Человек никогда не бывает так несчастен, как ему кажется, или так счастлив, как ему хочется. - Ф. Ларошфуко
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 121, Part II, 22 June 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 3, No. 121, Part II, 22 June 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part II

* U.S., EU PLEDGE HELP IN FUNDING UKRAINE'S ENERGY
SECTOR

* BELGRADE BANS PROTESTS

* CLINTON HAILS SLOVENIAN MODEL

END NOTE: HAVEL--THE PEOPLES OF THE BALKANS MUST DECIDE
THEIR OWN FATE
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

BELARUSIAN POPULAR FRONT TO HOLD CONGRESS ON 31 JULY.
The opposition Belarusian Popular Front (BNF) has
decided to hold its congress on 31 July-1 August in
Minsk. According to an RFE/RL correspondent in Minsk,
the congress will be "heated" because it is widely
expected to address changes in the BNF leadership. Some
prominent BNF activists have disagreed with BNF exiled
leader Zyanon Paznyak's decision to withdraw from the
opposition presidential elections in May, claiming that
Paznyak harmed not only his organization but the entire
opposition to President Alyaksandr Lukashenka in
Belarus. JM

U.S., EU PLEDGE HELP IN FUNDING UKRAINE'S ENERGY SECTOR.
In a joint statement after talks in Bonn on 21 June,
U.S. President Bill Clinton, German Chancellor Gerhard
Schroeder, and European Commission President Jacques
Santer stressed their commitment to help Ukraine obtain
funds for its energy sector as compensation for closing
the Chornobyl nuclear plant, dpa reported. The
statement, however, did not mention any new grants or
credits. The three leaders called on Ukrainian President
Leonid Kuchma to push forward with reforms, including
the privatization of large industries and reforms in the
agricultural and energy sectors. The statement also
stressed the need to ensure free and fair presidential
elections and to protect media freedom in Ukraine. JM

SMOOTH SAILING FOR ESTONIAN BUDGET? The parliamentary
opposition appears to have abandoned its delay tactics
against the government-sponsored negative supplemental
budget. When the second reading of the 1 billion kroon
($67 million) budget continued on 21 June, the
opposition chose to walk out of the chamber rather than
call 10-minute recesses after each of the more than 500
amendments they introduced. The ruling coalition managed
to wipe the amendments off the agenda during the
afternoon and passed the budget in the second reading.
Coalition parliamentarians called on the opposition to
discuss possible amendments to the bill, stating that
some had merits but the process should be constructive,
as reported by "Postimees." MH

TENDER FOR POWER LINK BETWEEN LITHUANIA AND WEST
COLLAPSES. Economics Minister Eugenijus Maldeikis
announced on 21 June that the tender for the
construction of a power link from Lithuania to the west
European grid has been canceled. The deadline for bids
was 21 June. Maldeikis said the tender conditions "were
unclear for many people, including ourselves" and they
will prepare "a new, transparent and clear-cut project
meeting western standards of international tenders,"
according to BNS. This is the second tender for the
project that has failed, as the first with the
PowerBridge consortium ground to a halt earlier this
year. A government report issued last week stated that
former Economics Minister Vincas Babilius organized the
tender badly. MH

LITHUANIAN EX-COMMUNISTS CALL FOR CELEBRATION OF PARTY'S
SOVIET BREAK. The left-wing Lithuanian Democratic Labor
Party (LDDP), the successor to the Lithuanian Communist
Party, called on the country to celebrate the 10th
anniversary of the historic break of the party's Moscow
links. On 18 December 1989, the Lithuanian Communist
Party (LKP) officially broke off from the CPSU
(Communist Party of the Soviet Union), triggering anger
from the Soviet leadership. LDDP chairman and
parliamentarian Ceslovas Jursenas stated: "[The]
separation of the LKP was one of the most important
steps [and] paved the way for [the] restoration of
Lithuanian independence," BNS reported. MH

POLISH NURSES RADICALIZE PROTEST OVER SALARIES, LAYOFFS.
The Nurses and Midwives Trade Union on 21 June decided
to step up its protest (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 15 June
1999) by barring entry to state administration offices
at the central and regional levels. The union demand
that the government pay higher salaries and halt massive
lay-offs in the health care service (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 28 April 1999). "We are very sorry that all
civilized methods of solving our problems have failed.
It took us 32 days of protests to realize that only
force, boorishness, and lawlessness is taken into
account [by the authorities]," the 22 June "Zycie
Warszawy" quoted a protesting nurse as saying. JM

