True heroism consists not in fighting under a flag but in not fighting at all. - Freidrich Nietzsche
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 81, Part II, 27 April 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 81, Part II, 27 April 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* KAVAN SAYS HE'S NOT WORKING WITH MOSCOW ON KOSOVA
SOLUTION

* MILOSEVIC SENDS TROOPS TO MONTENEGRO

* UNHCR: SERBIAN FORCES USE KOSOVARS AS HUMAN SHIELDS

End Note: AFTER THE BOMBING STOPS
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

BELARUS TO OFFER RUSSIA 'RADICAL' DRAFT UNION TREATY.
Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka told
Belarusian Television on 26 April that his talks with
Russian President Boris Yeltsin in Moscow on 28 April
will touch upon the preparation of a draft union treaty
between Belarus and Russia and the implementation of
agreements reached earlier. Meanwhile, an unidentified
Belarusian source told Interfax the same day that
Belarus has drafted a treaty that envisions the post of
president as well as a joint government and parliament
for the union state. According to unnamed experts
working on the draft treaty, the document is of a
"radical character in terms of integration" and calls
for a single power structure and administration within
the union. Belarusian experts argue that Belarus should
hold a referendum on the formation of a union state with
Russia and on the necessary constitutional amendments.
JM

LUKASHENKA PRAISES UKRAINIAN COMMUNISTS FOR ANTI-NATO
STANCE. The Belarusian president has hailed the
Ukrainian Supreme Council resolution condemning the NATO
air strikes against Yugoslavia and urging the government
to restrict cooperation with the alliance (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 26 April 1999), Belarusian Television
reported on 26 April. At the same time, Lukashenka
expressed his regret that President Leonid Kuchma
participated in the NATO summit in Washington.
Lukashenka made these comments to a visiting Ukrainian
Supreme Council delegation, led by Communist leader
Petro Symonenko. JM

UKRAINE MARKS CHORNOBYL ACCIDENT ANNIVERSARY. "Despite
all difficulties, the state is trying to pursue every
opportunity to help and support those [affected] by
Chornobyl," UNIAN quoted President Kuchma as saying at a
26 April ceremony to open a new wing of the Center for
Radiation Medicine. The same day, some 1,000 people laid
wreaths at the Kyiv memorial to those who died after
taking part in the Chornobyl clean-up. According to a
Health Ministry report, a total of 4,365 people of those
involved in the clean-up have died since the 1986
accident. The same report says 167,653 Ukrainians have
died as a result of diseases either directly caused or
exacerbated by the accident. JM

UKRAINIAN FOREIGN MINISTER IN SOUTH AMERICA. Borys
Tarasyuk on 26 April began an official tour of
Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Chile, and Peru, UNIAN
reported. On arriving in Caracas, Tarasyuk said that
Latin America is not "terra incognita" for Ukrainian
foreign policy. Tarasyuk argued that the region is an
important market for Ukrainian products and that Ukraine
should actively develop contacts with Latin American
countries. Tarasyuk is accompanied by a group of
Ukrainian businessmen. JM

ESTONIAN NATIONAL EXPELLED FROM RUSSIA ON SPY CHARGES.
Pyotr Kalachev was expelled from Russia on 26 April
following his arrest last week on charges of spying for
Estonia on the Russian military. According to Russia's
Federal Security Service, Kalachev was caught while
"receiving secret information" at an air force base near
the city of Pskov, ITAR-TASS reported. The Estonian
intelligence service has denied the charges, saying
Kalachev was not working for it and may have been in
Russia on private business. This is the second such
incident in the past six months. Last October, another
Estonian national, Ville Sonn, was arrested outside
Pskov on suspicion of spying and was subsequently
deported. Estonian intelligence similarly denied Sonn
was in its employ. JC

