A man should never be ashamed to own he has been in the wrong, which is but saying, in other words, that he is wiser today than he was yesterday. - Jonathan Swift
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 99, Part II, 21 May 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 99, Part II, 21 May 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part II

* U.S. DEPLORES SUPPRESSION OF DISSENT IN BELARUS

* ALBRIGHT SEES NATO, RUSSIA EDGING CLOSER

* CACAK CITIZENS CALL ON MILOSEVIC TO END THE WAR

End Note: SHADOW ELECTIONS IN BELARUS
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

INTERNATIONAL 'PLANS' SEEN BEHIND BELARUS'S ECONOMIC
WOES. Belarusian Deputy Prime Minister Leanid Kozik told
the National Assembly on 20 May that Belarus's economic
crises in March and August 1998 resulted from deliberate
efforts "conducted in accordance with plans worked out
in some states of the world," Belapan reported.
According to Kozik, those efforts were aimed at
"undermining [Belarus's] people-oriented socio-economic
policy." He added that in August 1998, the international
forces behind those efforts "sacrificed even the
interests of the Russian Federation...in order to
destroy the economy of the Republic of Belarus and
prevent the further integration of the two states." JM

U.S. DEPLORES SUPPRESSION OF DISSENT IN BELARUS. The
U.S. on 20 May deplored the Belarusian authorities'
attempts to stop the opposition's efforts to hold
alternative presidential elections. "[The elections]
dramatized the constitutional and political impasse that
President Lukashenka created by overthrowing the
country's constitution in 1996 and by his suppression of
human rights," the U.S. State Department said. The
statement also accused Minsk of fabricating charges to
jail former Prime Minister Mikhail Chyhir and of
intending to close independent newspapers that reported
on the opposition elections. The State Department called
on the Belarusian government to change course and open
an unconditional dialogue with the democratic opposition
(see also "End Note"). JM

UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT TIGHTENS CONTROL OVER CENTRAL BANK.
The Supreme Council on 20 May approved a law on the
National Bank introducing a 14-member supervisory
council that will draft monetary policy guidelines, AP
reported. Half of the council will be appointed by the
parliament and the other half by the president. If the
National Bank and its chairman do not abide by the
policies drawn up by the council, the president is
authorized to ask the parliament to fire the country's
chief banker. National Bank Chairman Viktor Yushchenko
criticized the law, saying the bank "may no longer be
able to take responsibility for the stability of the
national currency. If the council has the most
authority, then logically it should bear the greatest
responsibility." The law must be approved by President
Leonid Kuchma. JM

COUNCIL OF EUROPE BODY MOVES TO SUSPEND UKRAINE. The
Monitoring Committee of the Council of Europe on 20 May
voted to suspend Ukraine's membership in the council
owing to the country's poor human rights record, Reuters
reported. The committee's decision opens the way for the
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe to vote
on Ukraine's suspension next month. The assembly had
announced in January that it would suspend Ukraine
unless the country made substantial progress on human
rights. The abolition of death penalty was one of its
requirements. JM

ESTONIAN PROSECUTOR APPEALS RULING IN FINANCE MINISTER'S
FAVOR. Prosecutor Jaan Naaber has appealed to the
Supreme Court against the acquittal of Finance Minister
Siim Kallas in the so-called $10 million affair, ETA
reported. Last month, a second court upheld a ruling by
the Tallinn Municipal Court clearing Kallas of fraud in
his former capacity as governor of the Central Bank in
1993 (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 9 March and 14 April 1999).
JC

ESTONIA, SLOVENIA SIGN DEFENSE COOPERATION AGREEMENT.
Meeting in Tallinn on 20 May, Slovenian Defense Minister
Franci Demsar and his Estonian counterpart, Juri Luik,
signed a framework agreement on defense cooperation,
Baltic media reported. BNS quoted Luik as saying that
the most important thing "Estonia should learn from
Slovenia's experience is long-range planning of defense
spending." JC

