Silence is the real crime against humanity. - Nadezhda Mandelstam
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 72, Part II, 14 April 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 72, Part II, 14 April 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* EU URGES UKRAINE TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD

* SERBS AGAIN USING SYSTEMATIC RAPE?

* NATO BOMBS BELGRADE AS LUKASHENKA VISITS

END NOTE: Basic Agreement Reached On New European Arms
Accord
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

LUKASHENKA FLIES TO BELGRADE. Belarusian President
Alyaksandr Lukashenka flew to Belgrade on 14 April to
meet with Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic.
According to ITAR-TASS, Lukashenka told journalists
before departing that his trip is "to continue the
mission of Russian Prime Minister Yevgenii Primakov."
ITAR-TASS also reported that NATO informed Lukashenka
that his flight to Yugoslavia would be undesirable,
while Lukashenka's deputy chief of staff Ivan Pashkevich
said NATO "has not officially responded to our request"
regarding Lukashenka's trip. Belarusian Television
reported on 13 April that Russian President Boris
Yeltsin has instructed "appropriate Russian structures"
to guarantee the safety of Lukashenka's flight to
Belgrade. JM

BELARUS-RUSSIAN INTEGRATION BODY HOLDS SESSION IN MINSK.
The Executive Committee of the Union of Belarus and
Russia met in Minsk on 13 April to discuss about 20
economic issues. The meeting ended with the signing of
two government agreements on control over exports and on
price regulation in the transport, communication, and
gas sectors. Russian First Deputy Premier Vadim Gustov
commented that "we are fulfilling instructions of both
presidents in order to sign--apparently, in June,
because we have so far not been given another date--this
fateful agreement between Russia and Belarus."
Lukashenka and Yeltsin agreed on 25 December last year
to prepare by mid-1999 a treaty on a Belarusian-Russian
union state. JM

EU WANTS UKRAINE TO CONTINUE KOSOVA PEACE EFFORTS... The
foreign ministers of Germany, Austria, and Finland--
Joschka Fischer, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, and Tarja
Halonen--along with EU Foreign Relations Commissioner
Hans van der Broek, met with President Leonid Kuchma and
Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk in Kyiv on 13 April. The
EU visitors praised Kuchma's initiatives to settle the
Kosova conflict and urged him to pursue Ukrainian peace
efforts, Interfax reported. Fischer told journalists
after the meeting that, according to the EU's stance,
all Serbian troops must leave Kosova to allow refugees
to return. He also spoke in favor of a UN-sanctioned
military force to keep peace in Kosova. Tarasyuk said
Ukraine is ready to send troops to Kosova, provided that
international peacekeeping forces operate under UN or
OSCE command. JM

...URGES UKRAINE TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. German
Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer also said in Kyiv that
if Ukraine wants to integrate into Europe it should
ensure more efficient protection of human rights,
including the abolishment of the death penalty, AP
reported. Ukraine wants to sign a free-trade agreement
with the EU and join it as an associate member, but has
so far failed to meet the Council of Europe's
requirements to ban the death penalty and approve other
legislation on human rights protection. JM

KUCHMA WANTS REFORMS TO BE MORE SOCIALLY ORIENTED. The
Ukrainian president told a meeting at the Labor and
Social Policy Ministry on 13 April that "the social
dimension of the reforms underway must be their dominant
feature and the social factor must be regarded as a
major ingredient of stabilization and economic growth."
He criticized the performance of the cabinet in the
sphere of social policy but ruled out any significant
cabinet reshuffles until the presidential elections on
31 October. "The people and myself have run out of
patience, [but] a reshuffle would serve no good
purpose," he said. JM

SECOND COURT ACQUITS ESTONIAN FINANCE MINISTER. The
Tallinn District Court on 13 April acquitted Siim Kallas
of fraud in the so-called $10 million affair, upholding
an earlier ruling by the Tallinn Municipal Court, ETA
reported. Last month, on the eve of the general
elections, Kallas was cleared of those charges, which
were made against him in his former capacity as governor
of the Central Bank in 1993. The prosecutor, who had
demanded a one-year suspended sentence for Kallas, can
now appeal the verdict to the Supreme Court. JC

