Be willing to have it so; acceptance of what has happened is the first step to overcoming the consequences of any misfortune. - William James
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 90, Part II, 10 May 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 90, Part II, 10 May 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part II

* SCHUSTER MAINTAINS LEAD IN OPINION POLLS

* REFUGEES DEMAND NATO TAKE OVER CAMP

* WESTERN OFFICIALS CHARGE SERBS WITH KILLING AGANI

End Note: PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE OF THE BALKANS
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

LUKASHENKA CONDEMNS U.S. 'HEGEMONIC PLANS.' Some 5,000
veterans gathered in Minsk on 9 May for a march and
military parade to celebrate Victory Day, AP reported.
Some 2,000 rallied at the Yama memorial built in the
former Minsk ghetto to commemorate Jewish victims of
World War II in Belarus. Belarusian President Alyaksandr
Lukashenka addressed the veterans, condemning the
"hegemonic plans" of the United States which in his
opinion is trying to impose its rule on the world,
Interfax reported. He denounced NATO's strikes in
Yugoslavia, saying that this Balkan country is defending
"not only itself, but other countries as well." He also
expressed his confidence that Belarus will enter the
21st century "strongly united" with Russia. "Our army
has the appropriate strength for the NATO aggressor
quickly to loose the desire to dictate conditions,"
Polish Television quoted Lukashenka as saying to the
veterans. JM

BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION CHAIR PLEASED WITH PRESIDENTIAL
POLL. Viktar Hanchar, chairman of the opposition Central
Electoral Commission, has said he is satisfied with the
course of nationwide presidential polls launched on 6
May in defiance of President Alyaksandr Lukashenka, an
RFE/RL correspondent reported from Minsk on 9 May.
According to Hanchar, the opposition presidential
campaign is "quite normal and well on course," with some
760,000 people (10 percent of the voters) casting
ballots from 6-8 May. JM

UKRAINE CELEBRATES VICTORY DAY WITH VETERANS' PROTEST
MARCHES. Veterans and Communist hard-liners across
Ukraine marked the 54th anniversary on 9 May of Nazi
Germany's defeat with parades and protest marches, AP
and dpa reported. Some 5,000 people took part in a
demonstration in Kyiv, carrying old Red Army banners and
red flags of the former Soviet Union. The demonstrators
denounced NATO for its strikes in Yugoslavia and
protested the policies of President Leonid Kuchma's
government. JM

UKRAINIAN PREMIER SAYS TALKS WITH IMF SUCCESSFUL. "We
once again discussed the issue of extra financing with
the IMF and I think we'll be able to meet all our
obligations [to the fund]," AP quoted Premier Valeriy
Pustovoytenko as saying on 8 May after a meeting with
the visiting IMF team in Kyiv. The government is asking
for some $300 million in addition to the $2.2 billion
loan approved by the IMF for Ukraine last year. The IMF
mission chief, Mohammed Shadman-Valavi, said Ukraine is
currently complying with IMF requirements much better
than in previous months and can count on further loans.
Kuchma's spokesman Oleksandr Martynenko said the IMF
will decide on disbursing loans for Ukraine in late May.
JM

CORRECTION: The 7 May "Newsline" incorrectly identified
Crimea's capital as Sevastopol. The peninsula's main
city is Simferopol. JM

MERI MEETS WITH VAN DER STOEL. Estonian President
Lennart Meri met with visiting OSCE High Commissioner on
National Minorities Max van der Stoel on 7 May.
Discussing the future work of the OSCE in Estonia,
President Meri suggested that the country's progress
over the years should be taken into account. Earlier,
Meri had written in a
newspaper commentary that the OSCE should alter its
mission in Estonia to promote public education (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 7 May 1999). Van der Stoel stated
that "This is a question which we will discuss with
Foreign Minister Knut Vollebaek of Norway, the current
OSCE presiding country," and "From my position every new
project which deepens the co-operation between the OSCE
and Estonia is welcomed," according to "Postimees."
"Postimees" on 8 May stressed that the three-party
governing coalition would like to see the OSCE conclude
its mission to Estonia. MH