OSCE AGAIN POINTS TO 'DEFICIENCIES' IN ESTONIAN LANGUAGE
LAW. The Estonian Foreign Ministry has revealed that
OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Max van
der Stoel sent a letter to Estonian Foreign Minister
Toomas Hendrik Ilves last month pointing out that some
provisions of Estonia's language law are not in keeping
with European norms, ETA reported on 27 April, citing
"Eesti Paevaleht." In particular, Van der Stoel took
issue with provisions requiring parliamentary and local
government members as well as those in the service
sector to be proficient in Estonian. According to Ilves,
Stoel did not demand that the law be amended but rather
noted its "deficiencies." The letter was not made public
until recently. JC

LITHUANIA STILL RECEIVING GAS FROM RUSSIA. Russia's
Gazprom is continuing to supply Lithuania with gas,
albeit at reduced levels, despite its threats to cease
deliveries beginning this week, ELTA reported on 26
April. Lithuanian Economy Minister Vincas Babilius
confirmed that the government is ready to approve state
guarantees for a 25 million litas ($6.25 million) loan
to Lietuvos Dujos so that the company can settle its 75
million litas debt to the Russian concern. Because of
that debt, Gazprom cut its gas deliveries to Lithuania
by 50 percent earlier this month (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
20 April 1999). Also on 26 April, the Lithuanian Foreign
Ministry announced it has joined the EU stance on
banning oil supplies to Yugoslavia. JC

POLISH PREMIER SATISFIED WITH NATO SUMMIT. Jerzy Buzek
said in Warsaw on 26 April that the Washington NATO
summit confirmed the three principal objectives of the
alliance: defense of its borders, defense of human
rights, and opening up to new countries. "Lithuania and
Slovakia are on the list of the countries that have a
chance to become NATO members in the coming years. The
credit for this goes to Polish diplomacy," PAP quoted
Buzek as saying. According to Buzek, the summit showed
there is a need to step up air strikes in Kosova and
impose an oil embargo on Yugoslavia. He added that
Poland will grant NATO access to its airports if the
alliance requests it. JM

POLAND TO FUND REPATRIATION OF POLES FROM KAZAKHSTAN. An
Interior Ministry official said on 26 April that Poland
will spend 10 million zlotys ($2.5 million) in 1999 on
the repatriation of Poles from Kazakhstan, Reuters
reported. The number of Poles deported to Kazakhstan by
the Soviet authorities in the 1930s and 1940s is
estimated at between 60,000 and 100,000. So far, local
governments have absorbed some 100 Polish families from
Kazakhstan, providing them with housing and jobs.
"Gazeta wyborcza" reported last week that the upper
house of the Polish parliament has prepared three draft
bills that will give repatriated Poles the right to
education and health care free of charge. With regard to
those repatriated from the Asian part of the former
USSR, the proposed bills guarantee them housing and jobs
or farms in Poland. JM

KAVAN SAYS HE'S NOT WORKING WITH MOSCOW ON KOSOVA
SOLUTION. Czech Foreign Minister Jan Kavan said in
Prague on 27 April that the Czech Republic and Russia
are not working on an agreement to end the fighting in
Kosova, CTK reported. Several hours earlier in New York,
Kavan was quoted by AP as saying that Prague and Moscow
are "informally preparing" a plan to resolve the crisis.
"We don't want to be just passive members of NATO," he
was quoted as saying. In New York on 26 April, President
Vaclav Havel said he found it "utterly embarrassing and
a large step on the path toward losing our credibility
that the Czech government declares" that its troops will
not take part in a ground force even before NATO has
made such a decision. Kavan has said that Czech forces
will participate in a peacekeeping force only after the
hostilities have ended. PB

KLAUS CRITICIZES NATO SUMMIT. Former Premier and current
parliamentary speaker Vaclav Klaus said on 26 April that
he considers the results of the NATO summit in
Washington to be "weak," CTK reported. Klaus, who was in
Washington during the summit, said the opinion "that
bombing should be intensified and an oil embargo
imposed...seems rather weak to me. Such an opinion could
have been voiced by a meeting of deputy foreign
ministers of NATO member countries." In other news, a
poll by the IVVM polling showed that confidence in
Zeman's government has fallen to 31 percent, down from
44 percent in September. President Havel was supported
by 52 percent of those polled. PB