LATVIAN SOCIAL BUDGET DEFICIT TO TOTAL SOME $166
MILLION? The Finance Ministry has predicted that the
deficit in this year's social budget could total 96
million lats (some $166 million), exceeding the planned
shortfall by almost 60 million lats, LETA reported on 13
April. Minister of Finance Ivars Godmanis informed the
parliamentary Budget and Finance Commission that in the
first three months of this year, the deficit was 22
million lats. He added that the government will soon
come up with a proposal to review and amend legislation
related to pension payments in order to reduce the
deficit. Social expenditures have increased, largely
because of an 8.8 percent hike in pensions last year,
the recalculation of pensions, and the indexing of
pensions for those over 80. JC

MAZEIKIU NAFTA LOST SOME $5 MILLION EARLIER THIS YEAR.
The Lithuanian oil concern Mazeikiu Nafta had losses
totaling 19.4 million litas ($4.85 million) earlier this
year when deliveries of crude to the plant were
discontinued, ELTA reported on 13 April. The oil
refinery lay idle for 16 days, during which time repairs
were carried out. According to a commission formed by
the Economy Ministry, the shortage of crude can be
attributed to curtailed Russian oil exports, the absence
of long-term contracts for crude deliveries, and
mistakes by the management of the oil refinery. JC

POLISH PRESIDENT IN VILNIUS. Following a meeting with
his Lithuanian counterpart, Valdas Adamkus, in Vilnius
on 13 April, Aleksander Kwasniewski told journalists
that Poland, as a new member state of NATO, is now able
to advocate from within the alliance that the Baltic
states also be admitted, ELTA reported. The Polish
leader vowed that he will raise the issue of further
expansion at the Washington summit later this month.
Meanwhile, Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius assured
Kwasniewski that the ongoing administrative reform in
Lithuania will not harm the interests of the country's
Polish community. The two leaders rated both countries'
records vis-a-vis their national minorities as positive.
JC

POLAND TO SEND TROOPS TO HELP KOSOVA REFUGEES. The
Polish government on 13 April decided to send some 120
infantry soldiers to Albania to help set up camps for
Kosova refugees. President Aleksander Kwasniewski, who
must approve any dispatch of troops abroad as chief
commander of Poland's Armed Forces, said the same day
that he will sign his agreement as soon as he returns to
Warsaw from his visit to Lithuania. Prime Minister Jerzy
Buzek said Poland will receive 1,000 Kosova refugees now
staying in Macedonia and Albania. Deputy Prime Minister
Leszek Balcerowicz announced that 4 million zlotys ($1
million) has been earmarked for this operation in
addition to the 2 million zlotys assigned earlier for
Poland's Kosova relief effort. JM

CZECHS BACKING POSSIBLE 'BALKAN MINI-MARSHALL PLAN.'
Foreign Minister Jan Kavan on 13 April told journalists
that at NATO's meeting of foreign ministers the previous
day he had expressed support for the "idea of a mini-
Marshall plan" for the Balkans. Kavan said that despite
the growing crisis, it is necessary to think about the
future of this region, [which has been] enormously
affected by the war." He also said NATO must prevent the
Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) from becoming militarily
strong after the Yugoslav withdrawal from the province
and must take a hard line against possible UCK
belligerence, CTK and Reuters reported. Earlier, Kavan
told CTK that President Vaclav Havel's warning that
Czech behavior in the Kosova crisis could jeopardize the
further enlargement of NATO was due to the "cacophony of
noises now heard on the Czech political scene." MS

VISEGRAD GROUP TO MEET IN BRATISLAVA. Slovak Foreign
Ministry state secretary Jan Figel on 13 April told
journalists that the premiers of the Czech Republic,
Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia will meet in Bratislava on
14 May to revive the "Visegrad cooperation group," CTK
reported. "Slovakia is returning where it naturally
belongs," Figel said, adding that this "new beginning"
can help Bratislava in its quest to be included with the
EU "fast track" candidates as well promote its candidacy
to NATO and the OECD, to which the other three Visegrad
countries have already been admitted. Figel spoke after
talks with his Czech, Hungarian, and Polish
counterparts, who all expressed support for Slovakia's
accession to these organizations. MS