LATVIAN GOVERNMENT SURVIVES NO CONFIDENCE VOTE. As
expected, the cabinet of Vilis Kristopans has survived a
vote of no confidence submitted by the People's Party
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 12 May 1999), Baltic agencies
reported on 20 May. Twenty-four deputies voted in favor
of the motion, while 60 voted against and 14 abstained.
Also on 20 May, lawmakers voted to confirm Ingrida Udre
of the New Party as economics minister. She replaces co-
party member Ainars Slesers, who was ousted from that
post last week. And four new state ministers--for
health, higher education, forestry, and municipal
issues--have been appointed, bringing the total
composition of the cabinet to 14 ministers and six state
ministers, LETA reported. JC

KRISTOPANS SLAMS RUSSIAN DUMA BILL ON SANCTIONS. Latvian
Premier Kristopans told Latvian Radio on 20 May that a
Communist-sponsored bill passed by the Russian State
Duma in its first reading earlier that day does not show
"evidence of an understanding of democracy by the
Russian parliament," Reuters reported. The bill imposes
economic sanctions against Latvia in a bid to put a stop
to what its authors see as the violations of the rights
of ethnic Russians living there. It would ban any
foreign trade deals with the Latvian government and with
legal or private entities who are not Russian citizens.
And it would prohibit exports to Latvia and non-
humanitarian imports as well as credit operations. Also
on 20 May, outgoing German President Roman Herzog
stressed Germany's unconditional support for Latvia's
bid to join the EU. Herzog was speaking in Riga on his
last scheduled official visit before his term expires in
six weeks. JC

RUSSIAN OIL SUPPLIES TO LITHUANIA DRY UP--AGAIN.
According to a spokeswoman for Lithuania's Mazeikiai
Nafta oil refinery, operations at the refinery will be
halted on 21 May owing to the interruption in oil
supplies from Russia, ELTA reported on 20 May. AFP
quoted outgoing Economics Minister Vincas Babilius as
claiming the move was a Russian response to Lithuania's
plan to sell 66 percent of the refinery to the U.S.
company Williams International. Earlier this year,
deliveries from Russia were halted, prompting
speculation at the time that some circles in Russia were
seeking to put pressure on Vilnius over the
privatization of the refinery (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 1
and 2 February 1999). JC

POLISH PARLIAMENT AMENDS LUSTRATION LAW. The parliament
on 20 May passed an amendment to the lustration law that
will grant authorized employees of the Lustration
Prosecutor's Office access to the archives of the
communist secret services. Until now, such access was
restricted to Interior Ministry and State Protection
Office officials. Meanwhile, more than 30 television and
radio station heads and newspaper chief editors in
Poland have agreed to stop commenting on allegations by
some parliamentary deputies that Prime Minister Jerzy
Buzek was a communist-era secret service collaborator
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 May 1999). "It is not our
duty to provide rostrums for slanderers," they wrote in
an open letter. JM

HAVEL IS HOSPITALIZED. Czech President Vaclav Havel was
admitted to the Central Military Hospital in Prague on
20 May suffering from a fever and bronchitis, Czech
media reported. Doctors are concerned that the president
might contract pneumonia. Havel has had three life-
threatening illnesses since 1996 (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
20 May 1999). VG

KLAUS INDIRECTLY CRITICIZES SCHUSTER. Czech Chamber of
Deputies Chairman Vaclav Klaus has rejected suggestions
that he indirectly supported Vladimir Meciar's candidacy
in the Slovak presidential elections, "Lidove noviny"
reported on 21 May, citing a BBC interview (see "RFE/RL
Newsline" 19 May 1999). However, he added that he could
also discuss other candidates "with sarcasm." Klaus
continued: "I could be extremely surprised that everyone
is bothered by Meciar and nobody is bothered by the fact
that the other candidate [Mayor of Kosice Rudolf
Schuster] was a member of the [Central Committee of the
Communist Party of Slovakia] for several years." In
other news, Jan Zahradil, the foreign minister in
Klaus's shadow cabinet, said the politicians who decided
to give the green light to the "unsuccessful" NATO
operation in Yugoslavia should resign once the conflict
is over, "Pravo" reported on 21 May. VG