ESTONIA'S LAAR PLEDGES TO BACK LATVIA, LITHUANIA FOR EU,
NATO. At the end of a visit to Riga on 7 May, Estonian
Prime Minister Mart Laar said Tallinn will seek to help
its two Baltic neighbors join the two Western bodies
together, BNS reported. Meanwhile, meeting in Tartu, the
three Baltic defense ministers signed a joint statement
committing themselves to expanded cooperation with each
other and with NATO. PG

IN LATVIA, RUSSIANS AND LATVIANS MARK VICTORY DAY
DIFFERENTLY. Approximately 2,000 people, mostly ethnic
Russians, marched in Riga on 9 May to mark Victory Day,
Interfax and BNS reported. Meanwhile, some 1,000
Latvians gathered in Lestane to commemorate those
Latvians who fought on the German side during World War
II. Meanwhile, in Lithuania, Interfax reported that
"only war veterans and the staff of the embassies of the
CIS countries" marked the anniversary. PG

POLITICAL CONSULTATIONS CONTINUE IN LITHUANIA.
Lithuanian politicians continued their consultations
about the formation of a new government. Lithuanian
Parliamentary Speaker Vytautas Landsbergis told BNS on 7
May that suggestions that there should be early general
elections are "worrying." He added that he does not
believe such an early poll is necessary. PG

POLISH PARLIAMENT RECONFIRMS LAW ON FORMER NAZI DEATH
CAMPS. The lower parliamentary house on 7 May approved
the law on the protection of former Nazi concentration
camps in Poland, rejecting the amendments proposed by
the upper house (see "RFE/RL's Newsline," 23 April
1999). President Aleksander Kwasniewski signed the law
the following day, AP reported. The legislation is
widely seen as an effort to provide legal grounds for
removing some 300 crosses erected by radical Catholics
at the Auschwitz death camp site in defiance of protests
by Jewish communities. Meanwhile, Premier Jerzy Buzek
has said the so-called papal cross erected near the camp
site in 1979 will remain in its place. JM

POLAND'S RIGHT-WING PARTY WANTS TO CREATE 'THIRD FORCE.'
The opposition right-wing Movement for the
Reconstruction of Poland (ROP) wants to set up a "third
force" opposed to both the ruling coalition of the
Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS)/Freedom Union and the
opposition Democratic Left Alliance, Polish Television
reported on 8 May. The main intended task of the new
force is to run a joint candidate in the presidential
elections in 2000. ROP leader Jan Olszewski said he will
propose cooperation on launching the new force to the
AWS and the opposition Polish Peasant Party. Olszewski
declined to say whether he will run in the presidential
elections. JM

CZECH-AUSTRIAN DISPUTE OVER TEMELIN. Austria's
Commissioner for nuclear facilities, Radko Pavlovec,
said Czech ambassador to the EU Josef Kreuter should be
dismissed for his inappropriate criticism of a European
Parliament resolution, CTK reported on 7 May. Kreuter
had said that the European Parliament resolution
criticizing the Czech Republic's Temelin nuclear plant
contained a "number of half-truths and downright
untruths" and a "load of lies and deliberate
misinterpretations." Czech Foreign Minister Jan Kavan
acknowledged on a 7 May Radio Frekvence I broadcast that
Kreuter's comments were "inappropriate," but added that
it was up to him to decide whether or not Kreuter should
be dismissed. VG

SCHUSTER MAINTAINS LEAD IN OPINION POLLS. Slovak
presidential candidate Rudolf Schuster is running at 33
percent of the vote in the latest public opinion poll
conducted between 26 April and 2 May, TASR reported on
10 May. Former Slovak prime minister Vladimir Meciar is
running second with almost 23 percent of the vote and
former Czechoslovak ambassador Magda Vasaryova is third
with 14 percent. The first round of Slovakia's first-
ever direct presidential elections will be held on 15
May with the top two candidates advancing to the second
round. On 9 May, former president Michal Kovac said on
TV Markiza's "Na Telo" program that "if necessary" he
would renounce his candidacy in favor of one of the
other candidates, provided they support the current
governing coalition and maintain the country's current
political course. The poll found that only 4.6 percent
of respondents would vote for Kovac. VG