HUNGARIAN OFFICIALS TURNED BACK AT YUGOSLAV BORDER. The
Yugoslav authorities on 13 April refused entry to two
Hungarian custom officials, declaring them persona non
grata. The officials were escorting the Russian convoy
allowed to proceed to Yugoslavia after being held up at
the Hungarian-Ukrainian border (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
12 and 13 April 1999) and their task was to check that
the transport is used for humanitarian purposes and the
convoy returns from Yugoslavia. A spokesman for the
Hungarian Civil Guards said that due to the incident,
similar shipments may not be allowed to transit Hungary
in the future, Hungarian media reported. MS

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

SERBS AGAIN USING SYSTEMATIC RAPE? British Foreign
Secretary Robin Cook said in London on 13 April that
numerous independent accounts by Kosovar women indicate
that the Serbian forces are using systematic rape as an
instrument of policy as they did in Bosnia-Herzegovina.
Many women said that they were forced to have sex with
Serbian soldiers in full view of their own families.
Cook noted that "this completes the pattern of brutality
of [Yugoslav President Slobodan] Milosevic's forces in
Bosnia," the BBC reported. Milosevic's Tanjug news
agency dismissed the charges of systematic rape as
"propaganda." Observers note that Kosovar and Bosnian
Muslim societies are very conservative and that
extramarital sex by women can lead to lasting shame for
them and their families. The Hamburg-based weekly "Der
Spiegel" noted on 12 April that Serbian forces regularly
humiliate and physically abuse their victims as part of
the ethnic cleansing campaign. PM

NATO INVESTIGATES REPORTS OF 'RAPE CAMP.' A spokesman
for the Atlantic alliance said in Brussels on 13 April
that NATO is investigating reports that Serbian forces
have set up a camp in Gjakova where Kosovar women are
raped and killed. Another spokesman added that refugees'
reports of systematic rape and other war crimes "are
taking on the proportions of an encyclopedia." He
concluded that "it is difficult to believe that
something bad isn't happening. I fear that when this
crisis ends and the international organizations--in
particular the war crimes tribunal--are able to go into
[Kosova], our worst fears are going to be confirmed." In
Washington, a Pentagon spokesman said that the reports
of systematic rape constitute "a very eerie and
disturbing echo of documented instances of rape and
killing of women in Bosnia during the Bosnia war." PM

MORE EVIDENCE OF ATROCITIES? NATO is investigating
reports of what may be a fresh mass grave at Velika
Krusa between Prizren and Gjakova, the VOA's Croatian
Service reported on 14 April. At Kacanik near the
Macedonian border, the Kosova Liberation Army's (UCK)
Kosova Press agency reported the previous day that
Serbian forces "massacred" some 45 ethnic Albanians on 9
April. The UCK claimed that only 12 of the 45 were
fighters and that the rest were civilians. The report
has not been independently confirmed. Elsewhere, Mirjana
Markovic, who is a prominent Serbian communist and the
wife of Milosevic, told a leading Italian talk show that
"the [Kosovar] Albanians shouldn't fear anyone,
especially not the Serbs," AP reported. PM

NATO BOMBS BELGRADE AS LUKASHENKA VISITS. The Atlantic
alliance "launched a very powerful attack" on the
Serbian capital in the morning of 14 April, AFP
reported. The bombing took place as Milosevic met with
Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka. A Serbian
spokesman called the attack "a rude gesture to
demonstrate NATO's military might," AP reported. The
previous day in Washington, President Bill Clinton said
that "now we are taking our allied air campaign to the
next level with more aircraft in the region, with a
British carrier joining our 'USS Roosevelt' and a French
carrier in the area." In the Pentagon, a spokesman added
that there will soon be "a very significant increase in
[the number of] aircraft" available for strikes against
Serbian targets. In Brussels, General Wesley Clark, who
is NATO's top military commander, said he wants 300
additional U.S. aircraft, which would bring the total to
some 1,000 planes. PM

SERBIAN FORCES ENTER ALBANIA. Around 100 Serbian troops
crossed into Albania on 13 April, seized control of the
border village of Kamenica and fought a running battle
with border police and regular army troops for several
hours, Information Minister Musa Ulqini told AP. The
Serbian troops withdrew later in the day after
destroying several houses. OSCE monitors confirmed the
report. A Serbian General Staff spokesman called the
account a "loathsome lie" and accused the OSCE monitors
of bias. Elsewhere, two rockets exploded near Kruma in
the Has Mountains on 13 April. It is not clear who fired
the rockets, but observers speculated that Yugoslav
troops targeted a nearby UCK training camp. Witnesses
told Reuters that the rockets released a carpet of small
mines in the area, some of which exploded on impact. No
one was injured. FS