CZECH COURT RELEASES MAN CONVICTED OF SEX CRIMES IN U.S.
A Czech court has released a man convicted of committing
sex crimes against children in the U.S. because of a
faulty translation, AP reported on 20 May. U.S.
prosecutors failed to gain the extradition of Charles
Bronson Jones because of a difference between the Czech
and English versions of a 1925 extradition treaty. While
the English version states that people can be extradited
for "sex crimes against children," the Czech version
states that people can be extradited for "sex crimes
against girls." Jones's crimes were against boys. VG

SLOVAK GOVERNMENT INTRODUCES AUSTERITY MEASURES. The
Slovak government on 20 May unveiled several measures
aimed at helping the economy and shoring up the
weakening Slovak crown. The measures include budget cuts
and increases in the price of natural gas, electricity,
rents, telecommunications, postage, and water. The
government measures, as well as intervention by the
National Bank of Slovakia (NBS), helped stabilize the
Slovak currency on 20 May at about 44 Slovak crowns to
$1. Earlier in the week, the koruna had fallen to record
lows. NBS Chairman Vladimir Masar said the fall of the
crown was not caused by economic factors but rather by
the market's reaction to the first round of presidential
elections on 15 May. VG

FIDESZ STATE SECRETARIES OFFER RESIGNATION AFTER U.S.
LETTER SCANDAL. The two FIDESZ political state
secretaries who signed a letter lobbying for the
appointment of Steven M. Jones, a Lockheed Martin
executive, as the next U.S. ambassador to Hungary have
tendered their resignations, Hungarian media reported on
20 May (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 May 1999). Neither
Gabriella Selmeczi nor Istvan Balsay denied press
reports that they are linked to Lockheed Martin. FIDESZ
parliamentary group leader Jozsef Szajer said that the
party's leadership has approved the resignations but
that Prime Minister Viktor Orban will make the final
decision on 21 May. According to "Vilaggazdasag,"
current U.S. Ambassador to Hungary Peter Tufo confirmed
the letter's existence and said it was delivered to the
U.S. Meanwhile, U.S. President Bill Clinton and
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright have confirmed
Tufo in his post, "Nepszabadsag" reported on 21 May. MSZ

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

ALBRIGHT SEES NATO, RUSSIA EDGING CLOSER. U.S. Secretary
of State Madeleine Albright said in Washington on 21 May
that there is a "narrowing of gaps" between Brussels and
Moscow on resolving the Kosova crisis, ITAR-TASS
reported. Albright made that comment after speaking with
Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott, who is in
Moscow for talks with Russian special envoy to
Yugoslavia Viktor Chernomyrdin and Finnish President
Martti Ahtisaari, the EU's Kosova envoy (see Part I).
Albright said the biggest remaining differences are over
the makeup of the peacekeeping force for Kosova as well
as the scale of the Serbian military's withdrawal from
the province. British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook said
after talks with Albright that greater preparations need
to be made for a force to escort the refugees back into
Kosova. In London, British Premier Tony Blair and NATO
Secretary-General Javier Solana pledged to press on with
the air campaign. PB

AIR STRIKES CONTINUE... NATO air strikes continued on
20- 21 May, with the largest attack on Belgrade since
the Chinese embassy was accidentally hit two weeks ago.
Fuel depots in Belgrade as well as military barracks
outside the capital were struck. The effects of one
blast broke the windows at several foreign embassies and
residences, including the Swiss ambassador's, which is
in the same neighborhood where a hospital was damaged
the previous day. Yugoslav officials say three people
died and several were injured in the hospital incident.
Fuel storage facilities in the northwestern towns of
Sombor and Smederovo were also hit, as were ammunition
depots in Vrdnik and Sremska Mitrovica. The British
Defense Ministry said the air campaign has destroyed a
significant amount of Serbian military hardware. It also
dismissed an article in "The Times" that said Serbian
forces have suffered only light casualties, though the
bombardment has severely restricted their movement. PB

