|Нашему остроумию, как кажтся, более свойственны быстрота и внезапность, тогда как уму - основательность и медлительность. - М. Монтень|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 14, Part II, 21 January 1999
________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 3, No. 14, Part II, 21 January 1999 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * POLISH COALITION SEEKS TO STAVE OFF CRISIS * BELGRADE MAY COMPROMISE ON WALKER * NANO RESIGNS AS LEADER OF ALBANIAN SOCIALISTS End Note: ELECTION ALLIANCE BAN AND ESTONIAN POLITICS xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE KUCHMA FEARS REPERCUSSIONS OVER DEATH PENALTY. Oleksandr Martynenko, Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma's spokesman, said on 10 January that Kuchma fears the parliament's refusal to abolish the death penalty in Ukraine will force the Council of Europe to suspend Ukraine's membership, Interfax and Reuters reported. Kuchma introduced a moratorium on executions in 1997, but referring to public support for the death penalty, the parliament has rejected legislation abolishing the death penalty. Ukrainian courts sentenced 146 people to death in 1998 and 129 the previous year. Martynenko said Kuchma thinks that the suspension of Ukraine's membership in the Council of Europe would threaten "Ukraine's status as a new European, democratic state." JM UKRAINIAN CABINET TRIMS PENSION, WAGE DEBT. According to the State Statistics Committee, the Ukrainian government last month slightly reduced wage and pension arrears. Overdue pensions and other social security payments amounted to 2.01 billion hryvni ($587 million) on 1 January, down by 207 million hryvni since 1 December 1998. Wage arrears amounted to 960 million hryvni, down by 37 million hryvni over the same period. Last month, President Kuchma ordered the government to pay its entire debts to the population by 1 July 1999. JM BELARUSIAN TRUCKS HELD UP AT RUSSIAN BORDER. Some 500 Belarusian trucks are being held up at the Belarusian- Russian border, following new regulations introduced unilaterally by the Russian Transport Ministry on 17 January, Belarusian Television reported on 20 January. Under the regulations, Belarusian trucks must apply for a permit to cross the Russian border if they are carrying cargo from a third country. Belarusian Television said the permit costs $250 and noted that the Russian side has so far not supplied application forms for the permits at border crossing points. Belarusian Transport Minister Alyaksandr Lukashou admitted that "some tension" exists at the Belarusian-Russian border but said that Belarus does not intend to take reciprocal measures. He said talks to resolve the deadlock are being conducted at government level. JM BLEGRADE SEEKS PERMANENT OBSERVER STATUS IN BELARUS- RUSSIA UNION PARLIAMENT. A Belgrade parliamentary delegation led by Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Vojislav Seselj arrived in Minsk on 20 January to take part in a session of the Belarusian-Russian Parliamentary Assembly scheduled to begin the next day, Belarusian Television reported. The session will consider Yugoslavia's application for the status of permanent observer at the Belarusian-Russian legislature. The decision to seek that status was adopted by the Yugoslav parliament last month. JM BELARUS WANTS IMF CREDIT TO STABILIZE RUBLE. Belarusian National Bank Chairman Pyotr Prakapovich said on 20 January that Belarus is planning to stabilize its currency and introduce a single exchange rate for the Belarusian ruble in non-cash operations. He stressed that the government hopes to obtain an IMF stabilization credit to achieve that aim. "Unfortunately, the National Bank reserves are very scanty, one can say, virtually nil," he commented. He added that the National Bank intends to reduce credit emissions in 1999 to 35 trillion Belarusian rubles ($275 million). JM BELARUS REPORTS 181.7 PERCENT INFLATION IN 1998. The Belarusian Ministry of Statistics has reported that the 1998 inflation rate in Belarus was 181.7 percent, up from 63.1 percent in 1997 and far above the 27 percent targeted for last year. The ministry blamed the Russian financial crisis for the soaring inflation. It said that prices rose only by 44 percent in January-August 1998, while most of the increase was from September through December, following Russia's financial collapse. JM ESTONIA'S VEIDEMANN IN MOSCOW. Population Minister Andra Veidemann met with Russian Nationality Affairs Minister Ramazan Abdulatipov in Moscow on 20 January and signed a memorandum on cooperation in ethnic policies, ETA reported. The document foresees information exchanges on the human rights situation and on ethnic