ALBANIAN PRESIDENT WARNS YUGOSLAVIA... Rexhep Meidani
told France Info Radio in Paris on 13 April that "there
will be a tough military response...by the Albanian army
and the Albanian people," to further incursions by
Serbian troops. Meanwhile, Foreign Minister Paskal Milo
told German Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping in Bonn
that "life for [Kosovar] Albanians and Serbs under a
joint institutional structure will be unacceptable after
their recent experiences," Reuters reported. Milo
stressed, however, that Tirana has no intention of
seeking to incorporate Kosova into its territory. FS

...AS DOES NATO. In a statement to parliament on 13
April, British Prime Minister Tony Blair said NATO
remains committed to respond to any challenges to
Albania's or Macedonia's security. In Washington, a
White House spokesman warned Milosevic that he will face
"the most serious consequences" if reports of the
incursion prove to be accurate. FS

BONN UNVEILS PEACE PLAN. A Foreign Ministry spokesman
said on 14 April that Germany has prepared a six-point
peace plan that it wants the G-8 countries to implement,
dpa reported. Observers suggest that, at first glance,
it appears similar to NATO's five demands on Milosevic,
except that the peacekeeping force will have a UN
mandate and the interim government in Kosova will also
be authorized by the world body (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
13 April 1999). NATO will "permanently suspend" air
strikes once Serbian forces leave the province. In
Strasbourg, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said that "the
terrible developments in [Kosova] are not solely a
domestic policy issue for Yugoslavia itself...Europe's
voice has to remain resolute" to enable the refugees to
go home, AP noted. PM

GERMANY LINKS EU MEMBERSHIP, REFUGEE ISSUE FOR
MACEDONIA. On 14 April, some 1,000 Kosovar refugees
arrived at the Macedonian border crossing Blace. The
previous day, German Deputy Foreign Minister Guenter
Verheugen said in Skopje that "the way Macedonia treats
the refugees will have an influence on its request to
become an associate member of the EU," Reuters reported.
He urged government and opposition leaders to promote
political stability as the key to improved relations
with the international community. PM

YUGOSLAV NAVY REFUSES TO LEAVE MONTENEGRIN PORT. Admiral
Milan Zec said in Belgrade on 13 April that the Navy
rejects the demand of Petrasin Kasalica, who is the
chief administrator of Bar, to leave that port (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 13 April 1999). Zec called the demand
"dangerous and unacceptable" and said Kasalica's
statement had given NATO information about the location
and name of a Yugoslav warship. PM

TAMED RADIO B-92 ON THE AIR. The formerly independent
Radio B-92 went back on the air on 13 April, three weeks
after the authorities banned it. The station is now
under new, pro-Milosevic management. Its broadcasting
fare includes news from official sources and Serbian
music. PM

BOSNIAN SERB SENTENCED FOR WAR CRIMES. A Sarajevo court
sentenced Goran Vasic to ten years in prison on 13 April
for war crimes against civilians and prisoners of war
during the 1992-1995 conflict. The court acquitted him
of killing Deputy Prime Minister Hakija Turajlic in 1993
for lack of evidence. The prosecutor said he will appeal
and seek a harsher sentence. In Koblenz, Germany, the
authorities are holding an unnamed 25 year-old Serb-
Canadian for allegedly holding a Czech and a Canadian
officer as human shields during 1995 NATO air strikes
against Bosnian Serb positions. PM

BOSNIAN FEDERAL PARLIAMENT RATIFIES AGREEMENT WITH
CROATIA. The lower house of the mainly Muslim and
Croatian federal legislature approved on 13 April a
treaty outlining special relations with Croatia. Many
Muslims opposed the pact on the grounds that it would
give Zagreb too much say in the affairs of the Croatian
population of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnia's Western
allies support the measure in order to promote both
countries' postwar recovery. Zagreb says that the pact
is necessary to prevent the Croats of Bosnia-Herzegovina
from becoming second-class citizens in a state with a
Muslim majority. PM

