I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. - Rev. Martin Luther King 1929-1968
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 24, Part I, 4 February 1999


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 24, Part I, 4 February 1999

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document.  Back issues of
RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at
RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part I

* INVESTIGATORS SAY YELTSIN WAS BUGGED

* RUSSIA THREATENS RETALIATION FOR ABM VIOLATIONS

* RUSSIA, ARMENIA REJECT CRITICISM OF DEFENSE
COOPERATION

End Note: WHEN THE WORLD TURNS AWAY
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

RUSSIA

INVESTIGATORS SAY YELTSIN WAS BUGGED. Deputy Prosecutor-
General Mikhail Katyshev on 3 February revealed that a
search of Sibneft's headquarters that day produced
evidence that President Boris Yeltsin and his family had
been the victims of illegal electronic surveillance,
according to ITAR-TASS (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 3
February 1999). Katyshev told Interfax that he has no
doubt that a criminal case will be opened and "the big
shots" charged. Sibneft's press service responded to the
news reports by noting that "equipment discovered in the
office was only used inside the company to ensure
commercial security." JAC

RUSSIA THREATENS RETALIATION FOR ABM REVISION. The head
of the 12th Department at Ministry of Defense, Colonel-
General Igor Valynkin, told reporters on 3 February that
Russia will "undoubtedly respond" to "a revision of the
ABM treaty," which would upset stability. He added that
Moscow and Washington must extend mutual control over
each other's strategic and nuclear weapons. "Segodnya"
argued on 30 January that "Moscow is so antagonistic" to
U.S. efforts to develop an anti-ballistic missile system
not because it believes that even in 20 years such a
system could ever be designed to achieve 100 percent
effectiveness. Rather, according to the daily, Moscow
realizes that the White House is trying to generate new
business for the U.S.'s defense industry while trying to
disguise its defense policy, as part of some magnanimous
effort, to extend anti-ballistic missile defense
technology to the world. JAC

IS BORIS BEREZOVKSII HAVING A BAD WEEK OR BAD YEAR? The
day after federal prosecutors raided the offices of
Sibneft, officials at Aeroflot loyal to business tycoon
Boris Berezovskii were sacked. Berezovskii has been
closely associated with Sibneft and reportedly has a
large stake in Aeroflot. Aeroflot managing director and
President Yeltsin's son-in-law, Valerii Okulov,
dismissed Aeroflot's commercial director and its head of
the department for cargo sales, ITAR-TASS reported on 3
February. Berezovskii lost a controlling stake in a
competitor to Aeroflot, Transaero, in January after a
Moscow court decision, "Komsomolskaya pravda" reported.
Russian newspapers also noted that the recent financial
troubles experienced by Russian Public Television, in
which Berezovskii also has an indirect stake, constitute
a blow against him. JAC

U.S. THREATENS RUSSIA OVER SYRIA. The administration of
U.S. President Bill Clinton declared that it will reduce
financial assistance to Russia by $50 million if Moscow
carries out plans to sell anti-tank equipment to Syria,
"Izvestiya" reported on 4 February. The newspaper
concluded that the U.S. is still pursuing both its "old
policy in the Middle East" of blocking the military
development of countries hostile to Israel and pursuing
its new one of "encroaching upon Moscow's right to
choose its own partners." Syria's defense minister will
visit Moscow in late February to discuss ways of
boosting Russian-Syrian military cooperation, ITAR-TASS
reported on 2 February. Tlass will also discuss the
purchase of Russian S-300 missiles. JAC

NEW THEORY TOUTED TO EXPLAIN PROSECUTOR-GENERAL'S
DEPARTURE. In an article laying out a variety of
hypotheses to explain Prosecutor-General Yurii
Skuratov's resignation on 2 February, "Komsomolskaya
pravda" on 4 February adds a few new twists to earlier
press speculation. For example, the newspaper suggested
that Skuratov's office went "too deep" in its
investigation of the Central Bank and that Central Bank
Chairman Viktor Gerashchenko is deliberately hiding the
material Skuratov uncovered because Russia needs IMF
money. Likely candidates to replace Skuratov,
"Izvestiya" reported on 4 February, are Yurii Chaika,
current acting Prosecutor-General, Yurii Demin, chief
military prosecutor, and Oleg Kutafin, rector of the
Moscow State Legal Academy. JAC

PUTIN TO FOLLOW IN SKURATOV'S FOOTSTEPS? Citing
"unofficial sources," "Vremya MN" reported on 3 February
that Federal Security Service (FSB) Director Vladimir
Putin handed in his resignation at almost the same time
as Prosecutor-General Skuratov. According to the
newspaper, neither the presidential press service nor
the FSB cared to comment. JAC