FIDESZ CALLS FOR "INTERNATIONAL SUPERVISION" OF
VOJVODINA. Fidesz, the senior party of the Hungarian
governing coalition, called for the restoration of
autonomy to Yugoslavia's northern province of Vojvodina
as part of any settlement of the conflict in Kosova,
Hungarian media reported on 10 May. A declaration
approved by a weekend Fidesz party conference also
called for "international supervision" of areas of
Vojvodina inhabited by ethnic Hungarians after the end
of the Kosovo conflict, without specifying what kind of
international supervision it considers necessary.
Hungarian Prime Minister Viktor Orban told RTL TV that
any post-war conference on the Balkans must not end
without adopting measures to improve the status of
Vojvodina's 350,000 ethnic Hungarians. Hungarians
account for 17.5 percent of that region's 2 million
population. VG

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

CLINTON APOLOGIES FOR EMBASSY BOMBING. President Bill
Clinton sent a "message of regret" to his Chinese
counterpart Jiang Zemin on 9 May to apologize for NATO's
"unintentional" bombing of the Chinese embassy in
Belgrade during the night of 7-8 May. NATO spokesmen in
Brussels and Washington stressed that the missile attack
was an "accident" and a "mistake" due to faulty
intelligence supplied to the pilots, which led them to
believe that the embassy compound was really the
Yugoslav army's supply and procurement offices. The
spokesmen added that the Atlantic alliance has had very
few "mishaps" in the course of the current bombing
campaign. The spokesmen stressed that the air strikes
will continue until Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic meets the alliance's demands for ending the
crisis in Kosova. A Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman
said in Belgrade on 10 May that the embassy was
"completely destroyed" and that three Chinese were
killed and some 20 injured in the attack. PM

CHINESE 'FURY' FOLLOWS DESTRUCTION OF BELGRADE EMBASSY.
Jiang told his Russian counterpart Boris Yeltsin in a
telephone conversation on 10 May that the U.S. must bear
"all responsibility" for the embassy bombing, which
Jiang called an example of "gunboat diplomacy," Xinhua
reported (see related items in Part I, above). The
government broke off discussions with Washington on arms
control, security and human rights. Western news
agencies reported from Beijing and several provincial
cities on 10 May that anti-U.S. and anti-Western
demonstrations are in their third day. Crowds chanted:
"Long live Chairman Mao," "Kill Americans," "Go home
U.S. pigs," and "A debt in blood must be repaid in
blood." The U.S., U.K. and Albanian embassies were
damaged. The "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" commented
that "the outrage is well organized." Other observers
noted that the Chinese authorities do not usually show
patience with unauthorized demonstrations, and that the
current protests are the worst anti-American violence
since the two countries established diplomatic ties over
20 years ago. PM

A CHINESE DIMENSION TO THE BALKAN CRISIS? Serbian
officials reacted to the bombing of the Chinese embassy
with concern but also with "undisguised glee" in hopes
of drawing China into the Kosova imbroglio on Belgrade's
side, the BBC reported on 8 May. Observers suggested
that Russia and NATO alike may have reservations about
any possible increased Chinese role in the crisis, which
Beijing may seek to exercise through its veto in the UN
Security Council. China has consistently opposed
intervention in Kosova as a violation of Yugoslav
sovereignty. Observers note that its ultimate concern is
that any precedent arising from outside intervention in
Kosova could eventually be applied to Tibet or Taiwan.
Taipei has been present on the sidelines of the Balkan
crisis. Macedonia recognized the Republic of China in
January, following which Beijing broke off ties with
Skopje. Taiwanese aid agencies and military engineers
are active in refugee relief work in Macedonia. Taiwan
has promised its new friend generous development aid. PM

REFUGEES DEMAND NATO TAKE OVER CAMP. A growing crowd
numbering 2,000 and chanting "UCK, UCK" (in reference to
the Kosova Liberation Army) demonstrated at the
Stankovic refugee camp on 10 May to demand that NATO
take over control of the camp from the Macedonian
authorities. The incident arose following what ethnic
Albanians said was the unprovoked beating of two
refugees by Macedonian police. An unnamed police officer
told AP that one of the two men was "doing something" to
a fence around the camp when the police detained him.
Refugees told the news agency that the man had been
talking to his relatives over the fence, which is made
of tape similar to that used by police at the scenes of
accidents. In Geneva, a spokesman for the UN High
Commissioner for Refugees said that unnamed persons are
extorting money from refugees in Macedonian camps by
promising places on flights to third countries. He added
that the UNHCR is investigating. PM