minorities in each country. The meeting took place in a "friendly and business-like manner," according to both sides. At a separate meeting with Veidemann, Russian Deputy Prime Minister Vadim Gustov proposed a Russian-Estonian dialogue on regional and cross-border cooperation, according to BNS. Veidemann also promised Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Aleksii II to seek to bring the two Estonian Orthodox Churches to the negotiating table to resolve their dispute over property confiscated under communism (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 January 1999). JC ESTONIAN GOVERNMENT APPROVES AMENDMENTS MERGING MINISTRIES. The cabinet on 19 January approved amendments to the law on the government that foresee merging the Ministry of Roads and Communications and the Ministry of Economics by the end of this year, BNS reported the next day. The new ministry would start performing all the functions of the two ministries beginning in 2000. The merger would save one-third of the combined administrative costs of the two entities. A government spokesman said it is hoped that the parliament will the pass the amendments next month. JC ULMANIS, TOO, STRESSES LATVIA REMAINS COMMITTED TO NATO ENTRY. Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis met with Prime Minister Kristopans on 20 January to discuss the recent article in a Jamestown Foundation publication suggesting that some Latvian politicians are seeking to revise the country's security policies (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 and 20 January 1999), "Diena" reported on 21 January, citing the presidential press service. Rejecting the assertions made in that article, Ulmanis said it is imperative to show that Latvia is "consistently realizing the goal of integration with NATO" by increasing its defense budget to 1 percent of GDP. "This way," Ulmanis said, "we will prove that Latvia is ready to pay for its security." The 1999 draft budget allocates 0.9 percent of GDP to defense. JC LATVIAN OPPOSITION NOT TO SUPPORT DRAFT BUDGET... The People's Party of former Prime Minister Andris Skele is likely to vote against the 1999 draft budget in its first reading, BNS quoted caucus head Gundars Berzins as saying on 20 January. The draft, which the cabinet approved last week (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 12 January 1999), foresees revenues at 1.41 billion lats ($2.82 billion) and expenditures at 1.47 billion lats. It will be put to two readings in the parliament. If lawmakers fail to approve the draft, their rejection is considered to constitute a vote of no confidence in the government, requiring the cabinet to resign. JC ...WHILE SOCIAL DEMOCRATS STRESS CONDITIONS FOR SUPPORTING GOVERNMENT. Egils Baldzens, leader of the Social Democrats' caucus, told journalists on 20 January that his party will sign an agreement on backing the government only if the cabinet agrees to meet a number of the Social Democrats' demands, BNS reported. Baldzens was speaking after a meeting with Prime Minister Vilis Kristopans. Most of the Social Democrats' demands are related to social problems, education, and the privatization of large companies. Kristopans has ordered Latvia's Way chairperson Kristiana Libane to draft an agreement with the Social Democrats. JC POLISH COALITION SEEKS TO STAVE OFF CRISIS. Solidarity Electoral Action (AWS) and its coalition partner, the Freedom Union (UW), have reached what AWS leader Marian Krzaklewski said was "a breakthrough [and] a wise compromise," Polish media reported on 20 January (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 January 1999). The AWS has decided to withdraw its controversial bill on distributing state assets among all citizens. It is widely believed that the dismissal of Deputy Health Minister Jacek Wutzow, whom the UW blamed for the poorly prepared health reform, has also contributed to healing coalition rifts. But Health Minister Wojciech Maksymowicz commented that Wutzow was released because he had successfully carried out his main task of "making health service establishments independent." Krzaklewski said the next step in overcoming the coalition crisis will be to vote down the opposition's motion of no confidence in Maksymowicz. JM BALCEROWICZ SLAMS GOVERNMENT FOR SLOW REFORMS. Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz criticized his government in the 20 January "Gazeta wyborcza" for delaying promised economic reforms and privatization. Balcerowicz said the delays pose a threat to Poland's EU membership talks and might undermine the social security reform launched this year. He commented that he is particularly concerned about privatization, noting that successful sales in the telecommunications and banking sector were followed by "a virtual lack of privatization in other areas." "There is a threat that in 2000 and 2001 we will not have the revenues needed for the pension reform," he wrote. JM CZECH OPPOSITION PARTIES POSTPONE SIGNING NEW AGREEMENT. The signing of a new agreement between the four-party opposition alliance, composed of the Christian Democrats (KDU-CSL), the Freedom Union, and the extra- parliamentary Civic Democratic Alliance and the Democratic Union (DEU), will not take place on 27 January, as originally planned. KDU-CSL acting chairman Jan Kasal told CTK that he sees "no need to put in writing what is running normally." Freedom Union chairman Jan Ruml said he is convinced that it is "only a matter of time" before the DEU-proposed agreement is signed. The Freedom Union insists on discussions among the alliance's leaders before important parliamentary debates, following the KDU-CSL's support in the legislature for the deficit budget proposed by Milos Zeman's cabinet. MS SLOVAKIA ADAMANT ON URGENCY OF NATO ACCESSION. Defense Minister Pavol Kanis on 20 January told his Austrian counterpart, Werner Fasslabend, that Bratislava will have "to react actively" to the admission of the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland into NATO because that step "will create problems in relations between countries that have joined the alliance and those that have not done so," CTK reported. Speaking before leaving on a visit to the U.S, Foreign Minister Eduard Kukan told journalists the same day that the purpose of his visit is to discuss not Slovak-U.S. relations but Slovakia's integration into NATO. He said Slovak diplomats consider NATO membership "a matter of months, not years." MS BUDAPEST TO CHANGE STRATEGY IN "HUNGARIAN-HUNGARIAN" RELATIONS? Zsolt Nemeth, Foreign Ministry political state secretary, told journalists in Uzhorod, western Ukraine, on 20 January that Hungary intends to invite to the forthcoming "Hungarian-Hungarian summit" only those ethnic Hungarian parties from neighboring countries that are represented in the respective countries' parliaments. Bela Bugar, chairman of the Hungarian Coalition Party of Slovakia, responded by saying that a party's legitimacy should not be linked to parliamentary representation, since many ethnic parties lack the necessary number of supporters to ensure their parliamentary representation. MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE BELGRADE MAY COMPROMISE ON WALKER... Newly appointed Yugoslav Deputy Prime Minister Vuk Draskovic said on 20 January that Belgrade may be willing to compromise on the expulsion order for William Walker, the head of the OSCE's verification mission, Reuters reported. Draskovic said the issue could be "solved through compromise" to everyone's satisfaction. Draskovic said it would be better to "present the truth" to Walker than to declare him persona non grata. Serbian Deputy Premier Tomislav Nikolic said Walker's departure "will be delayed" so that he can be given the chance not to be thrown out but to resign. Walker has until 5:00 p.m. local time on 21 January to leave the country or face expulsion (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 January 1999). The OSCE, NATO, and several Western governments have said Walker must stay in Kosova. Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Aleksandr Avdeev met with Draskovic and Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic in an effort to reverse the expulsion order on Walker (see also Part I). Walker said "I'm hereКas long as the mission goes on." The chairman of the OSCE, Knut Vollebaek, was expected in Belgrade on 21 January to try to prevent Walker's expulsion. PB КWHILE ARBOUR AGAIN DENIED ENTRY. Louise Arbour, the chief prosecutor for the war crimes tribunal at The Hague, was again turned back by Yugoslav border guards at the Macedonian border on instructions from Belgrade, AP reported on 20 January (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 January 1999). Arbour said she will abandon her efforts to enter Kosova and to investigate the deaths of the ethnic Albanians at Recak. Belgrade said it does not recognize Arbour's jurisdiction in Kosova. PB FINNISH PATHOLOGIST ASKS SERBS TO WAIT. Forensic expert Helena Ranta asked Serbian Justice Minister Dragoljub Jankovic to order a halt to autopsies being performed by Yugoslav officials in Prishtina on the 45 people alleged to have been massacred by Serbian forces, AFP reported on 21 January. Ranta said that X-ray equipment as well as the presence of the full 17-member forensics team is needed before autopsies begin. Yugoslav pathologists as well as unnamed Belarusian officials have begun the autopsies in the presence of some OSCE monitors (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 January 1999). Jankovic told Renta that the autopsies had to begin because there was a lack of storage space for the bodies and because they had been rotting outside for five days. Sandy Blyth, a spokesman for the OSCE verification team, said the autopsies had been sped up, despite Renta's request that they wait for the Finns. PB NATO PREPARES FOR STRIKES... NATO increased its preparedness for military strikes in Kosova on 20 January as the alliance's secretary-general, Javier Solana, warned that "if the only language that Milosevic understands is the language of force, he will find force," Reuters reported. NATO said it has increased the air forces' readiness from 96 hours to 48 hours and has repositioned battleships in the Adriatic to better prepare for air strikes. In Copenhagen, Solana said that if "the use of military force or the threat of military force is necessary to bring about a political solution, NATO is prepared to do it." Earlier in London, Solana called on Milosevic to rescind his expulsion order on Walker. PB КAS FIGHTING CONTINUES. Sporadic mortar and machine-gun fire could be heard in the area around Recak on 21 January as a UN relief agency brought aid to villagers who left their homes after fighting erupted in the area, Reuters reported. Two ethnic Albanians were killed in the most recent fighting, while two others were injured near Vraganica. Fighting was also reported in Shipolje and Kosovska Mitrovica. PB BOSNIAN FOREIGN MINISTER FEARS REFUGEES FROM KOSOVA. Jadranko Prlic said in Sarajevo on 20 January that he is concerned that the flare-up in fighting in Kosova will unleash a new wave of refugees, Reuters reported. Prlic said there are already between 10,000 and 20,000 Kosovars in Bosnia. He added that Bosnia backs international efforts to end the crisis. In other news, three Muslims convicted in December for their alleged roles in killing four Serbs in 1996 were transferred from Republika Srpska to a prison in the Muslim-Croatian federation. In exchange, three Bosnian Serbs imprisoned in Zenica were sent to Srpska. The conviction of the Muslims was called a "judicial farce" by the UN representative in Bosnia. PB CROATIA, MONTENEGRO OPEN BORDER. Croatia and Montenegro agreed on 20 January to open two border crossings that have been closed for seven years, AP reported. The Croatian Foreign Ministry said the action adds to the "normalization of relations and easing of tensions." The agreement will allow both people and goods to pass through the border crossings. PB TUDJMAN BLAMES FOREIGNERS, SPIES FOR PROBLEMS. Croatian President Franjo Tudjman said during his state of the nation address on 20 January that membership in the EU and NATO remain "a strategic target of our foreign policy," AP reported. But Tudjman said that foreign powers are making accession to the two organizations difficult with their "efforts to alter the political landscape in Croatia and force us into undesirable integrations." Tudjman added that Zagreb needs to upgrade its intelligence services in order to combat the increased number of "spy networks" in the country. He said such networks threaten Croatia's independence. Tudjman also blamed "certain countries" for trying to fix Bosnian elections to the detriment of Bosnian Croats. PB NANO RESIGNS AS LEADER OF ALBANIAN SOCIALISTS. Former Premier Fatos Nano resigned on 20 January as the leader of the Socialist Party and said he will launch "an emancipating movement" that will restore hope among his countrymen, AP reported. In a speech to party officials, Nano said his credo will be "no communism, no anti- communism." Nano added that he was resigning because of a lack of support from the party leadership, which, he said, is no longer in touch with ordinary Albanians. Nano, 45, resigned as premier in September after an uprising by the main opposition party, the Democratic Party of former President Sali Berisha. PB ROMANIAN MINERS TURN DOWN GOVERNMENT OFFER. A spokesman for the Jiu Valley miners on 21 January said the miners have rejected the government's offer to send a delegation of government officials headed by Labor and Social Protection Minister Alexandru Athanasiu to negotiate with them. The miners insist on Premier Radu Vasile's presence at the negotiations. The miners' spokesman said they are headed for Costesti, some 120 kilometers north of Bucharest, where large police forces are deployed. On 20 January, some 10,000 miners traveling in buses and cars reached the outskirts of Horezu, near Costesti. President Emil Constantinescu the next day convened an extraordinary session of the parliament to debate the strike., RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. MS EXTREMIST ROMANIAN SENATOR TO BE SUSPENDED FROM HOUSE DEBATES? The Senate's Judiciary Commission on 20 January recommended that Corneliu Vadim Tudor, leader of the extremist Greater Romania Party, be barred from participating in house debates for 30 days for having incited the miners to continue their strike and for having offended President Constantinescu in a message addressed to the miners on 7 January. The decision is subject to approval by the Senate's Permanent Bureau. MS ORGANIZATIONS PROTEST JOURNALISTS' SENTENCES. The Romanian Press Club on 21 January protested the one-year suspended sentences handed down by a Bucharest court to two journalists from Iasi, who were found guilty of libeling a police officer and a local judge. The two were also ordered to pay "moral damages." The Bucharest court commuted the sentences handed down by an Iasi tribunal, whereby the two journalists were to have served their sentences. Meanwhile, on 19 January, Amnesty International protested the decision of a Bistrita-Nasaud court to send back to prison Cornel Sabou, a journalist from Baia Mare who was sentenced in December 1997 to 10 months in prison for libeling a judge. Sabou's sentence was suspended in October 1998 for family reasons, but he requested a continuation of the suspension because he is suffering from tuberculosis. The request was turned down on the grounds that he can get adequate treatment in prison. MS MOLDOVA'S ETHNIC BULGARIANS TO HOLD REFERENDUM. Preparations for holding a referendum in the Taraclia district on whether to join the newly established Cahul County or opt for administrative independence have been finalized, Infotag reported, quoting the chairman of the local electoral commission. Voting will take place on 24 January. The Central Electoral Commission prohibited the referendum, but the Taraclia authorities and the mostly ethnic Bulgarian residents of the district view the ban as "unjustified". In Sofia, a protest rally took place outside the Moldovan Embassy on 17 January, a spokesman for the Moldovan Foreign Ministry announced on 19 January. The protestors demanded that Taraclia retain its status as a separate administrative unit. Parliamentary Chairman Dumitru Diacov on 20 January deplored the intention to hold the referendum, saying everyone must respect the country's laws, Flux reported. MS BULGARIA TO PROSECUTE RFE/RL JOURNALIST? Reporters Sans Frontieres, an independent organizations defending the freedom of the press worldwide, on 19 January released a statement protesting the decision of Prosecutor-General Ivan Tatarchev to open an investigation into Tatiana Vaksberg, a freelancer for RFE/RL's Sofia bureau. She is accused of "insulting state authority" and of offending the "[personal ] honor and dignity" of Tatarchev. In an October 1998 broadcast, Vaksberg suggested that Tatarchev was not doing enough to bring criminals to justice and may himself be prosecuted for failure to perform his duties. MS NEW OIL SLICK ON RIVER DANUBE. For the third time within a week, an oil slick has been reported floating downstream on the River Danube, at the mouth of the Timok River, which flows into the Danube along the border with Yugoslavia, Reuters reported on 20 January. Bulgarian officials told the news agency that "all measures have been taken to absorb and clean the new slick" before it reaches the Kozloduy nuclear plant. MS END NOTE ELECTION ALLIANCE BAN AND ESTONIAN POLITICS by Jan Cleave Since last November's ban on election alliances, political parties in Estonia have been pondering how best to prepare for the 7 March general elections. Some have discussed mergers. Others have opted to run on the list of another party, while still others have concluded post-election cooperation agreements. It is unclear, however, whether "more order" will be brought into Estonia's political landscape in the near future. President Lennart Meri expressed the hope for such a development when he promulgated the ban two days after its passage. As was the case in neighboring Latvia before last fall's general elections, more than a dozen parties are represented in Estonia's legislature. A number of those parties entered the parliament in an election alliance (because alone they would have failed to pass the 5 percent threshold to parliamentary representation) but subsequently pursued their own political goals. The ruling coalition, for example, having come to power in 1995 as an election alliance composed of the Coalition Party and the Country People's Union, set up four separate caucuses, which at times have bitterly opposed