DEADLINE FOR IMF MEMO SLIPPING AGAIN. After telling
reporters earlier that the Russian government will
submit its memorandum explaining its economic program to
the IMF on 4 February, First Deputy Prime Minister Yurii
Maslyukov told reporters on 3 February that work on the
document may take another 10 days. Prime Minister
Yevgenii Primakov had earlier said the memorandum will
be ready on 1 February (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 1
February 1999). "Kommersant-Daily" speculated on 3
February that Primakov is experiencing a mutiny among
his staff, since not only Maslyukov but also Deputy
Prime Minister Gennadii Kulik have publicly contradicted
him, saying that a date for completing the memorandum
has not been fixed. JAC

ANOTHER INTELLIGENCE OFFICIAL PROMOTED AT WHITE HOUSE.
Boris Ivanov, an officer in the Russian Foreign
Intelligence Service before 1992, has been appointed
first deputy chief of President Yeltsin's press service
directorate, ITAR-TASS reported on 3 February. According
to the agency, Ivanov has 20 years of experience in
journalism, including stints at TASS and "Izvestiya."
JAC

DUMA WANTS RYZHKOV OR NO ONE. The State Duma has
rejected a candidate to fill the post of deputy speaker,
vacated by Vladimir Ryzhkov, who left to head the Our
Home Is Russia (NDR) faction. After Duma deputies voted
down Andrei Polyakov, who had been proposed by the NDR,
Communist Party member and deputy Serge Reshulskii
suggested abolishing the post altogether to save money,
according to Russian Television. JAC

SARATOV GOVERNOR SUPPORTS IDEA OF NEW REGIONAL POLITICAL
PARTY. Without commenting directly on fellow NDR member
and Governor of Samara Konstantin Titov's formation of a
new election bloc of regional heads, Saratov Governor
Dmitrii Ayatskov told Interfax on 3 February that he
supports the idea of a regional political movement and
that whoever leads it should concentrate all his
attention on the movement to avoid a repetition of what
happened with the NDR movement. He predicted that the
new Duma will differ radically from the current one
because voters in the provinces have learned that only
"150 out of the 450 deputies work actively," the rest
are dead wood. Duma deputy and former NDR faction leader
Aleksandr Shokhin told RFE/RL's Moscow bureau that the
governors are apparently aspiring to govern the country,
not just their individual regions, and that it is
impossible to predict the country's future until after
the upcoming parliamentary elections. JAC

RUSSIANS IN KURILS UNHAPPY WITH JAPANESE FISHING RIGHTS.
The Sakhalin Regional Duma has taken up the cause of
Russian fishermen in the area of the Kuril Islands,
ITAR-TASS reported on 4 February. In a message to the
authorities in Moscow, the local parliament claims that
the Russian-Japanese fishing agreement signed last year
prevents Russian fishermen from entering waters they
traditionally fished prior to the agreement, meaning
that their catch is now smaller. Vladimir Gorshechnikov,
the president of the Sakhalin Association of the Fishing
Industry, said bans on fishing aimed at ensuring
Japanese fishermen their quota deprive thousands of
Kuril residents of their means of earning a living. BP

'MIR' TRIES TO SPREAD SUNSHINE... Cosmonauts on the
space station "Mir" tried to position a large reflective
screen to deflect sunshine onto Earth for several
minutes on 4 February, but problems developed during the
screen's unfolding. The experiment was expected to light
up parts of Canada, Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, and the
Czech Republic. According to ITAR-TASS, scientists hope
to deploy such mirrors to light up areas where natural
calamities have taken place or emergency situations are
occurring. They also want to use them for far northern
regions where sunshine can be extremely limited. JAC

...WHILE CHINA MIGHT BE INTERESTED IN STATION.
"Nezavisimaya gazeta" speculated on 29 January that a
Chinese company might be the foreign investor that the
Russian Space Agency is seeking to sponsor "Mir" over
the next three years. According to the newspaper,
"representatives of the greatest world power still
declaring its allegiance to the socialist option" have
"far reaching plans for a breakthrough in [the
country's] efforts to achieve the status of a
superpower." JAC

KURDISH REPRESENTATION IN MOSCOW REFUSES COMMENT ON
OCALAN. A spokeswoman for the Kurdish National
Liberation Front in the CIS and Eastern Europe declined
on 3 February to respond to an Interfax query concerning
Turkish media allegations that Kurdistan Workers' Party
leader Abdullah Ocalan had arrived in Moscow that day.
She added that Ocalan's location "has not been made
public for his personal safety." LF