...AS MORE REFUGEES CROSS INTO MACEDONIA. The UN High
Commissioner for Refugees said that between 2,000 and
3,000 Kosovar Albanians fled to Macedonia on 20 May, AFP
reported. The UNHCR said many of them arrived by train
and were from the suburbs of Kosova's capital,
Prishtina, while others came from Urosevac. Some said
they left because of miserable conditions, while others
said they were forced to leave the province by Serbian
forces, the UNHCR said. PB

CACAK CITIZENS CALL ON MILOSEVIC TO END THE WAR. The
self-proclaimed Citizens' Parliament of Cacak on 20 May
urged Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to "stop the
war immediately," the Serbian news agency Beta reported.
The parliament, formed by 20 prominent citizens of the
town on 18 May, said in a letter to the president that
"at this moment, you are deciding the fate of all people
of Yugoslavia." It asked him to end the "terrible
suffering of all the people...whom you lead." NATO
spokesman Jamie Shea said the setting up of the
parliament is evidence of "an expanding mood of war
weariness." Anti-government protests have also taken
place in the nearby towns of Krusevac and Alexandrovac.
The Yugoslav Foreign Ministry, meanwhile, has denied
reports that more than 1,000 troops deserted after
hearing of the protests in the towns. PB

ANNAN APPEALS TO BELGRADE TO WITHDRAW ITS FORCES. UN
Secretary-General Kofi Annan on 20 May urged Yugoslavia
to withdraw its forces from Kosova and allow the rapid
deployment of an international military force that would
permit the Kosovar refugees to return before winter, AP
reported. Annan made that appeal while visiting Kosovar
refugee camps in the northeastern Albanian town of Kukes
together with Albanian President Rexhep Meidani and
Foreign Minister Paskal Milo. Annan said the
"breathtaking stories" he had heard from refugees "puts
pressure on all of us to intensify our efforts to find a
political solution." He also noted that all sides in the
Kosova conflict have agreed that the UN Security Council
should play a major role in resolving the crisis. Annan
is to meet with Finnish President Ahtisaari in Stockholm
on 22 May. PB

DJUKANOVIC SAYS BELGRADE PLANNING COUP. Montenegrin
President Milo Djukanovic said on 20 May in Podgorica
that Belgrade is planning a military coup against his
government, Reuters reported. Djukanovic said Yugoslav
soldiers have set up checkpoints on all main roads
leading into Montenegro. They also have halted aid
convoys and prevented raw materials from being imported.
Djukanovic said Belgrade wants to install the army as a
dictatorial power in Montenegro. He said his government
will refrain from opposing the army. The Second Yugoslav
Army has some 25,000 troops stationed in Montenegro,
while the government claims to have some 12,000 armed
police ready to prevent an armed coup. PB

INTERNATIONAL DONORS AGREE TO BILLION DOLLAR TRANCHE FOR
BOSNIA. International donors representing some 45
countries and 30 organizations pledged $1.05 billion in
aid to Bosnia-Herzegovina for 1999, Reuters reported on
20 May. The conference was co-sponsored by the World
Bank and the EU. Carlos Westendorp, the international
community's high representative to Bosnia, said he is
"very happy because we got more than we expected." It
was the fifth donors' conference held since the signing
of the Dayton agreement in 1995, bringing the total
amount donated to $5.1 billion. In other news, some 50
bodies were exhumed on 20 May near the village of
Zijemlje, about 40 kilometers east of Mostar. In the
last 10 days, a forensics team has found the bodies of
124 people, mostly civilians, believed to have been
killed in 1992 by Bosnian Serb forces. More than 20,000
people are still officially missing. PB

CROATIA SAYS OSCE CRITICISM UNACCEPTABLE. The Croatian
government said in a statement on 20 May that an OSCE
report criticizing Zagreb for a lack of will to move
toward democracy makes conclusions that are
"insufficiently corroborated," Reuters reported. The
government issued the statement after a closed cabinet
session. The OSCE report cited a lack of progress on the
return of Serbian refugees to Croatia, stagnation in
Croatia's fulfillment of international commitments, and
failure to liberalize the media or reform electoral
laws. PB