one another. Not only has the large number of small and medium-sized parties represented in the parliament frequently encumbered that body's work; it has also contributed to halting the consolidation of the country's political forces. Proponents of prohibiting election alliances argued that the bill would help promote such consolidation by forcing smaller parties to merge with larger ones. Not surprisingly, the ban was spearheaded by the leftist Center Party, which, together with the rightist Reform Party, was leading in opinion polls and was expected to benefit from such a prohibition. It was also no surprise that the Rural Union opposed the bill while the Pensioners and Families Party and most Coalition Party members chose not to vote, since those three parties had been planning to renew their election alliance. The fourth member of the ruling coalition, the Country People's Party, voted in favor of the bill, thereby finally distancing itself from its coalition partners. Almost immediately after the vote, the efficacy of the election alliance ban was called into question when the Coalition Party announced that the Rural Union and the Pensioners and Families Party would run on its list in the upcoming election. According to a survey conducted last month by the Saar Polling Institute, neither the Coalition Party nor the Rural Union would pass the 5 percent threshold; but under current house rules, each party would be able to form its own caucus if it had at least six parliamentary deputies who had run on one list. The announcement prompted a flurry of criticism in the Estonian press that the ban had been "half-finished" and that joint lists should also have been prohibited to prevent parties with less than 5 percent support from wangling their way into the parliament. In early December, the Center Party submitted a bill to the parliament that would establish the principle of "one list, one caucus" and thereby eliminate what it called the "danger of the disintegration of pseudo-election alliances." Under the draft law, persons elected to the parliament on one election list would be entitled to set up only one caucus. If that principle were to be enforced before the March ballot, only half dozen or so parties are likely to be represented in the new parliament. According to last month's Saar poll, voter support for the five front-runners is distributed more or less evenly. The Center and Reform Parties remain ahead with 10.7 percent and 10.1 percent backing, respectively. They are closely followed by the centrist Moderates (9.9 percent), the right-wing Fatherland Union (9.7 percent), and the left-of-center Country People's Party (9.5 percent). The only other parties that would pass the 5 percent threshold are the rightist People's Party (6.2 percent), which has opted to run on the Moderates' list, and the Pensioners and Families' Party (5.6 percent). The ruling Coalition Party received just 4.8 percent backing. (Two Russian-speaking parties, the United People's Party and the Russian Unity Party, intend to run on a joint list with the ex-communist Social Democratic Labor Party, but their combined vote is currently below 5 percent.) Recently, two loose blocs have been forged on the basis of post-election cooperation agreements. On the last day of 1998, the Reform Party, the Moderates, the Fatherland Union, and the People's Party signed such an agreement. Two weeks later, the Center Party and the Country People's Party concluded a non-binding "cooperation memorandum" aimed at paving the way for the formation of a ruling coalition. According to the December Saar poll, the combined vote for the center- right bloc is 36 percent and for the leftist one 20 percent. There are doubts, however, as to whether either of those blocs would be able to form a cohesive ruling coalition. The four parties belonging to the center- right bloc have worked together in the parliament as the United Opposition since fall 1997, but ideological differences exist within that grouping, particularly in the economic and social spheres. The Center Party and the Country People's Party have similar economic goals but, with only 20 percent backing, would be forced to seek other political forces with which to form a ruling coalition. Center Party leader and former Prime Minister Edgar Savisaar has refused to name any candidates for such cooperation, commenting only that "Estonian politics have become pragmatic to such an extent that one is ready to work closely with everyone with whom an agreement can be reached on the principles of a political program." xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1999 RFE/RL, Inc. 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