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RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 72, Part II, 14 April 1999
________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 72, Part II, 14 April 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * EU URGES UKRAINE TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD * SERBS AGAIN USING SYSTEMATIC RAPE? * NATO BOMBS BELGRADE AS LUKASHENKA VISITS END NOTE: Basic Agreement Reached On New European Arms Accord xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE LUKASHENKA FLIES TO BELGRADE. Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka flew to Belgrade on 14 April to meet with Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic. According to ITAR-TASS, Lukashenka told journalists before departing that his trip is "to continue the mission of Russian Prime Minister Yevgenii Primakov." ITAR-TASS also reported that NATO informed Lukashenka that his flight to Yugoslavia would be undesirable, while Lukashenka's deputy chief of staff Ivan Pashkevich said NATO "has not officially responded to our request" regarding Lukashenka's trip. Belarusian Television reported on 13 April that Russian President Boris Yeltsin has instructed "appropriate Russian structures" to guarantee the safety of Lukashenka's flight to Belgrade. JM BELARUS-RUSSIAN INTEGRATION BODY HOLDS SESSION IN MINSK. The Executive Committee of the Union of Belarus and Russia met in Minsk on 13 April to discuss about 20 economic issues. The meeting ended with the signing of two government agreements on control over exports and on price regulation in the transport, communication, and gas sectors. Russian First Deputy Premier Vadim Gustov commented that "we are fulfilling instructions of both presidents in order to sign--apparently, in June, because we have so far not been given another date--this fateful agreement between Russia and Belarus." Lukashenka and Yeltsin agreed on 25 December last year to prepare by mid-1999 a treaty on a Belarusian-Russian union state. JM EU WANTS UKRAINE TO CONTINUE KOSOVA PEACE EFFORTS... The foreign ministers of Germany, Austria, and Finland-- Joschka Fischer, Benita Ferrero-Waldner, and Tarja Halonen--along with EU Foreign Relations Commissioner Hans van der Broek, met with President Leonid Kuchma and Foreign Minister Borys Tarasyuk in Kyiv on 13 April. The EU visitors praised Kuchma's initiatives to settle the Kosova conflict and urged him to pursue Ukrainian peace efforts, Interfax reported. Fischer told journalists after the meeting that, according to the EU's stance, all Serbian troops must leave Kosova to allow refugees to return. He also spoke in favor of a UN-sanctioned military force to keep peace in Kosova. Tarasyuk said Ukraine is ready to send troops to Kosova, provided that international peacekeeping forces operate under UN or OSCE command. JM ...URGES UKRAINE TO IMPROVE HUMAN RIGHTS RECORD. German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer also said in Kyiv that if Ukraine wants to integrate into Europe it should ensure more efficient protection of human rights, including the abolishment of the death penalty, AP reported. Ukraine wants to sign a free-trade agreement with the EU and join it as an associate member, but has so far failed to meet the Council of Europe's requirements to ban the death penalty and approve other legislation on human rights protection. JM KUCHMA WANTS REFORMS TO BE MORE SOCIALLY ORIENTED. The Ukrainian president told a meeting at the Labor and Social Policy Ministry on 13 April that "the social dimension of the reforms underway must be their dominant feature and the social factor must be regarded as a major ingredient of stabilization and economic growth." He criticized the performance of the cabinet in the sphere of social policy but ruled out any significant cabinet reshuffles until the presidential elections on 31 October. "The people and myself have run out of patience, [but] a reshuffle would serve no good purpose," he said. JM SECOND COURT ACQUITS ESTONIAN FINANCE MINISTER. The Tallinn District Court on 13 April acquitted Siim Kallas of fraud in the so-called $10 million affair, upholding an earlier ruling by the Tallinn Municipal Court, ETA reported. Last month, on the eve of the general elections, Kallas was cleared of those charges, which were made against him in his former capacity as governor of the Central Bank in 1993. The prosecutor, who had demanded a one-year suspended sentence for Kallas, can now appeal the verdict to the Supreme Court. JC LATVIAN SOCIAL BUDGET DEFICIT TO TOTAL SOME $166 MILLION? The Finance Ministry has predicted that the deficit in this year's social budget could total 96 million lats (some $166 million), exceeding the planned shortfall by almost 60 million lats, LETA reported on 13 April. Minister of Finance Ivars Godmanis informed the parliamentary Budget and Finance Commission that in the first three months of this year, the deficit was 22 million lats. He added that the government will soon come up with a proposal to review and amend legislation related to pension payments in order to reduce the deficit. Social expenditures have increased, largely because of an 8.8 percent hike in pensions last year, the recalculation of pensions, and the indexing of pensions for those over 80. JC MAZEIKIU NAFTA LOST SOME $5 MILLION EARLIER THIS YEAR. The Lithuanian oil concern Mazeikiu Nafta had losses totaling 19.4 million litas ($4.85 million) earlier this year when deliveries of crude to the plant were discontinued, ELTA reported on 13 April. The oil refinery lay idle for 16 days, during which time repairs were carried out. According to a commission formed by the Economy Ministry, the shortage of crude can be attributed to curtailed Russian oil exports, the absence of long-term contracts for crude deliveries, and mistakes by the management of the oil refinery. JC POLISH PRESIDENT IN VILNIUS. Following a meeting with his Lithuanian counterpart, Valdas Adamkus, in Vilnius on 13 April, Aleksander Kwasniewski told journalists that Poland, as a new member state of NATO, is now able to advocate from within the alliance that the Baltic states also be admitted, ELTA reported. The Polish leader vowed that he will raise the issue of further expansion at the Washington summit later this month. Meanwhile, Prime Minister Gediminas Vagnorius assured Kwasniewski that the ongoing administrative reform in Lithuania will not harm the interests of the country's Polish community. The two leaders rated both countries' records vis-a-vis their national minorities as positive. JC POLAND TO SEND TROOPS TO HELP KOSOVA REFUGEES. The Polish government on 13 April decided to send some 120 infantry soldiers to Albania to help set up camps for Kosova refugees. President Aleksander Kwasniewski, who must approve any dispatch of troops abroad as chief commander of Poland's Armed Forces, said the same day that he will sign his agreement as soon as he returns to Warsaw from his visit to Lithuania. Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek said Poland will receive 1,000 Kosova refugees now staying in Macedonia and Albania. Deputy Prime Minister Leszek Balcerowicz announced that 4 million zlotys ($1 million) has been earmarked for this operation in addition to the 2 million zlotys assigned earlier for Poland's Kosova relief effort. JM CZECHS BACKING POSSIBLE 'BALKAN MINI-MARSHALL PLAN.' Foreign Minister Jan Kavan on 13 April told journalists that at NATO's meeting of foreign ministers the previous day he had expressed support for the "idea of a mini- Marshall plan" for the Balkans. Kavan said that despite the growing crisis, it is necessary to think about the future of this region, [which has been] enormously affected by the war." He also said NATO must prevent the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) from becoming militarily strong after the Yugoslav withdrawal from the province and must take a hard line against possible UCK belligerence, CTK and Reuters reported. Earlier, Kavan told CTK that President Vaclav Havel's warning that Czech behavior in the Kosova crisis could jeopardize the further enlargement of NATO was due to the "cacophony of noises now heard on the Czech political scene." MS VISEGRAD GROUP TO MEET IN BRATISLAVA. Slovak Foreign Ministry state secretary Jan Figel on 13 April told journalists that the premiers of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, and Slovakia will meet in Bratislava on 14 May to revive the "Visegrad cooperation group," CTK reported. "Slovakia is returning where it naturally belongs," Figel said, adding that this "new beginning" can help Bratislava in its quest to be included with the EU "fast track" candidates as well promote its candidacy to NATO and the OECD, to which the other three Visegrad countries have already been admitted. Figel spoke after talks with his Czech, Hungarian, and Polish counterparts, who all expressed support for Slovakia's accession to these organizations. MS HUNGARIAN OFFICIALS TURNED BACK AT YUGOSLAV BORDER. The Yugoslav authorities on 13 April refused entry to two Hungarian custom officials, declaring them persona non grata. The officials were escorting the Russian convoy allowed to proceed to Yugoslavia after being held up at the Hungarian-Ukrainian border (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 12 and 13 April 1999) and their task was to check that the transport is used for humanitarian purposes and the convoy returns from Yugoslavia. A spokesman for the Hungarian Civil Guards said that due to the incident, similar shipments may not be allowed to transit Hungary in the future, Hungarian media reported. MS SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SERBS AGAIN USING SYSTEMATIC RAPE? British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook said in London on 13 April that numerous independent accounts by Kosovar women indicate that the Serbian forces are using systematic rape as an instrument of policy as they did in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Many women said that they were forced to have sex with Serbian soldiers in full view of their own families. Cook noted that "this completes the pattern of brutality of [Yugoslav President Slobodan] Milosevic's forces in Bosnia," the BBC reported. Milosevic's Tanjug news agency dismissed the charges of systematic rape as "propaganda." Observers note that Kosovar and Bosnian Muslim societies are very conservative and that extramarital sex by women can lead to lasting shame for them and their families. The Hamburg-based weekly "Der Spiegel" noted on 12 April that Serbian forces regularly humiliate and physically abuse their victims as part of the ethnic cleansing campaign. PM NATO INVESTIGATES REPORTS OF 'RAPE CAMP.' A spokesman for the Atlantic alliance said in Brussels on 13 April that NATO is investigating reports that Serbian forces have set up a camp in Gjakova where Kosovar women are raped and killed. Another spokesman added that refugees' reports of systematic rape and other war crimes "are taking on the proportions of an encyclopedia." He concluded that "it is difficult to believe that something bad isn't happening. I fear that when this crisis ends and the international organizations--in particular the war crimes tribunal--are able to go into [Kosova], our worst fears are going to be confirmed." In Washington, a Pentagon spokesman said that the reports of systematic rape constitute "a very eerie and disturbing echo of documented instances of rape and killing of women in Bosnia during the Bosnia war." PM MORE EVIDENCE OF ATROCITIES? NATO is investigating reports of what may be a fresh mass grave at Velika Krusa between Prizren and Gjakova, the VOA's Croatian Service reported on 14 April. At Kacanik near the Macedonian border, the Kosova Liberation Army's (UCK) Kosova Press agency reported the previous day that Serbian forces "massacred" some 45 ethnic Albanians on 9 April. The UCK claimed that only 12 of the 45 were fighters and that the rest were civilians. The report has not been independently confirmed. Elsewhere, Mirjana Markovic, who is a prominent Serbian communist and the wife of Milosevic, told a leading Italian talk show that "the [Kosovar] Albanians shouldn't fear anyone, especially not the Serbs," AP reported. PM NATO BOMBS BELGRADE AS LUKASHENKA VISITS. The Atlantic alliance "launched a very powerful attack" on the Serbian capital in the morning of 14 April, AFP reported. The bombing took place as Milosevic met with Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka. A Serbian spokesman called the attack "a rude gesture to demonstrate NATO's military might," AP reported. The previous day in Washington, President Bill Clinton said that "now we are taking our allied air campaign to the next level with more aircraft in the region, with a British carrier joining our 'USS Roosevelt' and a French carrier in the area." In the Pentagon, a spokesman added that there will soon be "a very significant increase in [the number of] aircraft" available for strikes against Serbian targets. In Brussels, General Wesley Clark, who is NATO's top military commander, said he wants 300 additional U.S. aircraft, which would bring the total to some 1,000 planes. PM SERBIAN FORCES ENTER ALBANIA. Around 100 Serbian troops crossed into Albania on 13 April, seized control of the border village of Kamenica and fought a running battle with border police and regular army troops for several hours, Information Minister Musa Ulqini told AP. The Serbian troops withdrew later in the day after destroying several houses. OSCE monitors confirmed the report. A Serbian General Staff spokesman called the account a "loathsome lie" and accused the OSCE monitors of bias. Elsewhere, two rockets exploded near Kruma in the Has Mountains on 13 April. It is not clear who fired the rockets, but observers speculated that Yugoslav troops targeted a nearby UCK training camp. Witnesses told Reuters that the rockets released a carpet of small mines in the area, some of which exploded on impact. No one was injured. FS ALBANIAN PRESIDENT WARNS YUGOSLAVIA... Rexhep Meidani told France Info Radio in Paris on 13 April that "there will be a tough military response...by the Albanian army and the Albanian people," to further incursions by Serbian troops. Meanwhile, Foreign Minister Paskal Milo told German Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping in Bonn that "life for [Kosovar] Albanians and Serbs under a joint institutional structure will be unacceptable after their recent experiences," Reuters reported. Milo stressed, however, that Tirana has no intention of seeking to incorporate Kosova into its territory. FS ...AS DOES NATO. In a statement to parliament on 13 April, British Prime Minister Tony Blair said NATO remains committed to respond to any challenges to Albania's or Macedonia's security. In Washington, a White House spokesman warned Milosevic that he will face "the most serious consequences" if reports of the incursion prove to be accurate. FS BONN UNVEILS PEACE PLAN. A Foreign Ministry spokesman said on 14 April that Germany has prepared a six-point peace plan that it wants the G-8 countries to implement, dpa reported. Observers suggest that, at first glance, it appears similar to NATO's five demands on Milosevic, except that the peacekeeping force will have a UN mandate and the interim government in Kosova will also be authorized by the world body (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 April 1999). NATO will "permanently suspend" air strikes once Serbian forces leave the province. In Strasbourg, Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder said that "the terrible developments in [Kosova] are not solely a domestic policy issue for Yugoslavia itself...Europe's voice has to remain resolute" to enable the refugees to go home, AP noted. PM GERMANY LINKS EU MEMBERSHIP, REFUGEE ISSUE FOR MACEDONIA. On 14 April, some 1,000 Kosovar refugees arrived at the Macedonian border crossing Blace. The previous day, German Deputy Foreign Minister Guenter Verheugen said in Skopje that "the way Macedonia treats the refugees will have an influence on its request to become an associate member of the EU," Reuters reported. He urged government and opposition leaders to promote political stability as the key to improved relations with the international community. PM YUGOSLAV NAVY REFUSES TO LEAVE MONTENEGRIN PORT. Admiral Milan Zec said in Belgrade on 13 April that the Navy rejects the demand of Petrasin Kasalica, who is the chief administrator of Bar, to leave that port (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 April 1999). Zec called the demand "dangerous and unacceptable" and said Kasalica's statement had given NATO information about the location and name of a Yugoslav warship. PM TAMED RADIO B-92 ON THE AIR. The formerly independent Radio B-92 went back on the air on 13 April, three weeks after the authorities banned it. The station is now under new, pro-Milosevic management. Its broadcasting fare includes news from official sources and Serbian music. PM BOSNIAN SERB SENTENCED FOR WAR CRIMES. A Sarajevo court sentenced Goran Vasic to ten years in prison on 13 April for war crimes against civilians and prisoners of war during the 1992-1995 conflict. The court acquitted him of killing Deputy Prime Minister Hakija Turajlic in 1993 for lack of evidence. The prosecutor said he will appeal and seek a harsher sentence. In Koblenz, Germany, the authorities are holding an unnamed 25 year-old Serb- Canadian for allegedly holding a Czech and a Canadian officer as human shields during 1995 NATO air strikes against Bosnian Serb positions. PM BOSNIAN FEDERAL PARLIAMENT RATIFIES AGREEMENT WITH CROATIA. The lower house of the mainly Muslim and Croatian federal legislature approved on 13 April a treaty outlining special relations with Croatia. Many Muslims opposed the pact on the grounds that it would give Zagreb too much say in the affairs of the Croatian population of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Bosnia's Western allies support the measure in order to promote both countries' postwar recovery. Zagreb says that the pact is necessary to prevent the Croats of Bosnia-Herzegovina from becoming second-class citizens in a state with a Muslim majority. PM REFUGEES CONTINUE TO ARRIVE IN BOSNIA. More than 38,000 refugees from Kosova and Sandzak are currently in Bosnia-Herzegovina, "Dnevni avaz" wrote on 14 April. Some 30,000 are in the federation, 2,200 of whom are Serbs. An additional 8,000 refugees are staying in the Republika Srpska. PM ROMANIAN POLITICIANS REACT TO YUGOSLAV 'UNION' WITH RUSSIA-BELARUS... National Peasant Party Christian Democratic chairman Ion Diaconescu on 13 April said that the intended joining of the Union of Belarus and Russia by Yugoslavia is "an attempt to block NATO's way into the Balkans and restore Russian influence there," RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. He added that the decision of the parliament in Belgrade was "inoperative" because "Russia can no longer influence events in the Balkans." APR leader Melescanu said the decision was "dangerous" for Romania, which is "likely to find itself between two new rival alliances," and that Romanian diplomacy must "intelligently speculate" on it to promote accession to NATO. Iliescu said the decision reflected "Yugoslav desperation" in face of "NATO aggression" and will have "no impact whatsoever on Romania." MS ... WHICH IS DISCUSSED WITH FOREIGN GUESTS AS WELL. Visiting Bulgarian Defense Minister Georgi Ananiev on 13 April told journalists that Yugoslavia's accession to the union was "just a declaration of intentions" that met with no response from Russia and Belarus. His host, Defense Minister Victor Babiuc, called it "an attempt to implicate Russia and Belarus in the conflict with NATO," which cannot succeed. Attending a meeting between the visiting U.S. Department of Defense's director for Europe and NATO, General Henry Kievenaar, and Foreign Minister Andrei Plesu, the Romanian chief of staff, General Constantin Degeratu, said Yugoslav accession to the union is "raising legitimate security problems that cannot be ignored by Romania. " Foreign Ministry spokeswoman Simona Miculescu said on 14 April that even if the union is "finalized," its coming into being must not affect the main Romanian foreign policy objectives, which are "integration into European and Euro-Atlantic structures," Mediafax reported. MS MOLDOVA DENIES CIS PRESSURE OVER ITS POSITION ON YUGOSLAVIA... Foreign Ministry spokesman Oleg Serebrian, in an interview with Radio Bucharest on 13 April, said that the CIS members had not exerted any pressure on Moldova to change its position towards the conflict in Kosova. Serebrian said that Moldova's geographical position "imposes a policy of neutrality and prudence" in relations with NATO and Russia and that Chisinau "hopes that the animosities between Moscow and Brussels will not lead to the bipolarization of the international political system." MS ...OR PLANNING TO APPLY 'YUGOSLAV MODEL' TO TRANSDNIESTER. Briefing journalists on the same day in Chisinau, Serebrian rejected statements made in Tiraspol that Moldova intends to apply "the Yugoslav scenario" in the separatist region. He said that Chisinau intends to solve the conflict "exclusively by peaceful means" and that "seven long years of negotiations are proof of this." The "events of 1991-92," he said," will never repeat themselves," Infotag reported. MS BULGARIA, AUSTRIA SUPPORT BALKAN STABILIZATION PLAN. Visiting Austrian President Thomas Klestil and his Bulgarian host, Petar Stoyanov, told journalists on 13 April that they back recent European Union plans aimed at the stabilization of southeastern Europe, dpa and Reuters reported. Klestil said that the region's problems related to human rights and ethnic minorities must be discussed at a special Balkan conference. He added that Russia must be part of the process of negotiations for a settlement in Kosova. Stoyanov said that it is "necessary to design a kind of Marshall plan for the post-war reconstruction of the Balkan region." He said that "ethnic and regional conflicts will disappear as the Balkan states improve their living standards and start feeling a part of the European family." MS END NOTE Basic Agreement Reached On New European Arms Accord By Roland Eggleston German officials and officials with the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) say that after years of negotiations, agreement has been reached on the basic elements of a new treaty restricting conventional weaponry in Europe. German diplomats and OSCE officials, speaking on condition of anonymity, told RFE/RL that the basic agreement was reached last week in Vienna, where the negotiations have been based. The treaty would place limits on the number of artillery, tanks, armored troop carriers, war planes, and attack helicopters which can be held by any individual nation. Another part restricts the number of reinforcements which can be brought in from other countries. NATO had earlier said the agreement would be "the cornerstone" of a new security regime in Europe. The aim is to ensure that in the future, no single country will be able to maintain military forces at levels which would allow it to hold a dominating position on the European continent. German and OSCE officials say that the basic agreement concluded in Vienna last week has been accepted by 30 states, including Russia, Ukraine, the United States, and all other members of NATO and the former Warsaw Pact. Confirmation from other capitals was not immediately available. The officials said the agreed treaty will be presented at this month's NATO Summit meeting in Washington and the final text is expected to be signed at a summit meeting of the OSCE in Istanbul in November. The new treaty will replace the 1990 Conventional Forces in Europe (CFE) treaty limiting conventional forces on the continent, and several amendments since then. The German and OSCE officials said it was achieved only after difficult negotiations in which all parties had to give way on some cherished positions. They said that as an example, both Russia and NATO had to give way on some measures involving the new members of NATO--Hungary, Poland, and the Czech Republic. They said Russia also gave way on some of its positions about its forces in the Caucasus. The original 1990 CFE treaty was based on the total holdings of two blocs of military power--NATO and the Warsaw Pact. The new treaty would treat every country individually. Each would be allowed a maximum number of conventional forces of its own and each is allowed to deploy only a certain number of foreign forces on its territory to make an overall limit. German officials said, for example, that Germany will be allowed a maximum of 3,444 main battle tanks of its own. Other countries may station tanks in Germany, but the overall total of both German and foreign tanks cannot exceed 4,704. It is the same with artillery systems. Germany is to be allowed 2,255 of its own but foreign countries can only deploy about half that number on German soil. German diplomats told RFE/RL that the expansion of NATO with the inclusion of the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary created problems which were solved only after months of argument. Russia argued that the admission of these states brought NATO's frontline closer to its borders and it was entitled to special privileges to protect itself. One argument focused on the maximum limits allowed each country. The officials said it was defused only through a concession by the new member states of NATO. They agreed that they would cut their forces to below the levels originally proposed. The deadline for making these cuts is 2003. As an example, Poland will reduce the number of its main battle tanks from 1,730 to 1,577 by then. The officials say that in another move to ease Moscow's concerns, several states close to Russia's borders have agreed to limit the number of foreign forces deployed on their territory. In return, Russia agreed to concessions regarding the deployment of forces in Kaliningrad and Pskov. German diplomats said the purpose of these and other agreements was to decrease tensions in the sensitive border areas between Russia and NATO. Another problem which was resolved only after long negotiations was the rapid deployment of forces in a crisis situation. Strict adherence to the limits would have meant that only a certain number of foreign forces could be sent to another country involved in a crisis. The United States, in particular, insisted on more flexibility. Finally, Russia agreed with NATO that in these exceptional circumstances two divisions of battle tanks, armored troop carriers, and artillery systems could be temporarily based in the affected country. The officials said that the so-called 'Flank Areas' covering Russia's St. Petersburg military district and the Caucasus created other problems. Originally, Russia wanted to lift all restrictions on its deployment of troops in these regions. There were objections from Turkey, Georgia, Norway, and some other countries. They argued that, in theory, this could allow Moscow to station its entire armed forces on the borders in the south or the north. Finally, Russia agreed to a system limiting the number of forces it can move in and out of these regions according to the situation. The document now agreed upon in Vienna is more than 100 pages long. Diplomats describe it as a "basic structure." More months of negotiation will be needed to refine the rough text and re-examine some of the details, which could lead to new arguments. But the experts are confident it will be ready for signing by the heads of state and government at the OSCE Summit meeting in Istanbul in November. Roland Eggleston is a senior RFE/RL correspondent based in Munich. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message. 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