NEW SERBIAN OFFENSIVE DRIVES REFUGEES INTO ALBANIA.
About 16,000 refugees arrived in Albania following a
Serbian offensive in the areas of Peja and Gjakova over
the weekend, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from
Tirana. They told stories of continuing violent
expulsions. Meanwhile, the UNHCR continued to evacuate
refugees from the northern town of Kukes at a rate of
over 4,000 per day. In Brussels, NATO Military spokesman
Walter Jertz on 9 May thanked engineers of the United
Arab Emirates for finishing an airport in Kukes to
deliver humanitarian assistance for the refugees there.
FS

UCK SKEPTICAL ABOUT G-8 PROPOSAL. In Tirana on 8 May,
Hashim Thaci, who heads the UCK-backed Kosovar
provisional government, welcomed "every effort for
reaching a solution" to the Kosova crisis. He added,
however, that "we have reservations about [the G-8]
declaration, including [its call for] the
demilitarization of the UCK," Reuters reported. He
stressed that the UCK demands firm security guarantees
from NATO before its members will turn in their arms.
Meanwhile, Albanian Foreign Minister Paskal Milo in an
interview with "Shekulli" appealed to the UCK and the
moderate Democratic League of Kosova (LDK) to "leave
aside their differences and become united in the name of
higher interests of Kosova." He stressed that "all
[Kosovar] leaders should be united on a joint platform
for the expulsion of Serbian forces, the return of
displaced [ethnic] Albanians and the building of
democratic institutions." FS

WESTERN OFFICIALS CHARGE SERBS WITH KILLING AGANI.
German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder's Foreign Policy
Advisor Michael Steiner and NATO spokesman Jamie Shea
accused Serbian forces on 9 May of killing senior LDK
politician Fehmi Agani. Serbian police took Agani from a
refugee train between Prishtina and Macedonia on 6 May,
RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. Serbian media
later reported that his dead body was found near Lipjan
on 8 May. Serbian authorities blamed the UCK for the
killing. German government officials demanded an
investigation by the International Criminal Tribunal in
The Hague. During a conversation with Italian Prime
Minister Massimo D'Alema the following day, LDK leader
Ibrahim Rugova "expressed feelings of indignation and
deep sorrow at the murder," Reuters reported. Rugova
also met Russian envoy Viktor Chernomyrdin in Bonn on 9
May. Chernomyrdin told AP later that "Rugova opened my
eyes to several things" regarding a possible settlement
in Kosova. FS

ALBANIAN PUBLIC ORDER MINISTER THREATENS TO RESIGN.
Petro Koci resigned on 8 May, but withdrew his
resignation one day later, an RFE/RL correspondent
reported from Tirana. Koci said he disagreed with Prime
Minister Pandeli Majko over the sacking of the police
chief of Vlora, which Majko had requested after a sharp
increase in refugee smuggling across the Otranto
Straits. Koci also said he does not have sufficient
support from his Socialist Party. Koci later said that
Majko urged him to stay in office. FS

NATO: UCK PROVIDING 'POCKETS OF SANCTUARY.' A spokesman
for the Atlantic alliance said in Brussels on 9 May that
"as Serbian military units are destroyed or driven into
hiding, there is a resurgence of UCK activity." He added
that the locations where displaced people have taken
shelter in Kosova "very often coincide with many of the
UCK-controlled areas." A spokesman for the UCK noted,
however, that the guerrillas' ability to protect
civilians is limited when the Serbs use tanks and other
heavy weapons. PM

BONNINO WARNS OF 'HUMAN BOMB.' EU humanitarian aid
commissioner Emma Bonino said in Skopje on 9 May that in
Kosova "there are at least 690,000 displaced people,
which means that the human bomb is fully loaded" and can
explode at any time. She noted that the Yugoslav
authorities have not allowed any Kosovars to cross into
Macedonia for four days. Bonino had praise for the
"people and governments of Bosnia, Montenegro, Albania
and Macedonia" for their efforts in taking in refugees.
She concluded that their work has been successful, and
that any attempt by Milosevic "to destabilize the
region...has failed." PM