POLISH PREMIER SAYS REPRIVATIZATION LAW TO MEET JEWISH
CLAIMS. Jerzy Buzek said on 21 June that he hopes a
reprivatization law that is currently being prepared
will address the claims of Holocaust survivors who filed
a class-action lawsuit against the Polish government in
New York last week. Eleven Holocaust survivors seek to
recover property their families owned in Poland before
World War II. Buzek said the recovery of assets
appropriated by the communist authorities concerns also
Polish citizens, adding that the government wants to
treat everybody equally. The current government pledged
to make reprivatization a priority issue but has so far
been unable to pass appropriate legislation. Tentative
plans for the reprivatization laws foresee that Poland
will hand back some $12 billion worth of property, with
another $20 billion being returned in alternate property
or shares in privatized companies. JM

CZECH RULING PARTY SUPPORTS CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE.
Social Democratic Party (CSSD) spokesman Jiri Hron on 20
June told CTK that CSSD deputies agree on raising the
number of electoral districts from the current eight to
36. The change was proposed by the Civic Democratic
Party (ODS) and is to be linked with changing the
electoral system from the present proportional to a
first-past-the-post system. Hron said the CSSD will
discuss with the ODS submission of a joint proposal to
amend the electoral law in the second half of 2000, and
that the change should come into effect in 2002. Jan
Kasal, chairman of the Christian Democratic Party, said
in reaction on 21 June that he understands why the ODS
wants to promote the amendment, but fails to see why the
CSSD wants to "commit political suicide," since the
change would transform it into a minor party. MS

CZECH KFOR UNIT TO LEAVE FOR KOSOVA. Foreign Minister
Jan Kavan on 21 June said a 126-strong Czech
reconnaissance unit will leave for Kosova on 28 June.
Kavan, who visited the soldiers preparing for their
mission in Prostejov, southern Moravia, said he believes
the unit is well prepared and will "confirm the
reputation won by the Czech battalion in Bosnia," CTK
reported. MS

FORMER SLOVAK INTERIOR MINISTER OFFICIALLY CHARGED. The
Bratislava Prosecutor General's office on 21 June
officially charged former Interior Minister Gustav
Krajci, now a deputy leader of the opposition Movement
for a Democratic Slovakia, in connection with his
involvement in hindering the May 1997 referendum on
Slovakia's NATO accession and direct presidential
elections. The office said Krajci deliberately ordered
the printing and stamping of ballot papers that did not
include the question on the presidential elections. He
is accused of abusing his office and forging official
documents, and faces three to ten years in prison if
found guilty, CTK reported. MS

SLOVAK NATIONALIST LEADER ATTACKS CZECH PRESIDENT,
SLOVAK DEFENSE MINISTER. Slovak National Party (SNS)
leader Jan Slota on 21 June blamed "that democrat, Mr.
Havel," for the breakup of the Czechoslovak secret
service in late 1989 and for the dismissal of "the best
of its [sic] agents," CTK reported. Slota was reacting
to the decision of Defense Minster Pavol Kanis one day
earlier to carry out personnel changes in the military
intelligence after allegations that in his capacity as
chairman of the parliament's committee overseeing those
services Slota leaked classified information to the
press. He said that he has only leaked information
"unequivocally proving" that Kanis was "re-Bolshevizing"
the ministry and that Kanis had "so many coats" that his
wardrobe "must be full of them." MS

HUNGARY WANTS TO BE CENTER FOR BALKAN RECONSTRUCTION.
Prime Minister Viktor Orban and President Arpad Goncz,
addressing a NATO workshop in Budapest on 21 June, said
the Hungarian capital can offer its infrastructure,
geographical proximity, and regional contacts for the
international reconstruction of Kosova. Orban urged NATO
to include Vojvodina in its peace plans, as interethnic
tensions in the province could grow because of the tens
of thousands of Serbs from Kosova fleeing northward. He
stressed that the autonomy plan envisaged by Budapest
for the region provides for setting up an ethnic-
Hungarian council to provide protection for the
Hungarian minority in case of a future conflict. NATO
Secretary-General Javier Solana also said that Budapest
would be "the most suitable" center for the region's
reconstruction, Hungarian media reported. MSZ/MS