CHECHEN PRESIDENT DECREES INTRODUCTION OF ISLAMIC LAW...
Aslan Maskhadov on 3 February signed decrees suspending
the legislative functions of the Chechen parliament and
ordering the immediate transition to Shariah law
throughout Chechnya, Russian agencies reported.
Maskhadov also ordered the creation of a commission to
draft a new Islamic constitution within one month.
Later, he met with leading field commanders who had
demanded the introduction of Islamic law (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 2 February 1999). The field commanders
expressed their continued support for Maskhadov on
condition that he implement the new decrees. Maskhadov,
for his part, warned them not to proceed with their
planned congress of war veterans. They, however, ignored
that warning, and the congress took place in Grozny on 4
February, RFE/RL's correspondent in the Chechen capital
reported. LF

...WHICH IS SEEN AS STABILIZING MOVE. Former Chechen
Foreign Minister Movladi Udugov expressed approval of
Maskhadov's imposition of Islamic law, which he termed
"the most correct decision" and one that will enable
Maskhadov "to take the situation in the republic under
[his] control," ITAR-TASS reported. Former Russian
Security Council Secretary Ivan Rybkin similarly
described Maskhadov's move as an attempt to prevent an
open split between the Chechen president and the
opposition. But Rybkin also noted that Maskhadov's
decree violates the Chechen Constitution adopted under
deceased President Djokhar Dudaev. That constitution
defines the Chechen Republic Ichkeria as a secular state
on the territory of which all religions are equal and
does not empower the president to dissolve the
parliament. Rybkin also expressed concern at how the
introduction of Islamic law in Chechnya might negatively
impact on neighboring regions of the North Caucasus. LF

TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

RUSSIA, ARMENIA REJECT CRITICISM OF DEFENSE COOPERATION.
The Russian Foreign Ministry issued a statement on 3
February rejecting Azerbaijani charges that the
stationing of Russian arms in Armenia poses a threat to
Azerbaijan's security, Russian agencies reported. The
statement noted that the weaponry in question, which
includes S-300 air-defense missile systems and MiG-29
fighter aircraft, is not being handed over to the
Armenian armed forces but deployed at the Russian
military base in Armenia. Armenian presidential
spokesman Vahe Gabrielian told journalists on3 February
that Russian-Armenian cooperation is regulated by the
treaty on friendship, cooperation, and mutual assistance
signed by the two countries' presidents in August 1997.
Gabrielian stressed that the number of military
personnel and arms deployed at the Russian military base
in Armenia does not exceed the limits stipulated by the
Conventional Forces in Europe Treaty. LF

WILL PRESIDENT DISSOLVE ARMENIAN PARLIAMENT? Eduard
Yegorian, leader of the opposition Hayrenik
parliamentary faction, told deputies on 3 February that
he believes President Kocharian is planning to dissolve
the parliament after the final reading of the new
election law, scheduled for 5 February, RFE/RL's Yerevan
bureau reported. Yegorian claimed that Kocharian wants
to call pre-term elections in order to undercut the
chances of the center-right opposition. The present
parliament's term expires in June. Presidential
spokesmen declined to comment on Yegorian's predictions.
LF

ARMENIAN PRESIDENTIAL ADVISER RESIGNS. President Robert
Kocharian has granted Self-Determination Union chairman
Paruyr Hairikian's request to step down as presidential
adviser on human rights issues, Interfax reported on 3
February. Hairikian told parliamentary deputies on 26
January that he tendered his resignation in order to be
able to contest the upcoming parliamentary elections "as
a free citizen," according to Noyan Tapan. Hairikian
stressed that he is not withdrawing his cooperation with
the Armenian leadership and will continue to serve on
commissions of which he is a member. On 28 January,
Hairikian predicted that his party will be among the
four with the largest representation in the next
parliament. LF

SPOKESMAN DENIES SPLIT IN AZERBAIJAN'S RULING PARTY.
Siyavush Novruzov, a senior official of the Yeni
Azerbaycan party loyal to Azerbaijan's President Heidar
Aliev, has said that the party's statutes do not allow
the creation of factions and therefore claims by party
member Einulla Fatullaev to head a faction named Adolat
[Justice] are unfounded, TURAN reported on 3 February.
Novruzov denied that Fatullaev has already been expelled
from the party but did not rule out that possibility.
The independent newspaper "Azadlyg" reported on 3
February that some 60 party members have joined
Fatullaev's Adolat faction, which aims to foster
democracy within the party. "Azadlyg" also claimed that
Information Minister Siruz Tebrizli intervened to quash
an attempt to expel Fatullaev from Yeni Azerbaycan. LF