DJUKANOVIC, DJINDJIC SAY DEMOCRACY MUST COME TO
YUGOSLAVIA. Montenegrin President Milo Djukanovic and
Serbian Democratic Party leader Zoran Djindjic said in a
joint statement from Montenegro on 9 May that "military
intervention [in Kosova] gave way to new problems
whether or not that was intended. With intervention, the
West has now taken on part of the responsibility for
finding the solution to these problems. The
international community must throw its weight behind a
program of political and economic reconstruction." The
two leaders added that "it is impossible to imagine that
democracy can be established in our country without a
complete political transition in Serbia and Yugoslavia.
If the war ends with a signature on a peace agreement
and the same political leadership remains in power, with
Slobodan Milosevic at the helm, the tragedy and violence
will continue." Djindjic and Djukanovic also appealed
for free and fair elections, the "isolation of
undemocratic forces," and rapid economic development. PM

WESTENDORP CALLS FOR PROTECTORATE IN KOSOVA. Carlos
Westendorp, who is the international community's
outgoing chief representative in Bosnia, told the Madrid
daily "El Pais" of 9 May that the international
community must not repeat in Kosova the mistakes it made
in Bosnia. He argued that Kosova must become a "full-
blown international protectorate" with foreign control
over "the judges, the police and the army." PM

ANNAN NAMES BILDT, KUKAN. UN Secretary-General Kofi
Annan recommended to the Security Council on 7 May that
it approve his nomination of Sweden's Carl Bildt, who
was Westendorp's predecessor in Bosnia, and Slovak
Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan as the UN's special envoys
in the Balkan crisis. Former Austrian Chancellor Franz
Vranitzky had been considered a top contender for one of
the two posts but recently took himself out of the
running after Belgrade objected to his nomination.
Vranitzky coordinated international stabilization
efforts in Albania after the massive unrest in 1997. PM

POPE, ROMANIAN ORTHODOX PATRIARCH PRESIDE OVER JOINT
SERVICES. Pope John Paul II concluded his historic
three-day visit to Romania on 9 May with an open-air
mass held in a park in downtown Bucharest, international
agencies reported. The pope told a crowd of nearly a
quarter of a million people that Romania's major
Christian faiths should reconcile their differences, and
called for an "international dialogue between the
Catholics and the Orthodox world. " The pope also
recalled the suffering of Romania's Catholics under the
communists. Earlier, he attended an Orthodox service on
Union Square presided over by Romanian Patriarch
Teoctist. At the end of his service, the pope also
invited Patriatrch Teoctist to the Vatican. Romanian
President Emil Constantinescu thanked the pope for
blessing Romania and said his country is prepared to act
as "bridge between the West and the East," Rompres
reported on 9 May. VG

POPE PRESIDES OVER GREEK CATHOLIC MASS. The pope also
presided over a service for Greek Catholics on 8 May.
Hundreds of Greek Catholic and Roman Catholic clergy as
well as hundreds of lay worshippers attended the
service. The mass was also attended by Alexandru Todea,
the last surviving Greek Catholic cardinal in Romania,
who was imprisoned for 16 years under the Communist
regime. Before the mass, the pope made an unexpected
visit to a cemetery where victims of the 1989 revolution
are buried, RFE/RL reported. Joaquin Navarro-Valls, the
chief Vatican spokesman, said he is hopeful that issues
such as restitution of property seized from the Greek
Catholic Church by the former Romanian communist
government will eventually be resolved. VG

GERMAN FOREIGN MINISTER VISITS BULGARIA. German Foreign
Minister Joschka Ficher on 9 May discussed a proposed
postwar stability and reconstruction pact for the Balkan
region with Bulgarian leaders in Sofia, AP reported.
Fischer said NATO would resolve the conflict in Kosovo
by political means if possible, and military means if
necessary. He called Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic a "criminal" and said the deportation and
massacre of Kosova Albanians threatens the entire Balkan
region and would have security repercussions for all of
Europe. VG