GONCZ MEETS ROMANIAN DEFENSE MINISTER. President Goncz
on 21 June told visiting Romanian Defense Minister
Victor Babiuc that Hungary supports Romania's Euro-
Atlantic integration. Babiuc said at the NATO workshop
that "the Romanian government does not believe that any
parallel can be drawn between Kosovo and the Hungarian
minority in Romania." He said the cabinet does not fear
that ethnic Hungarians in Romania will emulate the
example of the Kosovar Albanians. "The history of Kosovo
cannot be repeated in Transylvania," Babiuc concluded,
Hungarian and Romanian media reported. MSZ/MS

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

BELGRADE BANS PROTESTS. Police on 21 June broke up a
demonstration in Belgrade by some 200 Kosova Serbs for
the second day in a row. Police spokesmen said that mass
gatherings are illegal under the legal "state of war,"
which remains in force in Yugoslavia. Two leaders of the
protests each received a 30-day jail sentence. Several
protesters told journalists that they had no choice but
to leave Kosova, that the authorities have done nothing
for them since they left, and that the authorities are
now trying to force them to return. An RFE/RL
correspondent reported from Belgrade that the protesters
want the UN to set up a civilian authority in Kosova as
soon as possible so that the Serbian refugees can go
back to their homes and not to Serbian government
refugee camps (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 21 June 1999).
Fewer than 2,000 Serbs have returned to Kosova under
government pressure in recent days. PM

SERBIAN OPPOSITION CALLS FOR PROTESTS. Spokesmen for the
Alliance for Change, which is a coalition of opposition
groups, said in Belgrade on 21 June that the opposition
will "gather in Cacak and Kraljevo [on 26 June] to
demand early elections on all levels, as well as freedom
of the media," "The New York Times" quoted Vladan Batic
as saying. Spokesman and Balkan affairs expert Milan
Protic added: "this is the last minute to reverse the
present political course in Serbia and to demand the
responsibility of those who have had unlimited power in
the decision-making process over the last 10 years." PM

GOVERNMENT NEWSCASTS MANDATORY. The Serbian authorities
recently began forcing all radio and television stations
to broadcast newscasts prepared by state-run Radio-
Television Serbia. The non-government Association of
Independent Electronic Media said in a statement in
Belgrade on 21 June that the move is illegal. PM

ARTEMIJE RETURNS TO KOSOVA. Bishop Artemije, who is the
leading Serbian Orthodox cleric in Kosova and an
opponent of Milosevic, returned to Kosova recently (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 16 June 1999). He appealed on 21 June
to an unspecified number of Serbian villagers at Velika
Hoca, near Rahovec, to stay. Accompanied by a British
army chaplain, he said that "NATO has brought safety and
security here." Artemije added that he intends to return
to his rectory in Prizren, Reuters reported. Unknown
persons looted and desecrated at least one Serbian
monastery complex in that area recently, the BBC
reported on 19 June. In Peja, some 50 Serbian refugees
returned under Italian KFOR escort from Montenegro on 21
June. PM

NATO TO ACCELERATE ORGANIZED REFUGEE RETURN. NATO
officials said in Durres on 21 June that they plan to
begin the organized return of refugees as early as 1
July, an RFE/RL South Slavic Service correspondent
reported. The return will be organized for those
refugees who have no means of transportation and who do
not prefer to wait until the situation in Kosova has
further stabilized. NATO is thus responding to the
large-scale unorganized refugee returns over the last
week. NATO will bring refugees from throughout Albania
to Kukes, from where about 5,000 people will travel
daily into Kosova accompanied by NATO forces. A UNHCR
spokeswoman said in Skopje on 21 June: "We are now aware
the desire to return is far greater than the threat of
insecurity...and we are trying to expedite things,"
indicating that an organized return from Macedonia could
start later this month. FS

KUKES CAMPS ALMOST EMPTY. A UNHCR spokesman told an
RFE/RL South Slavic Service correspondent in Tirana that
"the departures [from Kukes] have been enormous and
rapid. Two of the camps are officially closed,
[including] the Medecins sans Frontieres camp. Four
camps remain but with very few people." Most of the
estimated 6,500 remaining refugees are elderly. Only one
week earlier, there were about 100,000 refugees in
Kukes. Albanian public television began broadcasting
information spots about the danger of landmines, and
UNICEF has begun to distribute mine-awareness leaflets.
FS