TOP U.S. OFFICIAL VISITS TBILISI. U.S. special adviser
for Caspian issues Richard Morningstar held talks in
Tbilisi on 3 February with senior Georgian officials,
Interfax and Caucasus Press reported. The talks, which
Morningstar told journalists were "fruitful," focused on
the transportation of Caspian oil and gas to
international markets via Georgian territory.
Morningstar said intensive discussions are under way
with the Turkish government on how to make the planned
Baku-Ceyhan oil export pipeline "economically
lucrative." He categorically rejected the alternative
route via Iran, adding that the oil companies engaged in
exploiting Azerbaijan's Caspian oil "had to face up to
harsh economic realities," RFE/RL's Tbilisi bureau
reported. Morningstar said he hopes that conflicts will
not jeopardize the exploitation of the oil pipeline from
Baku to the Georgian Black Sea terminal at Supsa.
Morningstar also said that the U.S. "is not considering"
a military presence in Azerbaijan. LF

RUSSIA LAMENTS UZBEK DECISION ON SECURITY TREATY. An
official at the Russian Foreign Ministry on 3 February
said his country regrets Uzbekistan's decision to
withdraw from the CIS Collective Security Treaty,
Interfax reported. Colonel-General Leonid Ivashov
responded to accusations by Uzbek officials that Russia
is increasing its military presence in the CIS countries
by arguing that "Russia is pursuing a restrained policy
and is curbing military activity particularly in CIS
countries." He charged that "individual members of the
CIS are increasing the number of military exercises
[involving] the participation of NATO units,
particularly near the Russian borders." Ivashov added
that the collective security treaty is more important
than ever as "the U.S. has opted for an open use-of-
force policy and NATO is demonstrating aggressiveness
and is trying to enlarge its sphere of influence." BP

ISLAMIC GROUP POSES THEAT TO UZBEKISTAN. In an interview
published in "Xalq Sozi" on 3 February, President Islam
Karimov said members of an Islamic group called Hezbi
Tahriri Islomiya are active in his country and represent
a threat to security. Karimov said the group intends to
eliminate all administrative boundaries between Islamic
countries and form an "Islamic Caliphate." He noted that
the group has substantial financial backing and is
already "poisoning the minds" of young and inexperienced
people. The Uzbek president called on the government to
respect "real Islam" and not allow such forces to act on
Uzbek territory. BP

KAZAKHSTAN'S GOVERNMENT PROPOSES SPENDING CUTS.
Kazakhstan's Prime Minister Nurlan Balgimbayev announced
on 3 February that the government plans to cut 1999
budget expenditures by 10 percent, Russian news agencies
and Reuters reported. The cuts will amount to 31 billion
tenge ($335 million). Balgimbayev said they are
necessary because of the drop in the world-market prices
of the country's major exports, oil and metals. In the
last quarter of 1998, Kazakhstan lost 40 billion tenge
in revenues because of those falling prices. The premier
said "excessive benefits and pensions" are the areas
first to be trimmed, but he stressed that the government
will maintain state funds for those most in need and
local budgets will continue to provide part of the
funding. Balgimbayev also said there will be reductions
in the Finance, Interior, and Defense Ministries of 27,
15, and 30 percent, respectively. BP

KAZAKHSTAN RATIFIES BORDER AGREEMENT WITH CHINA.
Kazakhstan's parliament on 3 February ratified an
agreement with China demarcating a disputed section of
their common border, ITAR-TASS reported. Kazakhstan
receives 56.9 percent of the contested 34,000 square
kilometers. BP

KYRGYZ ADMINISTRATION TO MAKE CUTS ALSO. Kyrgyz Prime
Minister Jumabek Ibraimov on 3 February gave
instructions to the government to cut spending, Interfax
reported. Ibraimov said government expenditures on
transportation, equipment, services, and communications
exceeded its budget by 5 million som ($167,000).
Ibraimov placed the responsibility for implementing the
cuts on the heads of departments. Ministries, state
agencies, and local governments were similarly
instructed to cut spending. Limits were also imposed on
the use of phones. BP

CENTRAZBAT TO BE HELD IN U.S. THIS YEAR. RFE/RL
correspondents in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan report that
this year's Centrazbat military exercises will be held
in the U.S. of Louisiana on 19-20 May. The exercises
took place in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan in 1997 and in
both those countries as well as in Kyrgyzstan last year.
They are part of NATO's Partnership for Peace program.