END NOTE

PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE OF THE BALKANS

by Patrick Moore

	A number of proposals for the post-Kosova Balkans
have appeared recently, most notably German Foreign
Minister Joschka Fischer's plan for a Southeastern
European Regional Roundtable. His and other ideas will
be fleshed out in the coming weeks, especially at a
conference that the German government will host in Bonn
on 27 May. The time is certainly ripe to review some
principles that might underlie any future regional
development plan that would embrace Albania, Bosnia-
Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Kosova, Macedonia,
Montenegro, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia, and perhaps
Moldova as well.
	The goal of most of these proposals is to put an
end to Balkan regional instability. The various plans
are comprehensive and directed not only toward repairing
wartime damage (much of which was done to obsolete
communist-era or even older infrastructure) but toward
thoroughly modernizing and developing the respective
economies, societies, and political cultures to bring
them up to contemporary European standards.
	Such a comprehensive regional development project
is unprecedented in the Balkans. It will require long-
term planning and commitment for at least 20 to 30
years, not only by the U.S., Canada, and the EU but also
by Turkey as a relatively prosperous regional power.
Turkey and EU member Greece, in particular, stand to
gain not only by providing and acquiring markets but
also by carving out their respective niches as regional
leaders.
	The developed countries, for their parts, must be
prepared to give the countries of the region a series of
carrot-and-stick incentives to help bring their
economies, societies, and political cultures into line
with modern Western standards. This means guaranteeing
serious prospects for admission to Euro-Atlantic
structures for those who comply, and negative incentives
for those who stubbornly refuse to observe European
norms.
	If regional development as a whole presents one set
of problems and opportunities, the role of Serbia
involves another set of issues. The Serbs occupy a
strategic position at the center of the Balkans. Their
leaders, moreover, have been the ones most responsible
for the destruction of the former Yugoslavia and for the
subsequent wars. No program for regional development can
afford to exclude Serbia.
	But the international community can no more afford
to leave Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in power
than the architects of post-1945 Europe could tolerate
the idea of keeping Hitler in office. Each of those two
dictators rose to power by exploiting and fueling a
national persecution complex during troubled economic
times, and each stayed in power by appealing to
nationalism. Each man received broad support at home and
precious little domestic opposition. Each waged a bloody
war of expansion and genocide--albeit on vastly
different scales--against his neighbors. And each
brought great misery and suffering upon his own people,
who nonetheless proved unable or unwilling to rid
themselves of their tormentor.
	Hitler was destroyed by the combined land, sea, and
air might of a powerful coalition. Whether Western
leaders care to admit it publicly, this is how Milosevic
is likely to end, too. And just as the Germans had to
pay for their wars with the loss of East Prussia,
Silesia, Pomerania, and other territories, the Serbs
have lost or will likely lose their control not only
over large areas of Croatia and Bosnia but also over all
of Kosova, which is the scene of their most vicious
campaign of genocide.
	Furthermore, like Austria after 1945, Montenegro
seems all but certain to go its own way as a separate
state in a post-Milosevic Balkans. And like Austria, it
will try to deny that it had anything to do with the
dictator, who was its own son and whom it had supported
as long as the going was good.
	The German analogy is also worth considering for
the post-war picture. The allies introduced tough
measures of de-miltarization and de-Nazification in
their respective zones, and they tried and punished war
criminals. The international community could now provide
a similar program of tutelage until a democratic, non-
nationalist culture has taken root in Serbian politics,
education, and the media.
	It is not easy to predict who might lead a future
democratic Serbia. The current Serbian opposition has
repeatedly shown itself to be opportunistic or
ineffective. The Serbian public seems oblivious to the
sufferings of the Kosovars and united in its opposition
to what Milosevic's propaganda machine calls "NATO
aggression." Only 27 intellectuals signed a recent
petition that even mentioned ethnic cleansing in Kosova
(the petition primarily railed against "NATO
aggression"). The students--in whom foreign democrats
recently placed so much hope--now seem more interested
in jiving to music provided by Milosevic's bands while
wearing his anti-NATO propaganda symbols than in
protesting genocide against their fellow citizens. The
once-independent newspapers and broadcasters have gotten
into line or been forced into submission.
	Germany's political future looked pretty bleak in
1945, too, and very few people had heard of Konrad
Adenauer or Kurt Schumacher. But Germany relied on its
own democratic traditions and generous tutelage from the
Western allies. Eventually, the Federal Republic took
its place among the leading democracies of modern
Europe.
	Similar patience and dedication by the
international community could soon help return the
Serbs--who have at least as much a democratic tradition
as any of their Balkan neighbors--to their place at the
figurative as well as literal center of southeastern
Europe.

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