GLIGOROV REJECTS THACI'S PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT.
Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov said in Prague on 21
June that "NATO forces [must] stay a certain time in
[Kosova] in order to create a situation in
which...democratic elections [can be held and]
representatives...elected [to] form legitimate bodies,"
CTK reported. Gligorov thus rejected the participation
of Hashim Thaci's provisional government in the new
civilian administration for Kosova. Macedonian Prime
Minister Ljubco Georgievski recognized Thaci's
provisional government last week (see "RFE/RL Newsline"
18 June 1999). FS

ANNAN APPOINTS TWO KOSOVA ADMINISTRATORS... A UN
spokesman said in New York on 21 June that Secretary-
General Kofi Annan has appointed Dominique Vian,
currently the prefect of French Guyana, as his deputy
special representative for interim civilian
administration in Kosova. Vian will be responsible for
various tasks, including police, telecommunications, and
public transport. Annan also appointed Dennis McNamara,
currently the UNHCR's special envoy for the region, as
his deputy special representative in charge of refugee
return and humanitarian assistance, AP reported. Under a
plan that Annan unveiled on 14 June, the UN
administration in Kosova will have four deputies serving
under a special representative. FS

...BUT NO SPECIAL REPRESENTATIVE. Annan said on 20 June
in Paris that his special representative for Kosova will
be a European, thus ending speculation about a possible
appointment of Jacques Klein, the U.S. deputy to the
international community's High Representative Carlos
Westendorp in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Currently, UN
Undersecretary-General Sergio Vieira de Mello of Brazil
holds that position, pending a final appointment. Also
open are the positions of the deputy special
representatives for reconstruction--to be filled by an
EU representative--and institution building, which will
go to the OSCE. Neither body has proposed its candidate.
FS

HAVEL CALLS FOR ACTION ON BALKANS... Czech President
Vaclav Havel told RFE/RL's South Slavic Service in
Prague on 21 June that he welcomes the international
community's decision to hold a series of conferences on
rebuilding the Balkans in the region itself (see "End
Note" below). He added that the first conference to be
held in Sarajevo next month could mark the beginning of
a stable peace and peaceful coexistence among the ethnic
groups of former Yugoslavia. They are proud peoples who
would not easily accept their fate being decided far
away, he said. Havel reiterated his intention of
visiting Kosova soon, saying he feels some
responsibility for the NATO bombing and wants to find
out what must be done to create normal, dignified living
conditions there. The president argued that the hard
task now facing the international community is to break
the "seemingly endless cycle of bloodshed, revenge and
counterrevenge." SW/PM

...WARNS ON MILOSEVIC. Havel also told RFE/RL's South
Slavic Service on 21 June that it will be very difficult
to restore peace and harmony to the Balkans while
Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic remains in power.
Havel recalled that Milosevic is the man behind four
Balkan wars over the past decade. Those conflicts
resulted in hundreds of thousands of deaths, and the
Hague-based war crimes tribunal has charged Milosevic
with atrocities over the actions of Serbian forces in
Kosova. SW/PM

SLOVENIA LAUDS NATO INTERVENTION... President Milan
Kucan and Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek praised their
guest, U.S. President Bill Clinton, for NATO's
intervention in Kosova. Speaking in Ljubljana on 21
June, Drnovsek said: "We have been witnessing a war that
was fought for the values that we want to defend and to
protect minorities. [It was a war that] was fought for
peace. [NATO used] force to protect the weakest, not to
give benefits and profits to the stronger. This is a
[vindication] for Slovenia, for our partnership and for
our role in this part of the world." PM

...WHILE CLINTON HAILS SLOVENIAN MODEL.
Clinton said in Ljubljana on 21 June that "the whole
world admires Slovenia's success in building freedom and
prosperity and now we look to you to play a crucial role
as we build a better future for all of Europe." He
called the Alpine republic "an excellent candidate for
NATO." Citing Slovenia's progress in moving from a
communist to a democratic system, the president added:
"Slovenia can lead the way [for other countries of the
region], and America will help." PM

