the NATO campaign against Yugoslavia now total $245 million and will total $915 million by year's end, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. The same day, Prime Minister Radu Vasile said Romania "fully implements" the EU oil embargo against Yugoslavia. He noted that Romania has "demonstrated her solidarity" with NATO and that the time has come for the alliance to "demonstrate in turn its solidarity" with the countries of the region that suffered losses owing to the campaign," Mediafax reported. MS ROMANIAN PRESIDENT EXPLAINS CRITICISM OF NATO, EU. Emil Constantinescu on 14 July said his criticism of NATO and the EU one day earlier (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 14 July 1999) is credible precisely because it comes from "someone who has clearly made public his pro-Western partisanship." Constantinescu was responding to remarks by his predecessor, Ion Iliescu, who had said earlier the same day that the presidents 13 July remarks were "pertinent, but tardy," Mediafax reported. Constantinescu's criticism of Western "double-standard" policies discriminating against his country has met with virtually unanimous approval among Romania's politicians. MS MOLDOVAN OPPOSITION TO RECEIVE DEPUTY PARLIAMENT CHAIR? Parliamentary chairman Dumitru Diacov on 14 July said he "does not rule out" that the post of deputy chairman that has been vacant since the recent dismissal of Party of Democratic Forces (PFD) leader Valeriu Matei may be filled by a member of the Party of Moldovan Communists. Diacov said there would be "nothing unusual" about such a scenario, as in many countries the opposition is granted a parliamentary deputy chairmanship. He added that the Alliance for Democracy and Reform has "ceased to exist" owing to the behavior of Christian Democratic Popular Front leader Iurie Rosca (who last week denounced Diacov's "Mafioso activities") and that his own For a Democratic and Prosperous Moldova Bloc is debating Rosca's dismissal from the other deputy parliamentary chairmanship. MS MOLDOVAN PARTY SEES PARLIAMENTARY GROUP SHRINK. The parliamentary group of the PFD became the smallest in the legislature on 14 July, after deputies Gheorghe Straisteanu and Anatol Dubrovschi announced that they have left the party because they can "no longer tolerate [its] dictatorial methods." Before that announcement, PFD deputy chairman Vasile Soimaru said the two were expelled from the PFD at a meeting of the party's Council on 11 July. The PFD now has only nine deputies, but one of the members of its parliamentary group, Ilie Ilascu, has been elected while being detained in Tiraspol. MS BULGARIA BOWING TO ARAB LEAGUE BOYCOTT? The private Bulgarian airline Via Air began regular flights from Varna to Sofia on 14 July, after receiving assurances from the Bulgarian authorities that it is 100 percent Bulgarian," AP reported. Lebanon has canceled landing rights for the Bulgarian national airline Balkan Air after an Israeli consortium bought a 75 percent stake in the airline. On 13 July, BTA reported that Deputy Transport Minister Apik Garabedian and Liudmil Spasov, head of the Foreign Ministry's Middle East department, conducted talks in Beirut on the revoking of those landing rights. The agency said one of the possibilities examined by the Lebanese authorities was allowing a different Bulgarian carrier to take over the landing rights. Garabedian is also to conduct talks with the Syrian authorities following Damascus's decision to revoke Balkan Air's landing rights. MS END NOTE MOLDOVA AND THE PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM: LITTLE COUNTRY, BIG QUESTION By Michael Shafir Moldovan President Petru Lucinschi seems determined to change the country's constitutional makeup and introduce a full-fledged presidential system. Under the current basic law, the Moldovan system is half-way between a parliamentary system and a semi-presidential one. In his quest, Lucinschi is encountering the resistance of the legislature. It may be too early to predict the outcome of the confrontation. But whatever that outcome, the issue is one that needs to be evaluated from a considerably broader perspective than that offered by the specific Moldovan case. The question is which system, the presidential or the parliamentary, better serves democracy. In a speech delivered to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 25 June, Lucinschi explained that in the last eight years, Moldova has had seven governments. As a result of this political instability, he said, economic reforms have been stalled or only partly implemented, demonstrating the governments' inefficiency. But if presidential systems were a guarantee for efficiency, Latin American countries would surely head the list of states with efficient governments. Furthermore, an efficient government is not necessarily a democratic one, as many authoritarian systems proved. The governments' inefficiency, according to Lucinschi, reflected the divisions within coalition governments that had to reflect the parliament's makeup as well as "destructive divisions" between the legislature and the successive cabinets. That argument is false for two reasons. First, a "unified" government is no guarantee that economic reform will be implemented. To do so, it must also be "reform-minded." In the previous legislature, the Agrarian Democratic Party had an absolute majority but that state of affairs did not advance reforms. Second, and more important, attacks on "destructive divisions" are part and parcel of the political discourse of those who consider democracy itself to be "divisive." Without necessarily attributing such beliefs to the Moldovan president, it may be appropriate to recall a former "transitional" president's statement that "the presidential system is a kind of lottery and to a great extent depends on the personal characteristics of the man elected." The statement was made in 1993 by Poland's former president, General Wojciech Jaruzelski. If that statement is correct, is not the switch to a presidential system too dangerous to contemplate? Needless to say, Jaruzelski can hardly be taken as a yardstick, since there are too many examples of systems that developed precisely in the opposite direction to that which Polish society enforced on its former president. Western political leaders would be well advised to refrain from answering such questions. For them, much is at stake, which may explain why the West supported the constitutional referendum in Russia in 1993. But how many politicians took into account that Yeltsin's successor may be called Gennadii Zyuganov? If the question were addressed to political scientists, on the other hand, the answer would likely be substantially different as well as particularly pertinent for "transitional democracies." According to political scientists Juan Linz and Alfred Stepan, democratic consolidation is advanced by parliamentarism, rather than by a presidential system. Available data show that of the 41 countries in the world that experienced a democratic system for 10 consecutive years between 1981 and 1990, 30 were parliamentary systems, seven had a semi-presidential system, and only four were presidential systems of the U.S. type. But as two British political scientists, Karen Henderson and Neil Robinson note, in the post-communist context, the tendency toward presidentialism increases as one moves eastward, from the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovakia, and Slovenia, to Bulgaria, Poland, and Romania and further to the former Yugoslavia. The tendency then "takes off" in what is now the CIS, to which Moldova belongs. Lucinschi's drive thus fits into this pattern. This leads to the question of "under what circumstances." Historical legacies cannot be easily wiped out and, as Henderson and Robinson show, the stronger the tendency toward presidentialism, the weaker the civil society and the weaker the civil society, the stronger the urge for a so-called "delegative democracy," where checks on those holding power function during (but not between) elections and in which the electorate tends to pin its hopes on some kind of "savior figure." Little Moldova is indeed confronted with a big question, but not one that cannot be answered. If "historical circumstances" make the presidential system efficient and functional on the other side of the Atlantic, one would be well advised to remember that the U.S. is more of an exception than the rule. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message. 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