SLOVAK PREMIER PLEASED WITH NATO SUMMIT. Mikulas
Dzurinda said on 26 April in Bratislava that he is
satisfied with the results of the NATO summit, stressing
that Slovakia wants to be a part of the next enlargement
of the alliance, TASR reported. Dzurinda said the
government will immediately start working on an action
plan listing criteria and conditions that Slovakia needs
to meet to qualify for NATO membership. In other news,
the Slovak Statistics Office said the country's trade
deficit for the first quarter of the year was 12.647
billion crowns ($299 million), down nearly 28 percent on
last year's level. Some 51 percent of all imports came
from EU countries. PB

HUNGARY SAYS NATO CAN USE AIRPORTS FOR BOMBING
OPERATIONS. The Hungarian Foreign Ministry said on 26
April that NATO can use its military airfields to carry
out air strikes against Yugoslav targets, AFP reported.
Some Hungarian politicians said they are unsure if a
motion passed by the parliament last month allowing NATO
unlimited use of its air space also gave the alliance
permission to use them to conduct bombing missions.
Zsolt Lanyi, the chairman of the parliament's defense
committee, said he believes that parliamentary approval
is needed for all foreign soldiers, even NATO pilots, to
be on Hungarian territory. The Hungarian government has
contested that view. PB

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

MILOSEVIC SENDS TROOPS TO MONTENEGRO. The Yugoslav army
on 26 April deployed 1,500 troops to Montenegro, some
500 of whom were reservists sent to the port of Bar. The
remaining 1,000 soldiers went to other places in the
mountainous republic, including the border region with
Croatia. The deployment follows reports that some
Yugoslav army officers in Montenegro have refused to
obey orders from Belgrade to "stoke up tension between
the army and the Montenegrin police," who are loyal to
Montenegrin President Milo Djukanovic, "The Independent"
reported. A legislator representing Bar told the London-
based daily that the soldiers may try to take control of
Bar's oil storage facilities and port. Bar has oil
reserves sufficient for two months. Many of its 1,800
port workers have received army induction notices, "The
Daily Telegraph" reported. Elsewhere, Djukanovic
appealed to Western countries to exempt Montenegro from
any oil embargo they may place on Serbia. PM

EU APPROVES MEASURES AGAINST SERBIA. EU foreign
ministers agreed in Luxembourg on 26 April to tighten
some existing economic sanctions against Belgrade. These
include a travel ban on Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic and his associates, banning export credits
guaranteed by private banks, tightening restrictions on
investments, and preventing companies from providing
services or technology to targets destroyed by NATO. The
ministers agreed to end all commercial air links with
Belgrade, AP reported. They also approved a ban on
shipments of oil and oil products to Yugoslavia but left
to NATO the question of how to enforce the prohibition.
Italy and Greece, which have important business
interests in Serbia, agreed to the ban only reluctantly.
They succeeded in blocking a proposed prohibition on
sporting contacts with Yugoslavia. The ministers also
discussed German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer's
long-term plan for promoting political and economic
stability in southeastern Europe. PM

'THOUSANDS' OF REFUGEES HEAD FOR MACEDONIA. Several
hundred Kosovars arrived at Macedonia's Blace transit
camp by bus on 27 April and more are continuing to come
to the camp, Reuters reported. Some 3,000 arrived the
previous day, a spokeswoman for the United Nations High
Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) said. She added that
the UNHCR has run out of land on which to accommodate
new arrivals. She noted that additional refugees arrive
as soon as the UNHCR succeeds in sending people from
Blace to other camps. A further 800 Kosovars arrived at
Lojane, which is not an official border crossing but has
become a point of entry for Kosovars seeking to avoid
Macedonian soldiers or police. Some refugees at Blace
told the UNHCR that "thousands" of additional displaced
persons are en route to Macedonia from the Ferizaj area.
The refugees added that Yugoslav trains carrying
Kosovars are often so full that they do not stop at some
stations, which are filled with displaced persons. PM