CLINTON URGES SERBIA TO CHOOSE DEMOCRACY. The U.S.
president also said in Ljubljana on 21 June that "we
want Serbia to be a part of the new Europe, but Serbia
must reject the murderous rule of Mr. Milosevic and
choose the path that Slovenia has chosen, where people
reach across the old divides, and find strength in their
differences and their common humanity." Clinton noted
that Serbia will not receive "a penny" in reconstruction
aid so long as Milosevic remains in power. He added that
he "can't wait for the day" that a democratic leader
replaces the indicted war criminal. Clinton also
appealed to ethnic Albanians not to take revenge on the
Serbs of Kosova. Elsewhere, White House spokesman Joe
Lockhart said that NATO hopes that domestic support for
Milosevic will wane once Serbs come to realize "the real
truth of what went on" in Kosova since the spring. PM

U.S. SUPPORT FOR DJUKANOVIC. During his stay in
Ljubljana on 21 June, Clinton met with Montenegrin
President Milo Djukanovic, who is a staunch opponent of
Milosevic and who seeks to democratize Yugoslavia.
Clinton's spokesman Lockhart noted that Washington wants
to show "our support for democratic efforts in
Montenegro and our willingness to work" with democrats
there. Lockhart added that "we need to make sure that
the democratic movement there is fostered and the moves
that [Djukanovic] has taken are rewarded rather than
punished. But it is a difficult issue because clearly
aid to Montenegro could have the ability to aid Serbia."
Both the U.S. and the U.K. firmly reject any aid to
Serbia so long as Milosevic remains in office. PM

ROMANIAN POLL RECONFIRMS OPPOSITION LEAD. A public
opinion poll conducted by the Center for Public Opinion
and Marketing Research (CSOP) reconfirms the lead of
former President Ion Iliescu and his Party of Social
Democracy in Romania (PDSR) (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 9
June 1999). The poll indicates that if elections were to
be conducted now, Iliescu would garner 38 percent of the
votes, followed by incumbent President Emil
Constantinescu (20 percent), Alliance for Romania Party
(PAR) leader Teodor Melescanu (15 percent), and Greater
Romania Party (PRM) chairman Corneliu Vadim Tudor (7
percent). In party preferences, the PDSR (37 percent) is
ahead of the Democratic Convention of Romania (24
percent), the APR (10 percent), the Democratic Party (9
percent), and the PRM (8 percent). Nearly half of the
respondents (47 percent), however, said they would not
know for whom to vote, Mediafax reported. MS

ROMANIAN RULING ALLIANCE AT A CROSSROAD? National
Liberal Party (PNL) vice chairman Paul Pacuraru on 21
June rejected as "unacceptable" a proposal from the
National Peasant Party Christian Democratic (PNTCD) for
overcoming the conflict in the Democratic Convention of
Romania (CDR). The PNTCD proposed that before the local
elections, the CDR reregister as a two-party alliance,
namely of itself and the Romanian Ecologist Party (PER).
This would make it possible to meet the PNL's wish to
run on separate lists in the local elections. Before the
general elections, the CDR would reregister as an
alliance including the PNTCD, the PNL, and the PER,
which would merge with the Romanian Ecologist
Federation. The four-party alliance would thus be
reduced to three, lowering the electoral threshold from
14 to 11 percent, PNTCD chairman Ion Diaconescu said. MS

ROMANIA WANTS DAM, NOT BRIDGE, OVER DANUBE.
Transportation Minister Traian Basescu said on 21 June
that Romania will propose the construction of a dam over
the Danube River within the Western-led plans for Balkan
reconstruction, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported.
Basescu said the dam would be an alternative to the
Bulgarian plan for constructing a second Danube-crossing
bridge between Vidin and Calafat and would be more
advantageous as it could ease train and road traffic
over the river and also provide an alternative source of
power to Bulgaria's controversial Kozloduy nuclear
plant. MS

PRO-PRESIDENTIAL PARTY WANTS LUCINSCHI TO RUN FOR SECOND
TERM. "If Petru Lucinschi decides to run for another
term [as president] in 2000, the Movement for a
Democratic and Prosperous Moldova [that] I have the
honor to head will back him," parliament chairman
Dumitru Diacov told journalists on 21 June. Diacov
refuted rumors that he himself or Premier Ion Sturza
intend to run for president in the next elections,
Infotag reported. Also on 21 June, presidential
spokesman Anatol Golea told journalists in Chisinau that
Lucinschi considers the achievements of the cabinet
headed by Sturza after 100 days in office to be "rather
modest" and that the president intends to pursue his
drive for a change of the parliamentary system to a
presidential one. MS