END NOTE

WHEN THE WORLD TURNS AWAY

by Paul Goble

	When the whole world is watching, even the most
authoritarian regimes try to put on a democratic face.
But when the world turns away, these same governments
and their supporters often revert to the repressive
practices and ideas that undercut their propaganda
efforts.
	Following its recent special presidential election,
Kazakhstan became the latest in a long line of post-
communist countries to follow this pattern, one that
seems likely to present increasingly serious challenges
to the country's authorities, the people under their
control, and the international community as a whole.
	Before the 10 January poll, in which President
Nursultan Nazarbayev was easily reelected, Nazarbayev,
his government, and his supporters did everything they
could to present Kazakhstan as a country committed to
democratic and free market values. They blanketed
Western publications with advertisements extolling
Kazakhstan's commitments in these areas, while the press
in Kazakhstan was full of articles talking about the
many linkages between the values of the West and those
of Kazakhstan.
	The authorities hosted international observers. And
when they violated democratic norms during the election-
-such as excluding former Prime Minister Akezhan
Kazhegeldin from running against Nazarbayev--they sought
to cover themselves with at least the veneer of
legality.
	But once the vote and the international attention
it had attracted were safely behind them, these same
people dropped many of the democratic pretenses they had
adopted during the campaign, having failed to convince
any of the international observers that the election had
been genuinely fair and free.
	One particularly egregious example of this shift in
tone and direction is an article by Kerim Elemes
published in the Kazakh-language newspaper "Qazaq
Adebiyeti" on 28 January. Because the text of this
commentary is unlikely to appear in Kazakhstan-supported
advertising abroad, portions of it call for fuller
quotation.
	In a sweeping attack on U.S. interests and
intentions in Central Asia, the article asserts that
Washington wants "to dissolve Kazakhstan" and to replace
Nazarbayev with someone "who does not speak his native
language and has no idea about real Kazakhness, that is,
a kind of person they want to rule us."
	The article goes on to asks "What do Americans know
about democracy? Their history is a bloody conquest of
the new territories not belonging to them.... Kazakhs
have never conquered anyone.... Kazakhs know much more
about democracy. If Americans are real democrats, why
are blacks still slaves in America, why do American
Indians still not have equal rights with their
conquerors?"
	Such an article would not have appeared a month
ago, just before the election. Not only would it have
undercut the message that the Kazakhstan authorities
wanted to send; it would also have attracted a great
deal of international attention. Now, however, it is
unlikely to have that effect.
	But the appearance of such an article now calls
attention to the dilemmas presented by the broader
oscillation between democratic propaganda and
authoritarian politics.
	For the authorities in Kazakhstan, this shifting of
gears appears likely to reduce rather than increase
their legitimacy in the eyes of the population. In the
absence of significant economic growth, that could force
the regime to rely ever more heavily on repression to
remain in power.
	For the population of Kazakhstan, the move from
authoritarianism to democracy and back again seems
certain to have two contradictory effects. On the one
hand, it almost certainly will contribute to a
trivialization of democratic terminology in the minds of
many people, as they see democratic terms misused. On
the other, it may create greater demands for genuine, as
opposed to propaganda, democracy.
	And for the international community interested in
promoting democracy in Kazakhstan and other former
communist states, this change of vocabulary inevitably
raises some serious questions about how this community
can best advance the cause of democracy without
generating the kind of instability that might make a
democratic transition extraordinarily difficult.
	Should the international community make a greater
and more constant investment in monitoring developments
in places such as Kazakhstan rather than going there
virtually only when an election takes place? Or would
such a policy backfire, infuriating potential supporters
by suggesting a continuing tutelage?
	There are no easy answers to such questions. But
the "Qazaq Adebiyeti" article suggests that ever more
people will pose such questions, while the various
answers given will define not only the fate of democracy
in Kazakhstan and other countries similarly situated but
many other things as well.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word subscribe as the subject of the message.

HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message.

For subscription problems or inquiries, please email
listmanager@list.rferl.org
________________________________________________
CURRENT AND BACK ISSUES ON THE WEB
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/
_________________________________________________
LISTEN TO NEWS FOR 23 COUNTRIES
RFE/RL programs are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour
LIVE Broadcast Studio.
http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html
_________________________________________________
REPRINT POLICY
To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble
via
email at GobleP@rferl.org or fax at 1-202-457-6992
_________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE STAFF
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org
* Julie A. Corwin, CorwinJ@rferl.org
* Jan Maksymiuk, MaksymiukJ@rferl.org
* Bruce Pannier, PannierB@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org

FREE-LANCE AND OCCASIONAL CONTRIBUTORS
* Pete Baumgartner, Dan Ionescu, Jolyon Naegele, Fabian
Schmidt, Matyas Szabo, Anthony Wesolowsky

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
_________________________________________________
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole