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RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 57, Part II, 23 March 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 57, Part II, 23 March 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* SLOVAK NATIONALIST LEADER TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT

* HOLBROOKE, MILOSEVIC 'BREAK OFF' TALKS

* CONFLICT IN KOSOVA 'ESCALATING BY THE HOUR'

End Note: AFTER THE BOMBS FALL
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

BELARUSIAN OPPOSITION PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES TO BE
REGISTERED ON 31 MARCH. The Central Electoral Commission
on 22 March announced that candidates in the opposition
presidential elections will be registered in Minsk on 31
March, RFE/RL's Belarusian Service reported. Commission
head Viktar Hanchar said that on the basis of the
signatures that have already been collected in support
of Mikhail Chyhir and Zyanon Paznyak, he predicts that
they will have the necessary total to register as
candidates. He added that he has invited foreign
diplomats, heads of the OSCE and UN missions in Minsk,
as well as "acting" President Alyaksandr Lukashenka to
attend the registration ceremony. Meanwhile, the
election teams of both Chyhir and Paznyak have reported
they will be ready to submit the required 100,000
signatures on time, despite frequent arrests of
campaigners and the confiscation of lists containing
signatures. JM

KUCHMA SIGNS PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION BILL. Ukrainian
President Leonid Kuchma has signed the law on
presidential elections. Kuchma had vetoed the
legislation last month, but the parliament recently
overrode his veto (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 8 March 1999).
According to the new law, the presidential campaign will
officially begin on 4 May. The nomination of candidates
will start 10 days after that date and will last 30
days. Candidates can be proposed by political parties or
by at least 500 voters. To be placed on the ballot, the
nominees must be at least 35 years old , must have
resided in Ukraine for the past 10 years, and must
collect the signatures of at least 1 million of
Ukraine's 35 million eligible voters. The vote will take
place on 31 October. JM

UKRAINIAN INDUSTRIAL GIANTS TO UNDERGO RAPID
PRIVATIZATION. The Ukrainian government has ordered that
12 industrial giants be prepared immediately for sale to
private owners, AP reported on 22 March, citing the
Ukrainian News agency. In particular, the government is
offering a 53 percent stake in the Illich metallurgical
plant, a 52 percent stake in the Odesa oil refinery, and
a 29 percent stake in the Turboatom company, which
manufactures nuclear power plant equipment. The offer is
seen as the government's move to entice back foreign
investors and raise revenues to pay off mounting debt
obligations. JM

MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF UKRAINIAN FARMS LOSS-MAKING. The
State Statistics Committee has said that 12,600
Ukrainian farms, or 92 percent of their total number,
reported losses last year totaling to 4.3 billion hryvni
($1.1 billion). According to the committee, an average
farm spent 29 percent more on production costs than it
received from the sale of its produce. Last year's
agricultural output decreased by 8.3 percent, compared
with 1997. JM

ESTONIAN PARLIAMENT ENDORSES LAAR AS PREMIER. Lawmakers
on 22 March voted strictly along party lines to endorse
Mart Laar of the Fatherland Union as prime minister. The
vote was 53 to 48, reflecting the fact that the right-
wing alliance of the Fatherland Union, the Moderates,
and the Reform Party has 53 seats in the 101-strong
parliament. The prime minister-designate said that the
new government's most urgent task is to submit to the
parliament a negative supplementary budget, although he
added that there is a "slim chance" that such a measure
will prove unnecessary. Some analysts have argued that
this year's budget, which is balanced at 18.47 billion
kroons ($1.28 billion), is too optimistic with regard to
revenues. Under Estonian law, the budget must be
balanced. JC

LATVIAN PRESIDENT ON KAMALDINS'S REMARKS ABOUT SYNAGOGUE
BOMBING. In an interview with Latvian Radio on 22 March,
Guntis Ulmanis argued that Director of the Office for
the Protection of the Constitution Lainis Kamaldins may
be able to stay in office even though his recent remarks
violate "professional standards," "Diena" reported. "It
is very important whether Kamaldins can cover his
unprepared remarks with well thought-out apologies or
argumentation. If he can do that, then, probably,
everything will stay the way it is," Ulmanis commented.
Kamaldins said last week that Latvian Jews may have been
involved in the 1998 bombing of the Riga synagogue,
although he later issued a statement stressing that his
office has no information to back up such a claim (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March 1999). He is due to appear
before the Council for National Security on 24 March. JC

LITHUANIA REVISES GDP GROWTH FORECAST. The Lithuanian
Economy Ministry has revised its 1999 GDP growth
forecast from 5.5 percent to 3.7-4.1 percent, BNS
reported on 21 March. That estimate is largely in line
with IMF and World Bank forecasts of 3.5 percent and 4
percent, respectively. The Economy Ministry also put
this year's inflation rate at 4 percent, instead of 5.5
percent, as earlier predicted. JC

LITHUANIAN BY-ELECTIONS DECLARED INVALID OWING TO LOW
TURNOUT. By-elections in the Naujoji Vilnia, Nevezis,
and Vilniaus Traku electoral districts on 21 March have
been declared invalid owing to low voter turnout, ELTA
reported the following day. JC

POLISH AIRCRAFT-MAKER DECLARED BANKRUPT. The Economic
Court in Rzeszow, southeastern Poland, has declared the
Mielec Aircraft Plant bankrupt. The court said the
Mielec plant has stopped paying its debts to some 300
creditors and is not in a position to accept further
loans to continue production. Another company, the
Polish Aviation Plant, will take over production at
Mielec and offer employment to 1,200 of the 2,700
workers of the bankrupt enterprise. The enterprise,
which formerly employed 20,000 people and produced up to
700 airplanes a year (including Soviet MiG-17 fighters),
ran into problems after the collapse of communism and
the loss of its Russian market. JM

LICENSE GRANTED TO RADIO STATION INTENDING TO BROADCAST
TO BELARUS. The Polish National Council for Broadcasting
has granted a license to Radio Racja, which intends to
broadcast in Belarusian from Bialystok, northeastern
Poland. Council chairman Boleslaw Sulik told the 22
March "Gazeta wyborcza" that Communications Ministry
will deal with the "technical coordination." He added
that the station will broadcast programs of a "cultural-
informative nature" rather than a propagandist one.
Radio Racja is funded by the Belarusian Union, an
organization of the Belarusian minority in Poland, and
an unnamed partner. The station's 100-watt transmitter
will enable its programs to be received in Minsk on
short wave. Wiktor Stachwiuk, a candidate for the post
of Radio Racja director, told "Gazeta wyborcza" that the
station will cooperate with the Belarusian opposition.
It is planned to initially broadcast for two hours a
day. JM

CZECH GOVERNMENT POSTPONES TEMELIN DECISION. The
government on 22 March analyzed a report submitted by a
special commission set up to evaluate the options of
completing or not completing the controversial Temelin
nuclear power plant. No decision was reached, but the
cabinet asked Environment Minister Milos Kuzvart, Trade
and Industry Minister Miroslav Gregr, Finance Minister
Ivo Svoboda, Social Affairs Minister Vladimir Spidla,
and Deputy Premier Pavel Mertlik to draft a report on
the economic impact of the two options, CTK reported.
Foreign Minister Jan Kavan presented a report concluding
that if the completion option is pursued, it will have
"no considerable influence" on the country's
international position, despite possible protests from
abroad. MS

SLOVAK NATIONALIST LEADER TO RUN FOR PRESIDENT. Jan
Slota, leader of the Slovak National Party (SNS), is
running for president in the elections scheduled for 15
May, honorary SNS chairman Vitazoslav Moric announced on
22 March. Slota told Radio Twist that if U.S. President
Bill Clinton has a right to remain in office after lying
under oath, his own right to become Slovak president is
at least 200 million times greater. He added that in the
"political emaciation" in which "Hungarians have a
decisive say in our government," it is the duty of the
SNS to do everything "for a nationally oriented
Christian" to become head of state, CTK reported. MS

INTELLIGENCE OFFICERS ACQUITTED IN HUNGARY'S 'BIRCH
TREE' TRIAL. A military court on 22 March acquitted
several former intelligence officers accused of
violating state secrets in connection with the so-called
"Birch Tree Operation." The operation was launched in
1995 to gather information on corruption and organized
crime in the Hungarian-Romanian-Ukrainian border region.
Several Hungarian politicians were mentioned in agents'
reports. Laszlo Foldi, the former deputy head of the
secret services, was dismissed in 1996 for "spying on
politicians." The court acquitted him of that charge,
saying "it would have been wrong for an intelligence
officer to turn a blind eye if a politician's name
turned up." MSZ

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

HOLBROOKE, MILOSEVIC 'BREAK OFF' TALKS. U.S. special
envoy Richard Holbrooke and Yugoslav President Slobodan
Milosevic "broke off" talks on 23 March in Belgrade
aimed at averting NATO air strikes against Serbian
targets, the BBC reported. Holbrooke returned to the
U.S. embassy. It is unclear if he will again meet with
the Serbian leader. Referring to his first round of
negotiations with Milosevic the previous day, Holbrooke
told reporters: "I would be misleading you if I
suggested that the talks resulted in any substantial and
significant change of situation." In Paris, French
Foreign Minister Hubert Vedrine said: "I am forced to
say that this morning I don't see any opening which
could interrupt the course of events" toward air
strikes. In Moscow, a Kremlin spokesman said President
Boris Yeltsin received a letter from U.S. President Bill
Clinton about the crisis in Kosova, but the spokesman
did not give details or say when Yeltsin received the
missive. PM

NATO 'WAITING FOR THE WORD.' Officials of the Atlantic
alliance are "waiting for the word" from Holbrooke as to
whether he has achieved a breakthrough in his Belgrade
talks, the BBC reported from Brussels on 23 March. If
Holbrooke leaves the Serbian capital without success,
NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana will discuss with
the leaders of alliance member countries when to launch
air strikes. The BBC also quoted British Foreign
Secretary Robin Cook as saying "this is for real." The
previous day, NATO ambassadors agreed to give Solana the
authority to target army bases and concentrations of
armored vehicles--as well as air defense units--in and
around Kosova during the first wave of air strikes. PM

CONFLICT IN KOSOVA 'ESCALATING BY THE HOUR.' In the
Drenica region on 23 March, Serbian forces continued
their offensive for the fourth consecutive day, Reuters
reported. Prishtina is "swarming with police" and the
atmosphere in Kosova's capital is "hair-raising," a BBC
reporter said there (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March
1999). She noted that police are "aggressively" manning
checkpoints surrounding the city, which makes it
difficult for most people to get in or out of Prishtina.
Many residents are nonetheless considering whether to
try to flee and join the ranks of the 25,000 people who
became refugees or displaced persons in recent days. The
conflict in Kosova is "escalating by the hour," she
continued, and the Yugoslav army is "preparing for all-
out war." One person died in a series of explosions in
ethnic Albanian-owned restaurants in Prishtina on 22
March, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. PM

WHAT HAPPENED IN SKENDERAJ? Several Kosovars from
Skenderaj told AP on 22 March that masked Serbs
"executed" at least 20 ethnic Albanians in that town
over the weekend (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March 1999).
Other witnesses said that Serbian police arrested and
beat an unspecified additional number of Kosovar
civilians. One girl told "The Washington Post" that
Serbian soldiers beat her mother and brother and
threatened to "massacre you [and] burn you all." The
stories could not be independently confirmed. In
Prishtina, Colonel Bozidar Filic, who is a spokesman for
the paramilitary police, said that "Albanian terrorists
and separatists are trying [with made-up stories] about
mass killings to provoke an international reaction and
increase the pressure on Yugoslavia." PM

SERBIAN FORCES LOOT, TORCH VILLAGES. Serbian forces
systematically looted and torched ethnic Albanian
villages in the Skenderaj area on 22 March, the
"International Herald Tribune" reported. Kosova
Liberation Army (UCK) commander Suleyman Selimi said the
Serbs "are using more modern weapons" than they did in
the crackdown of 1998. He noted that "the kind of tanks
[the Serbs are now using] are more sophisticated and
they are using new mortars as well as ground-to-ground
missiles." From the Vushtrri region, the "Los Angeles
Times" quoted a witness as saying that the Serbian
forces rob homes and destroy home appliances and other
goods that they cannot carry off. The daily added that
the Serbs apply "scorched earth tactics" to ethnic
Albanian settlements but that "Serbian farmers' homes
haven't been touched." PM

SFOR INSPECTS BOSNIAN SERB AIR DEFENSES. NATO troops
inspected air defense systems on Bosnian Serb military
bases in Banja Luka "in conjunction with the crisis in
Kosova," RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported on 22
March. OSCE representative Robert Barry discussed the
situation in Kosova with Zivko Radisic, who is the
Serbian representative on the Bosnian joint presidency.
In Sarajevo, the U.S. embassy warned U.S. citizens in
the Republika Srpska to be prepared to leave Bosnian
Serb territory "on very short notice." PM

ALBANIA WARNS OF 'GRAVE CONSEQUENCES.' Officials at the
Foreign Ministry handed a note to the Yugoslav charge
d'affaires in Tirana on 22 March to protest recent
border violations by Yugoslav troops (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 22 March 1999). The next day, the ministry
said in a statement that border violations are
continuing and that "these actions have grave
consequences for stability on the border and beyond."
The statement added that "the government calls on all
Albanians irrespective of their political ideas to be
ready to face this situation with determination and
[firmness] in the interest of the fatherland and the
nation." FS

WASHINGTON TO CONSIDER ALBANIAN REQUEST. U.S. State
Department spokesman James Foley told Reuters that NATO
is considering an Albanian request to hold a special
North Atlantic Council meeting focusing on Albanian
security (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March 1999). Foley
said that "we understand that Albania is concerned about
the problem of spillover of violence into their
territory and coping with the possible influx of
refugees." Albania currently is home to 18,500 refugees
from Kosova. FS

MAJKO AND THACI PLEDGE TO INCREASE COOPERATION. Albanian
Prime Minister Pandeli Majko and the UCK's Hashim Thaci,
who headed the Kosovar delegation to the Rambouillet
talks, agreed in Tirana on 22 March to promote
cooperation and to better coordinate policy between
politicians in Albania and Kosova. Thaci and other UCK
representatives, who arrived in Tirana from Paris on 20
March, will try to cross illegally into Kosova from
Albania in the next few days, unnamed government sources
told dpa (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March 1999).
Yugoslav authorities have issued warrants for their
arrest. FS

ALBANIAN COURT FREES 'ROBIN HOOD' FIGURE. A Tirana court
on 22 March ordered that Vlora gang leader Zani Caushi
be released from jail. The court sentenced Caushi for
illegal arms possession but ruled he has served that
sentence in pre-trial detention since his arrest in
1997. The court handed down the same sentence to four
members of Zani's gang. Seven other members of the group
received prison terms of between three and 15 years for
crimes ranging from armed robbery to kidnapping. Some
prosecution witnesses failed to appear in court during
the trial, which began last fall, while others
contradicted their previous testimony, ATSH reported.
Observers suggested that Zani's friends in Vlora
intimidated some of the witnesses. The opposition press,
however, has repeatedly accused the ruling Socialist
Party of having links to Caushi and seeking to ensure
his release. FS

ROMANIAN PREMIER INTENSIFIES ECONOMIC DISCUSSIONS. Radu
Vasile on 22 March met with the World Bank's director
for Romania, Andrew Vorking, to discuss the progress of
negotiations between Romanian officials and a bank
delegation that began last week in Bucharest. If the
bank agrees to renew lending by granting Romania a $300
million loan, the IMF is likely to approve a $500
million loan. Vorking and Vasile agreed that the main
priorities must be the restructuring of the bank system,
the privatization of viable enterprises, and the closure
of loss-making companies. The same day, Vasile met with
the leaders of the main trade union confederations,
which are threatening industrial action. A government
team will continue negotiations with those union leaders
on 23 March. Finally, the leaders of the parties
represented in the ruling coalition decided on 22 March
to submit to the legislature a law on speeding up
privatization and to request a vote of confidence,
RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. MS

CONSTANTINESCU MEETS LEADERS OF MAIN OPPOSITION.
President Emil Constantinescu on 23 March met with his
predecessor, Ion Iliescu, and other leaders of the main
opposition Party of Social Democracy in Romania (PDSR)
to discuss ways to overcome the country's economic and
social crisis, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported.
Iliescu said after the meeting that his party will
support a government program that takes into
consideration PDSR's views, but he noted that if the
situation continues to deteriorate, the only solution
will be early elections. A meeting chaired by
Constantinescu and attended by representatives of all
parties and organizations taking part in ongoing talks
is scheduled for 31 March. Also on 22 March, the PDSR
criticized Constantinescu's support of possible NATO
intervention in Kosova, saying it amounts to "a
declaration of war" on Yugoslavia. The opposition Party
of Romanian National Unity said Constantinescu is
"involving Romania in regional conflicts without the
authorization of the parliament" and thus "threatening
the country's territorial integrity. "MS

LUCINSCHI CALLS REFERENDUM ON PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM.
President Petru Lucinschi on 22 March issued a decree
calling for a non-binding referendum on introducing a
presidential system, Infotag and Reuters reported. Under
the proposed constitutional change, the president would
be responsible for the appointment of the premier (which
is now a prerogative of the parliament) and for the
government's actions. The decree explains that
"inefficient management of public affairs" and the
"evasion of responsibility" on the part of the
government, the parliament, and the judiciary are
"damaging political stability," the general public's
interests, and Moldova's "international image." The
decision on whether to amend the constitution rests with
the parliament, which must pass the amendment by a two-
thirds majority. The referendum is to be held on 23 May,
simultaneously with local elections. MS

TURKISH PRESIDENT IN BULGARIA. Suleyman Demirel on 22
March told journalists after talks with his Bulgarian
counterpart, Petar Stoyanov, that "NATO without Bulgaria
and Romania is unthinkable," pledging to lobby at the
April Washington summit for both countries' admission to
the organization. Demirel praised Bulgaria's treatment
of its ethnic Turkish minority. With regard to the
Kosova crisis, he said that "when diplomacy fails, there
is an obligation to use force." Demirel also met with
Premier Ivan Kostov to discuss economic cooperation in
transportation infrastructure, power engineering
projects, and customs. Foreign Ministers Nadezhda
Mihailova and Ismail Cem signed an accord banning the
use of anti-personnel mines. MS

EU SAYS BULGARIA MUST FIX ECONOMY, CLOSE NUCLEAR PLANT.
The European Commission on 22 March said Bulgaria must
speed up economic reforms and abide by the promise to
close down the Kozloduy nuclear plant if it wants to
start talks on joining the EU by 2001, Reuters quoted
Francois Lammoureux, who is in charge of the
commission's relations with applicant states, as saying.
Lammoureux is on a two-day visit to Sofia to review the
country's progress in meeting membership criteria. He
has rejected the Bulgarian government's plans to seek a
revision of the 1993 agreement with the EU on closing
the Kozloduy plant. MS

BULGARIAN ARMY SIZE FURTHER CUT. The government on 22
March approved a blueprint providing for a reduction of
the army to 45,000 troops within five years, BTA and
Reuters reported. The previous day, a figure of 50,000
was named (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 March 1999), while
an earlier plan envisaged cutting the army to 75,000 by
2010. Defense Minister Georgi Ananiev told journalists
that the plan is in line with "the government's efforts
to match admission criteria for NATO and the EU, provide
stability in the region, and protect national security."
MS

END NOTE

AFTER THE BOMBS FALL

by Patrick Moore

	Top Western officials continue to make public
statements to warn Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic
that NATO's "patience is at an end" and that "time is
running out" for him to sign the Rambouillet accords. At
the time of going to press, it remains unclear whether
there will be air strikes or whether the current
huffing-and-puffing will come to nothing, as has often
been the case in recent months.
	It is equally unclear whether any NATO member
states are prepared to send in ground troops if Serbian
forces continue what appears to be a massive ethnic-
cleansing operation in Kosova itself. The Serbian forces
seem, in fact, to be taunting the West, as a Serbian
soldier near Skenderaj suggested when he recently
commented to reporters: "See what we're doing? When are
the Americans coming?"
	Questions also remain as to what might happen were
Serbian authority in Kosova actually to collapse and the
Kosovars to take charge of their own fate. The Kosovar
leadership has generally shown a remarkable degree of
unity in public, but there is no guarantee that such
discipline will continue once the immediate threat of a
common enemy is removed. There are well-known rivalries
both within the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) and within
the civilian leadership, as well as between the
guerrillas and the politicians.
	One can well imagine, moreover, peacetime scenarios
in which at least some of these rivalries might come to
the surface in perhaps violent form. Such developments,
which are rooted in traditional Balkan political
cultures, could prevent a modern European political life
from emerging. The polarization and even violence
present in Albanian and Montenegrin politics suggest
that the transition from post-communist to European
norms is not proving easy in that part of the Balkans.
	But the Kosovars have friends who will try to help
them maintain unity of purpose. By signing the
Rambouillet accords recently in Paris, the Kosovars
ensured that they will have the political support of the
U.S. and other key Western powers as long as they adhere
to the agreement. There is always a danger of a
colonial-type "dependency syndrome" developing in
Kosova--as has happened to some extent in Bosnia--if a
postwar foreign civilian and military presence becomes
preeminent in the affairs of the province. At the
moment, however, that is the least of the Kosovars'
worries. The Kosovar leaders are now bracing themselves
for the new Serbian offensive and congratulating
themselves on having cemented their new political bond
to the Western powers.
	Members of the Kosovar delegation at Rambouillet
recently told "RFE/RL Newsline," moreover, that the
Albanian government provided constant and vital
psychological support for the Kosovar negotiators during
the peace talks. There is every reason to expect that
Tirana will continue to be a reliable friend to the
Kosovars.
	This is primarily because Albania is anxious for
peace, stability, and democracy to come to Kosova, so
that those same phenomena might better develop within
Albania itself. Tirana's overall concerns, in fact,
reflect those that can be found throughout much of the
Balkans. One frequently hears from Bulgarians,
Romanians, Albanians, and Macedonians that Western
countries have become so concerned with Bosnia and
Kosova that they often neglect the rest of the post-
communist Balkans and appear to lack a sound strategy to
help the region shake the complex legacy of communism.
	People in the countries bordering the crisis
regions of the former Yugoslavia often express
bitterness that the international community has not
sufficiently compensated them for the economic
sacrifices they made while wartime sanctions were in
force on Serbia and Montenegro. Romania's and Bulgaria's
prospects for joining NATO and the EU, moreover, appear
dim at best, while there is little serious talk anywhere
that Macedonia or Albania might join either organization
at any time in the foreseeable future. More than one
observer has openly asked whether the countries of the
post-communist Balkans might not in fact be condemned to
a state of indefinite limbo between their communist past
and a future firmly rooted in Europe, to which they
aspire.
	It is of course true that many of the problems
facing the countries of the region are largely of their
own making. The Balkan countries themselves often raise
artificial barriers--such as stringent visa
requirements--that prevent a free exchange of people and
ideas within the region. The educated elites in each of
the countries of the region have almost always looked
toward major international capitals for their foreign
cultural, political, and economic links rather than to
their neighbors. And crime remains endemic across much
of the peninsula.
	With regard to the various countries bordering the
former Yugoslavia, the Romanian political elite seems to
be ever given to in-fighting, and the threat of
extremism remains permanently on the horizon. Bulgarian
politicians generally enjoy criticizing those in power
but do not always become model public servants when they
themselves take office. Perhaps the new coalition
government in Macedonia will succeed in breaking the
hold of corruption and cronyism on political life and
the economy. If it does not, Macedonia may find itself
locked into the traditional Balkan political pattern in
which the "ins" and the "outs" take turn in office and
help themselves to the rights and privileges of power.

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