REFUGEES CONTINUE TO ARRIVE IN BOSNIA. More than 38,000
refugees from Kosova and Sandzak are currently in
Bosnia-Herzegovina, "Dnevni avaz" wrote on 14 April.
Some 30,000 are in the federation, 2,200 of whom are
Serbs. An additional 8,000 refugees are staying in the
Republika Srpska. PM

ROMANIAN POLITICIANS REACT TO YUGOSLAV 'UNION' WITH
RUSSIA-BELARUS... National Peasant Party Christian
Democratic chairman Ion Diaconescu on 13 April said that
the intended joining of the Union of Belarus and Russia
by Yugoslavia is "an attempt to block NATO's way into
the Balkans and restore Russian influence there,"
RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. He added that the
decision of the parliament in Belgrade was "inoperative"
because "Russia can no longer influence events in the
Balkans." APR leader Melescanu said the decision was
"dangerous" for Romania, which is "likely to find itself
between two new rival alliances," and that Romanian
diplomacy must "intelligently speculate" on it to
promote accession to NATO. Iliescu said the decision
reflected "Yugoslav desperation" in face of "NATO
aggression" and will have "no impact whatsoever on
Romania." MS

... WHICH IS DISCUSSED WITH FOREIGN GUESTS AS WELL.
Visiting Bulgarian Defense Minister Georgi Ananiev on 13
April told journalists that Yugoslavia's accession to
the union was "just a declaration of intentions" that
met with no response from Russia and Belarus. His host,
Defense Minister Victor Babiuc, called it "an attempt to
implicate Russia and Belarus in the conflict with NATO,"
which cannot succeed. Attending a meeting between the
visiting U.S. Department of Defense's director for
Europe and NATO, General Henry Kievenaar, and Foreign
Minister Andrei Plesu, the Romanian chief of staff,
General Constantin Degeratu, said Yugoslav accession to
the union is "raising legitimate security problems that
cannot be ignored by Romania. " Foreign Ministry
spokeswoman Simona Miculescu said on 14 April that even
if the union is "finalized," its coming into being must
not affect the main Romanian foreign policy objectives,
which are "integration into European and Euro-Atlantic
structures," Mediafax reported. MS

MOLDOVA DENIES CIS PRESSURE OVER ITS POSITION ON
YUGOSLAVIA... Foreign Ministry spokesman Oleg Serebrian,
in an interview with Radio Bucharest on 13 April, said
that the CIS members had not exerted any pressure on
Moldova to change its position towards the conflict in
Kosova. Serebrian said that Moldova's geographical
position "imposes a policy of neutrality and prudence"
in relations with NATO and Russia and that Chisinau
"hopes that the animosities between Moscow and Brussels
will not lead to the bipolarization of the international
political system." MS

...OR PLANNING TO APPLY 'YUGOSLAV MODEL' TO
TRANSDNIESTER. Briefing journalists on the same day in
Chisinau, Serebrian rejected statements made in Tiraspol
that Moldova intends to apply "the Yugoslav scenario" in
the separatist region. He said that Chisinau intends to
solve the conflict "exclusively by peaceful means" and
that "seven long years of negotiations are proof of
this." The "events of 1991-92," he said," will never
repeat themselves," Infotag reported. MS

BULGARIA, AUSTRIA SUPPORT BALKAN STABILIZATION PLAN.
Visiting Austrian President Thomas Klestil and his
Bulgarian host, Petar Stoyanov, told journalists on 13
April that they back recent European Union plans aimed
at the stabilization of southeastern Europe, dpa and
Reuters reported. Klestil said that the region's
problems related to human rights and ethnic minorities
must be discussed at a special Balkan conference. He
added that Russia must be part of the process of
negotiations for a settlement in Kosova. Stoyanov said
that it is "necessary to design a kind of Marshall plan
for the post-war reconstruction of the Balkan region."
He said that "ethnic and regional conflicts will
disappear as the Balkan states improve their living
standards and start feeling a part of the European
family." MS