UNHCR: SERBIAN FORCES USE KOSOVARS AS HUMAN SHIELDS.
UNHCR spokesman Kris Janowski said in Geneva on 26 April
that some refugees report that "women and children are
being held in a three-storey building in Prizren, where
the first storey is being used to store ammunition for
troops, the second storey as living quarters for the
military and the highest floor is full of hostages." He
added that these and other refugee reports of the
Serbian forces using Kosovar civilians as human shields
"have substantial foundation." In Blace, aid worker Van
Generen Stort told Reuters that Serbian forces have
surrounded up to 20,000 Kosovars in Stuble, just north
of the Macedonian border. She added that some refugees
reported that Serbian forces killed up to 100 people in
Slavina. PM

FOOD CRISIS LOOMS IN KOSOVA. An aid worker for the UN's
World Food Program told Reuters in Skopje on 26 April
that many refugees fled Kosova because they had no food.
She added that Serbian shops will not sell food to
ethnic Albanians. The aid worker stressed that this
year's harvest is lost and that any Kosovars who go home
will be dependent on aid. PM

RED CROSS TO RETURN TO KOSOVA? A spokeswoman for the
International Committee of the Red Cross said in Geneva
on 27 April that ICRC representatives will soon begin
discussions with authorities in Belgrade to enable Red
Cross representatives to return to Yugoslavia. The
spokeswoman noted that "all parties will have to be
informed of our return. It is a country at war and we
will need security guarantees" from the Kosovars and
NATO as well as from Milosevic. The previous day,
Milosevic promised ICRC President Cornelio Sommaruga
that Red Cross officials will be able to move "freely
and safely" throughout Yugoslavia to aid civilians.
Sommaruga also met briefly with the three U.S. soldiers
held by Serbian forces. PM

MACEDONIANS DISAPPOINTED BY WEST. Macedonian President
Kiro Gligorov told CNN on 26 April in London that some
European countries, which he did not name, have broken
promises to the Macedonian authorities to take in
Kosovar refugees. He praised Germany, Turkey, and Norway
for accepting refugees. Elsewhere, Economics Minister
Zanko Cado announced his resignation to protest what he
said is the failure of the international community to
make good on its promises to provide Macedonia with
financial assistance. PM

NATO PUTS KUMANOVO BASE ON SECURITY ALERT. A spokesman
for the Atlantic alliance said in Skopje on 27 April
that security has been tightened at the Kumanovo
military base following "two large explosions" during
the night, AP reported. NATO officials said that hand
grenades caused the blasts, which produced neither
damage nor injuries. French troops are stationed in the
area. Macedonian police are investigating. PM

MORE ALBANIAN-YUGOSLAV BORDER CLASHES. Yugoslav soldiers
and Albanian border guards exchanged fire near Qafe e
Prushit on 26 April, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service
reported. Albanian officials said that the skirmish,
which lasted for several hours, began after Yugoslav
troops entered Albanian territory. They later withdrew.
Yugoslav forces also fired several mortar shells at
Tropoja. Meanwhile, the last six of a total of 24 U.S.
Apache helicopters arrived in Albania. They will target
mobile units in Kosova. One helicopter was destroyed
when it crashed during a training mission north of
Tirana airport that night. The two crewmen sustained
only minor injuries. FS

ALBANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER URGES NATO GROUND TROOPS IN
KOSOVA. Paskal Milo told Reuters in Luxembourg on 26
April that "it is necessary now to start [NATO] ground
operations," adding that "the international community
[must] act much more strongly [and] much faster, because
Milosevic is again trying to gain time." Milo welcomed
the proposed oil embargo against Yugoslavia but said he
suspects some neighboring countries will not respect it.
He did not name any of those countries. Milo added that
"maybe some Mafia will try to profit in an illegal way
from this black trade" and called for strict controls to
prevent violations of the embargo. Albanian gangs
smuggled large amounts of oil to Montenegro during the
Bosnian war from 1993-1995 and Albanian authorities did
not stop that illicit trade. FS

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES BUILD AIRPORT IN NORTHERN ALBANIA.
"Al-Ittihad" reported in Dubai on 26 April that the
United Arab Emirates' armed forces will reconstruct a
disused airport in Kukes to speed up the flow of aid to
Kosova refugees, AP reported. The airport will be
capable of receiving 150 tons of aid a day. It has a
3,000 foot runway and will be equipped with a mobile
control tower and an area for storing cargo. Meanwhile,
no refugees arrived in Kukes on 26 April. The total
number of refugees there is currently estimated at
90,000. Elsewhere, Deputy Minister of Local Government
Liri Jani on 26 April denied earlier press reports about
theft of foreign aid, dpa reported. Police officials in
Tirana, however, said last week that police have seized
four truckloads with aid diverted from refugee camps to
private homes in Durres and Tirana. FS

CROATIA FEARS TOURIST LOSSES OVER KOSOVA. Tourism
Minister Ivan Herak said in Zagreb on 26 April that the
government will spend an additional $10 million to help
the tourist industry minimize its losses stemming from
the reluctance of many tourists to travel to Croatia on
account of the Kosova crisis. Herak said that the
industry, which is one of the main sources of hard
currency, expects losses of up to 50 percent compared
with 1998, "Novi List" reported. Herak noted that
Croatian hoteliers will seek to attract customers
through low prices. PM

CROATIAN NGO: HUNDREDS OF SERB CIVILIANS KILLED SINCE
1995. The Croatian Helsinki Committee, which is a
prominent non-governmental organization, said in a
statement on 26 April that at least 410 Serbian
civilians died during the Croatian army's Operation
Storm against Krajina Serb forces in August 1995, "Novi
List" reported. At least 24 Serbs died in ethnically
motivated violence between 1996 and 1999, the study
added. Croatian troops burned, destroyed, or mined some
22,000 homes in the Krajina region in 1995. PM

ROMANIAN LEADERS LUKEWARM ON NATO SUMMIT. Foreign
Minister Andrei Plesu said on 26 April in Washington
that he is "partially satisfied" with the results of the
NATO summit, Rompres reported. Plesu said Romania has
upgraded its status in the eyes of NATO members. At the
same time, he said Romania had hoped to receive a more
detailed evaluation of its status and a list of
political, economic, military, and legal criteria that
it needs to meet in order to be accepted as a member.
Romanian President Emil Constantinescu said the same day
that "an admittance date some time beyond 2002 is an
unjust and far-away prospect for our countries, which
have assumed the same risks as any other NATO
countries." He called for the quick admission of
Bulgaria, Romania, and Slovenia to strengthen the
alliance's southern flank. PB

IMF DIRECTOR PRAISES ROMANIA. Michel Camdessus said on
26 April that Romania is committed to the economic
reforms contained in a new IMF lending program for the
country, Reuters reported. Camdessus said he "totally
trusts" President Constantinescu in guiding the
implementation of the agreement. Romania and the IMF
agreed on a $500 million IMF standby loan last week. In
other news, the government announced that several trains
will be made available for Catholics in Transylvania to
take them to Bucharest during Pope John Paul II's 7-9
May visit. PB

KOSTOV WANTS WEST TO TACKLE POVERTY IN BALKANS.
Bulgarian Prime Minister Ivan Kostov urged Western
countries on 26 April to increase their economic and
political support for democracies in southeastern
Europe. In an interview with the daily "Standart,"
Kostov said that "poverty is the common cause of Balkan
problems." He said "it will be tragic if [the West]
doesn't understand that, they will never be able to cope
with problems here." A poll by the National Public
Opinion Center released on 25 April showed that 60
percent of respondents supported Bulgaria's granting
NATO an air corridor along its western border. Other
opinion polls have shown a majority of Bulgarians
opposed to the NATO air campaign against Yugoslavia. PB

BULGARIAN, MACEDONIAN MINISTERS MEET IN SOFIA. Bulgarian
Deputy Premier Evgeniy Bakurdzhiev and his Macedonian
counterpart, Dosta Dimovska, held talks on 26 April, BTA
reported. The two sides are seeking EU funding for the
construction of a railway line from Kyustendil to
Kumanovo as well as technical aid to establish a power
line between the countries. Dimovska also appealed to
Bulgarian companies to purchase Macedonian goods that
normally are bought by Serbia, which accounts for some
40 percent of Macedonia's total exports. Bakurdzhiev
said Sofia is determined not to let the war in
Yugoslavia "stamp out the fragile democracy in
Macedonia." He also pledged to help build pre-fabricated
shelters for Kosovar refugees in Macedonia. PB

END NOTE

AFTER THE BOMBING STOPS

By Paul Goble

	Even as NATO continues its air strikes against
Yugoslavia, ever more Western leaders are beginning to
focus on what the Western alliance should do in the
Balkans after the bombing has stopped.
	Such discussions are likely to intensify now that
the alliance has issued a communique that suggests its
member states are at least as interested in a diplomatic
resolution of the conflict as in continuing to use
military power to achieve their original aims.
	So far, most of the discussions have centered on
some kind of Marshall Plan for the Balkans. Such a
program, named for and modeled on U.S. assistance to
Western Europe after World War II, would apparently
involve massive, multilateral aid from NATO countries to
the war-ravaged states of the former Yugoslavia.
	By invoking the name of the largest and most
successful foreign assistance program in history,
officials in NATO countries clearly hope not only to put
additional pressure on Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic to reach a settlement but also to redirect the
efforts of the Western alliance in a non-military
direction.
	But there are at least three reasons why a new
"Marshal Plan for the Balkans" will have to be very
different from its model if it is to help bring peace
and stability to that turbulent region.
	First, the original Marshal Plan was funded and
directed by one country, the U.S. A new such plan for
the Balkans would be funded and directed by a group of
states and thus subject to the kinds of decision by
committee that appear to govern much of NATO's
activities. That would almost certainly guarantee that
any program announced would suffer from inevitable
differences of opinion within the alliance and might
even make it impossible for any program announced ever
to be realized.
	Second, the original Marshall Plan took shape to
counter a single, overriding threat to Western Europe.
While the U.S. had hoped to extend assistance to all
Europe, Soviet leader Joseph Stalin's veto dashing that
hope probably had the unintended consequence of making
the Marshall Plan more successful than it would
otherwise have been.
	On the one hand, it meant that U.S. assistance was
focused on a smaller number of countries and thus had a
bigger impact than would have been the case if it had
been spread more widely. On the other, Soviet opposition
had the effect of generating more domestic U.S. support
for it because Washington was able to point to the way
in which the Marshall Plan was contributing to U.S.
security interests in Europe.
	Any aid package to the Balkans will not have that
external disciplining factor. Not only will that mean
that the domestic constituencies in many countries will
be reluctant to fund a new plan at the levels that would
be needed; it will also mean that the lack of an
external threat will almost certainly guarantee that the
members of the alliance will stay less united on this
issue, just as they are on so many others.
	Third, the original Marshall Plan was intended to
restore the economies of the countries of Western
Europe, not to create something fundamentally new. Any
aid package to the Balkans would have to address the far
larger and more complicated issues of nation- and
economy-building, issues that few foreign aid programs
have been successful at resolving.
	In many ways, the discussions about a new Marshall
Plan for the Balkans reflect the difficulties of finding
a solution to the conflicts in that region. Obviously,
the people there will need massive amounts of aid to
overcome the tragedies visited upon them by Milosevic
and his supporters.
	But before the West can design an aid package that
will help them, these conflicts will have to be
addressed and some resolution found. Once that occurs, a
genuine assistance program can be developed to meet the
specific needs of the people and political structures
that will then be in place.
	In thinking about the future, those proposing a new
Marshall Plan for that region should remember that the
original Marshall Plan was not proposed until more than
two years after the bombs had stopped falling.

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