ROMANIAN GOVERNMENT SURVIVES NO CONFIDENCE VOTE. The
cabinet survived a no confidence vote in the parliament
on 20 May. Parliamentary deputies voted by 286 to 147 to
reject a censure motion proposed by three opposition
parties in response to the government's package of IMF-
inspired economic reforms. Meanwhile, Romania's four
largest trade unions announced on 20 May that they will
stage a 24-hour general strike on 24 May to demand an
easing of austerity measures and changes to legislation.
The unions said that if their demands are not met by 31
July, they will launch a full general strike, according
to a Romanian Radio report monitored by the BBC. Also on
20 May, metal workers at the Resita steel mill in
Transylvania launched an all-out strike, Reuters
reported, citing Romanian Radio. VG

MOLDOVA DEPRIVED OF UN VOTING RIGHTS. Moldova has been
deprived of its voting rights at the UN because of its
failure to pay membership fees for the past few years,
Infotag reported on 20 May. The country owes $200,000
for this year alone and its total debt to the UN stands
at more than $3 million. In other news, Moldovan Prime
Minister Ion Sturza said on 20 May that Germany supports
his country's bid to be included in any post-Kosova
conflict stability pact for the Balkans, BASA-Press
reported.

GAGAUZ ASSEMBLY CRITICIZES MOLDOVAN CONSTITUTIONAL
COURT. The Gagauz Popular Assembly has criticized a
recent Moldovan Constitutional Court decision that local
court appointments can be made without the input of
local authorities, Infotag reported on 20 May. The
assembly adopted a statement describing the decision as
a "gross violation of [the Gagauz-Yeri autonomous
region's] constitutional status." VG

BULGARIAN OFFICIAL SAYS NUCLEAR PLANT IS SAFE. Bulgarian
Atomic Energy Commission chief Georgi Kaschiev said
"serious measures" have been taken to reduce the risk of
damage to the Kozloduy nuclear power plant in connection
with NATO's bombing campaign in Yugoslavia, Reuters
reported on 20 May. Kaschiev was responding to concerns
expressed by Greenpeace on 19 May that stray NATO
missiles are falling dangerously close to the plant and
that oil slicks on the Danube River could block the
plant and cause a meltdown. Meanwhile, Bulgarian
Interior Minister Bogomil Bonev dismissed reports that
two German television journalists and one Bulgarian
environmentalist had got into the plant without
authorization, according to a 20 May BTA report
monitored by the BBC. Bonev said the journalists were
accompanied by a security official. VG

BULGARIA, GREECE AGREE TO FORM FREE TRAVEL ZONE.
Bulgarian Prime Minister Ivan Kostov announced on 20 May
that his government has approved an agreement with
Greece on creating a 25-kilometer-wide free movement
zone for permanent residents on either side of the
Bulgarian-Greek border, according to a BTA report cited
by the BBC. Kostov also said his government will provide
$50 million leva ($27,000) worth of humanitarian aid to
the ethnic Bulgarian minority in eastern Yugoslavia, BTA
reported. Also on 20 May, Bulgarian Defense Minister
Georgi Ananiev and his visiting Romanian counterpart,
Victor Babiuc, said in Sofia that their countries both
support the NATO campaign in Yugoslavia but would like
to see it end as soon as possible. VG