LUCINSCHI MEETS NEW OSCE MISSION CHIEF. Meeting William
Hill, the new head of the OSCE mission to Moldova on 21
June, Lucinschi said he hopes the OSCE will become more
actively involved in the process of alleviating tensions
and fighting separatist tendencies all over Europe and
added that he is optimistic about finding a solution to
the conflict with the Transdniester separatists.
According to a press release from the presidential
office cited by Flux, Lucinschi said his optimism is
based on the results of his last meetings with
separatist leader Igor Smirnov and other Transdniester
officials. MS

CHIEF U.S. DIPLOMAT IN BULGARIA. U.S. Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright met in Sofia on 22 June with
President Petar Stoyanov, Prime Minister Ivan Kostov,
Foreign Minister Nadezhda Mihailova, and other members
of the cabinet, an RFE/RL correspondent reported.
Albright told Stoyanov that the U.S. values Bulgaria's
stand on the Kosova conflict. Government spokeswoman
Nery Terzieva said Albright promised support for
Bulgarian reforms in response to Stoyanov's request that
his country be fully included in the future Stability
Pact for the Balkans. MS

BULGARIAN GOVERNMENT AGREES TO KFOR TROOPS TRANSIT. The
cabinet of Premier Ivan Kostov on 21 June approved the
transit of KFOR troops through Bulgarian territory, BTA
reported. The decision has yet to be approved by the
parliament (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 21 June 1999). The
draft agreement approved by the cabinet envisages
transit passage by air, land, and through ports, and
includes access and stopovers by troops, equipment, and
logistic supplies. Also on 21 June, chief of staff
General Mikho Mikhov visited the headquarters of NATO's
Cooperative Partner '99 exercises taking place near
Varna and said the event is a "step forward" in
achieving Bulgarian military interoperability with NATO.
MS

BULGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER SUMS UP CHINA VISIT. Upon
returning to Sofia after a five-day visit to China,
Foreign Minister Nadezhda Mihailova said on 20 June that
the visit had confirmed mutual interest in "the
promotion of bilateral relations" and a "dramatic
dynamism of reforms in both countries, BTA reported.
Mihailova briefed journalists on her meetings with
Premier Zhu Rongji, Foreign Minister Tang Jiaxuan and
other officials. She said both sides concurred on the
need to improve bilateral trade and insisted that
Bulgaria will welcome Chinese investment. MS

END NOTE

HAVEL--THE PEOPLES OF THE BALKANS MUST DECIDE THEIR OWN
FATE

Remarks by Czech President Vaclav Havel to RFE/RL's
South Slavic Service on 21 June 1999.