END NOTE

Basic Agreement Reached On New European Arms Accord

By Roland Eggleston

	German officials and officials with the
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
(OSCE) say that after years of negotiations, agreement
has been reached on the basic elements of a new treaty
restricting conventional weaponry in Europe.
	German diplomats and OSCE officials, speaking on
condition of anonymity, told RFE/RL that the basic
agreement was reached last week in Vienna, where the
negotiations have been based.
	The treaty would place limits on the number of
artillery, tanks, armored troop carriers, war planes,
and attack helicopters which can be held by any
individual nation. Another part restricts the number of
reinforcements which can be brought in from other
countries.
	NATO had earlier said the agreement would be "the
cornerstone" of a new security regime in Europe. The aim
is to ensure that in the future, no single country will
be able to maintain military forces at levels which
would allow it to hold a dominating position on the
European continent.
	German and OSCE officials say that the basic
agreement concluded in Vienna last week has been
accepted by 30 states, including Russia, Ukraine, the
United States, and all other members of NATO and the
former Warsaw Pact. Confirmation from other capitals was
not immediately available.
	The officials said the agreed treaty will be
presented at this month's NATO Summit meeting in
Washington and the final text is expected to be signed
at a summit meeting of the OSCE in Istanbul in November.
	The new treaty will replace the 1990 Conventional
Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty limiting conventional
forces on the continent, and several amendments since
then.
	The German and OSCE officials said it was achieved
only after difficult negotiations in which all parties
had to give way on some cherished positions.
	They said that as an example, both Russia and NATO
had to give way on some measures involving the new
members of NATO--Hungary, Poland, and the Czech
Republic. They said Russia also gave way on some of its
positions about its forces in the Caucasus.
	The original 1990 CFE treaty was based on the total
holdings of two blocs of military power--NATO and the
Warsaw Pact. The new treaty would treat every country
individually. Each would be allowed a maximum number of
conventional forces of its own and each is allowed to
deploy only a certain number of foreign forces on its
territory to make an overall limit.
	German officials said, for example, that Germany
will be allowed a maximum of 3,444 main battle tanks of
its own. Other countries may station tanks in Germany,
but the overall total of both German and foreign tanks
cannot exceed 4,704. It is the same with artillery
systems. Germany is to be allowed 2,255 of its own but
foreign countries can only deploy about half that number
on German soil.
	German diplomats told RFE/RL that the expansion of
NATO with the inclusion of the Czech Republic, Poland,
and Hungary created problems which were solved only
after months of argument. Russia argued that the
admission of these states brought NATO's frontline
closer to its borders and it was entitled to special
privileges to protect itself.
	One argument focused on the maximum limits allowed
each country. The officials said it was defused only
through a concession by the new member states of NATO.
They agreed that they would cut their forces to below
the levels originally proposed. The deadline for making
these cuts is 2003. As an example, Poland will reduce
the number of its main battle tanks from 1,730 to 1,577
by then.
	The officials say that in another move to ease
Moscow's concerns, several states close to Russia's
borders have agreed to limit the number of foreign
forces deployed on their territory. In return, Russia
agreed to concessions regarding the deployment of forces
in Kaliningrad and Pskov.
	German diplomats said the purpose of these and
other agreements was to decrease tensions in the
sensitive border areas between Russia and NATO.
	Another problem which was resolved only after long
negotiations was the rapid deployment of forces in a
crisis situation. Strict adherence to the limits would
have meant that only a certain number of foreign forces
could be sent to another country involved in a crisis.
The United States, in particular, insisted on more
flexibility. Finally, Russia agreed with NATO that in
these exceptional circumstances two divisions of battle
tanks, armored troop carriers, and artillery systems
could be temporarily based in the affected country.
	The officials said that the so-called 'Flank Areas'
covering Russia's St. Petersburg military district and
the Caucasus created other problems. Originally, Russia
wanted to lift all restrictions on its deployment of
troops in these regions. There were objections from
Turkey, Georgia, Norway, and some other countries. They
argued that, in theory, this could allow Moscow to
station its entire armed forces on the borders in the
south or the north. Finally, Russia agreed to a system
limiting the number of forces it can move in and out of
these regions according to the situation.
	The document now agreed upon in Vienna is more than
100 pages long.
	Diplomats describe it as a "basic structure." More
months of negotiation will be needed to refine the rough
text and re-examine some of the details, which could
lead to new arguments. But the experts are confident it
will be ready for signing by the heads of state and
government at the OSCE Summit meeting in Istanbul in
November.

Roland Eggleston is a senior RFE/RL correspondent based
in Munich.
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