END NOTE

SHADOW ELECTIONS IN BELARUS

by Jan Maksymiuk

	Originally, it seemed like a good idea to hold an
alternative presidential poll in Belarus. From a legal
point of view, President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's term
expires on 20 July 1999. A new constitution introduced
by the November 1996 referendum extended his term for
another two years and authorized him to disband the
democratically elected Supreme Soviet. That referendum
was conducted and enforced with such flagrant violations
of the law and democratic norms that no European
organization has recognized its outcome.
	All European countries, except Russia, recognized
the 50 deputies of the Supreme Soviet who have remained
loyal to the abolished 1994 basic law as Belarus's
legitimate parliament. Indeed, it was the Supreme Soviet
that decided to hold presidential elections on 16 May
and to empower the Central Electoral Commission, another
body that was democratically and legitimately elected
before the 1996 referendum, to organize them. The man in
charge of the elections was Viktar Hanchar, head of the
commission.
	Highlighting the extraordinary character of these
elections, neither of the two candidates was physically
present during either the election campaign or the
voting. Zyanon Paznyak, who was granted political asylum
in the U.S. in 1996, did not make an appearance in
Belarus. The other hopeful, Mikhail Chyhir, was jailed
by the authorities six weeks before election day on
charges of issuing a dubious bank loan in 1994.
	As widely expected, the authorities declared the
elections illegal and warned the opposition not to
"conspire" to depose the legal government. But they
seemed to be at a loss about how to respond as the
opposition election initiative gained momentum. By mid-
April, some 14,000 people had volunteered to take part
in regional electoral commissions, most of them from
Paznyak's Belarusian Popular Front (BNF).
	European organizations, including the OSCE, had
reservations about the opposition election initiative.
Even before NATO's intervention in Yugoslavia, which
shifted European attention away from Belarus to the
Balkans, it became clear that the OSCE would not send
its observers to the elections, nor would the ballot
provide an internationally recognized new president for
Belarus. But the elections nevertheless offered the
opportunity of a "vote of no confidence" in Lukashenka
and of dispelling the widespread belief that his regime
has strong popular support.
	Owing to the impossibility of setting up stationary
polling stations, Hanchar's commission decided to send
pollsters with ballot boxes to voters' homes over the 10
days preceding election day. While the law does not
provide for such a method of voting for the electorate
as a whole, it was nonetheless deemed expedient and
effective, given the unique character of the elections,
	However, heavy criticism of the voting stemmed not
from the authorities but from Paznyak, who argued that
the voting procedures were illegal and that the turnout
figures had been falsified. Paznyak also accused Hanchar
and Chyhir of seeking to implement a Moscow-sponsored
plan to replace the "true opposition"--that is, the BNF-
-with one subservient to the Kremlin. According to
Paznyak, Hanchar intended to falsify election results in
favor of Chyhir in order to install him as a new
opposition leader and eliminate the BNF from Belarus's
political scene. Paznyak withdrew his candidacy from the
elections on 14 May. While the BNF decided to continue
the election initiative, some activists began calling on
their regional colleagues to withdraw from the ballot.
	Hanchar's commission pronounced a somewhat
contradictory verdict on 19 May. The elections were
deemed valid with regard to turnout: just over 4 million
voters, or 53 percent of the total electorate. But
Hanchar cited pressure from the authorities, the absence
of conditions for free election campaigning, and
Paznyak's "violation of the election law" as reasons for
declaring the election as a whole invalid. The
commission announced it will organize another
presidential poll within three months.
	In the end, the shadow election initiative, which
was intended to weaken the autocratic regime in Belarus
has significantly damaged the opposition. Many
oppositionists have already branded the elections
"scandalous."
	First, it is highly probable that the BNF--the most
influential opposition group in Belarus--will split and
become mired in mutual recriminations.
	Second, it seems that the efforts of many thousands
of regional election activists--who risked arrest, the
loss of their jobs, and other official retributions--
have been squandered. It is unlikely that in the near
future, the opposition will be able to re-mobilize such
a large number of "field operators."
	Third, Hanchar's political career seems to have
ground to a halt. One Belarusian independent newspaper
speculated that the "scandalous" outcome of the election
was deliberately planned by Hanchar and Supreme Soviet
Chairman Syamyon Sharetski. It claimed that after 20
July 1999, Sharetski intends to become head of state (in
accordance with the provision of the 1994 constitution
dealing with the situation where the country does not
have a legitimately elected president) and offer the
post of prime minister to Hanchar. A major flaw in this
scenario, however, is how Hanchar and Sharetski will
persuade Lukashenka to make room for them. Moreover,
without the support of the BNF, Hanchar may find there
is even less room for him in the Belarusian political
arena than there was before the election.
	Finally, the vote has weakened, rather than
strengthened, the opposition's position that the
authorities should enter a dialogue with the opposition.
Lukashenka has been given a powerful and scathing
argument to fend off such a dialogue--namely, that
oppositionists should agree among themselves first
before seeking to talk to him.

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