	I believe unequivocally that human rights take
precedence over state sovereignty. Man is the creation
of God and has existed tens of thousands of years. The
state is the creation of man and is an administrative
unit existing several hundred years in the form we know
today. It seems that in the future, in the next
millennium, in view of the global nature of our
civilization and other factors, the importance of people
and their rights will grow in significance over the
rights of the state.
	Many functions now carried out by the state will in
the future be handled at a lower level by various civic
groups, others will become functions of higher, super-
national or transregional units, as is now taking place
within the European Union. ...
	It's absolute nonsense to criticize bombing as one
evil trying to stop another evil, namely ethnic
cleansing. Alas, the world is such, and people are such
that evil has to be checked with fire and sword--evil
must be met by force. That's why all countries except
Costa Rica have armies. That's the way the world is. In
this case, a great evil was met with the relatively
least of evils. Not one of the critics offered a better
solution, except one Czech who said: "Let them all
murder each other, and we should take no notice."
	If a government takes over a state as in
Yugoslavia, the only way to check its evil is to destroy
the structures that support it. That means military
structures, transport, communications, and others that
serve the regime. NATO conducted thousands of raids and
hit some civilian targets, regrettably killing innocent
civilians. But compared to most previous wars, the
percentage of innocent victims was relatively small.
	It's hard for me to imagine that peace and
stability can be established while [Yugoslav President
Slobodan] Milosevic remains in power. He was behind
several Balkan wars now for more than a decade,
resulting in thousands of deaths.
	I am afraid that with him it would be very hard to
build a good peace based on justice and civic co-
existence, all the more because he stands accused by the
Hague-based war crimes tribunal. This is a court that
has no political biases, because it was created by the
United Nations on the decision of the Security Council,
with the agreement of both the Russian Federation and
China.
	I think that an earlier intervention might have
meant fewer victims in this past decade and the bombing
need not have been so devastating. ...Of course that's
hindsight, and everyone is a general after a battle.
	NATO must do all it can to create confidence in the
international civil administration or protectorate that
will be established in Kosova so that people will trust
the law and order forces there sufficiently for some
Serbs to return to the region, just as some ethnic
Albanians are now returning.
	That is the great task before us. The question is
what will be done now and will happen now.
	There is an endless circle of blood and revenge
that must be broken. That is an unusually hard and
difficult task. It's hard to explain to Kosova
Albanians, who were forced out of their homes at
gunpoint. I spoke to some of them in refugee camps, and
they said: "We were told you must leave in three minutes
or you will be shot and you can take only what you can
carry." They thus had to leave with no food, no clothes,
nothing. They then had to witness their homes being
looted and burned. It is hard to explain [to them] that
now that they are back, they cannot steal from abandoned
Serbian homes.
	Nevertheless, it is the duty of the international
community to try to do this and stop this endless circle
of bloodshed, revenge, and settling of accounts.
	Kosova must decide its future--by referendum or
election--not now, but after heads have cooled and can
make reasoned decisions. I think at least three years
should go by in negotiations. Then, calmly and sensibly,
the decision can be made--but it has to be by Kosovars
themselves.
	I feel some responsibility for the intervention of
NATO and the international community in Yugoslavia and
Kosova. The action had only one goal, namely to create
conditions for civic co-existence and democratic
development, as well as to stop human rights violations,
murders, and massacres. I feel responsibility for the
action and what it led to, regardless of whether or not
it achieved its goal. That is why I want to visit Kosova
and find out what must be done further to achieve that
aim, if it hasn't already been achieved.
	One can't create a situation through bombing and
then lose interest in the situation. On the contrary,
now is the time to get interested. The bombing was not
an end in itself but merely the means to create
conditions for people to live in dignity.
	The international community must do all within its
power to make the Balkans a region of peace and peaceful
co-existence among ethnic groups. A beginning could be
the planned conferences in the region: the first is
supposed to held in Sarajevo. I welcomed the news
because I have been saying from the beginning that one
cannot decide the Balkans' future in Alaska or
Washington or Paris or Moscow. The conferences have to
be there in the Balkans. These are proud peoples who
would not easily tolerate their fate being decided far
away.

(Translated from the Czech by Sonia Winter)
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word subscribe as the subject of the message.

HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message.

For subscription problems or inquiries, please email
allenm@rferl.org
________________________________________________
CURRENT AND BACK ISSUES ON THE WEB
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/
_________________________________________________
LISTEN TO NEWS FOR 25 COUNTRIES
RFE/RL programs are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour
LIVE Broadcast Studio.
http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html
_________________________________________________
REPRINT POLICY
To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble
via email at GobleP@rferl.org or fax at 202-457-6992
_________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE STAFF
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org
* Julie A. Corwin, CorwinJ@rferl.org
* Jan Maksymiuk, MaksymiukJ@rferl.org
* Fabian Schmidt, SchmidtF@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org

FREE-LANCE AND OCCASIONAL CONTRIBUTORS
* Pete Baumgartner, Jeremy Branston, Victor Gomez, Mel
Huang, Dan Ionescu, Zsolt-Istvan Mato, Jolyon Naegele,
Matyas Szabo, Anthony Wesolowsky

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
_________________________________________________
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

Домашняя страницаж ° Комментарии ° Книга гостей


©1996 "Друзья и Партнеры"
Наташа Булашова,Грег Коул
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Основные разделы
Домашняя страница
Bulletin Board
Беседка
Листсервер Друзья и Партнеры

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Поиск

Новости
Новости из России и СНГ
Новости о России и СНГ
Газеты и журналы
Прочие новости
Погода


©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole