We have flown the air like birds and swum the sea like fishes, but have yet to learn the simple act of walking the earth like brothers. - Martin Luther King Jr
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 232, Part II, 3 December 1998


________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 232, Part II, 3 December 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and
Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central
Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio
Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning
Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.  Part I
covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is
distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back
issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are
online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part II

* HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION WITHDRAWS SUPPORT FOR NATO DEAL

* NATO ARRESTS BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL

* SERBIA BREAKS PLEDGE ON AMNESTY

End Note: THE STRUGGLE FOR THE PAST CONTINUES
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT STARTS DEBATING AMENDED BUDGET. The
Ukrainian Supreme Council on 2 December began debating
the amended 1999 draft budget amid government warnings
that most fiscal targets set by lawmakers will be
impossible to meet, AP reported. The draft provides for
a zero deficit and increases revenues to 35.1 billion
hryvni ($10.2 billion) from the 23.1 billion forecast by
the government. "Ukraine can produce a financial
sensation by approving a deficit-free budget," Budget
Committee Chairwoman Yuliya Tymoshenko commented.
Finance Minister Ihor Mityukov said the proposed budget
revenues and expenditures are unrealistic. Meanwhile,
the government appealed to the parliament to reconsider
its decision raising the monthly minimum wage from 55 to
148 hryvni, saying such an increase would be destructive
for the economy. JM

UKRAINIAN MINERS ON STRIKE AGAIN. Hundreds of miners
demonstrated outside the parliament building in Kyiv on
2 December, demanding increased state support for the
mining sector and the payment of back wages, AP
reported. According to Mykhaylo Volynets of the
Independent Miners' Union, some 40,000 miners in 20
mines launched an indefinite strike in support of the
demonstrators' demands. The miners want the parliament
to increase budget allocations for their industry to 5.5
billion hryvni ($1.6 billion) from the projected 3.1
billion hryvni. Wage arrears to the mining sector,
according to governmental data, amount to 2.4 billion
hryvni. JM

KUCHMA EXEMPTS FARMERS FROM VAT. Ukrainian President
Leonid Kuchma has issued an edict exempting farmers from
value-added tax for five years, Ukrainian Television
reported on 2 December. The exemption extends to those
who sell homemade goods, excluding those liable to
excise tax. The only condition is that earnings from
homemade products must exceed 50 percent of a farm's
gross income. Money saved by not paying VAT is to be
spent on improving equipment and production methods,
otherwise the funds will be confiscated. JM

BELARUSIAN TRADE UNIONS POSTPONE PROTEST... Five member
organizations of the Trade Union Federation decided to
postpone a mass protest action planned for 2 November in
Minsk and other cities, Belapan and RFE/RL's Belarusian
Service reported. The decision followed consultations
with President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's chief of
administration, Mikhail Myasnikovich (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 2 December 1998), after which the government
agreed to significantly increase wages as of 1 January,
lower taxes, and support domestic producers. If the
government fails to meet its commitments, the trade
unions will launch a mass protest action on 27 January.
Western and Belarusian independent media reported that
the authorities applied pressure to many workers,
including threats of dismissal, to prevent them from
taking part in the protest. JM

...COMPLAIN ABOUT SLANDERING CAMPAIGN IN STATE MEDIA.
The Trade Union Federation on 2 November adopted a
statement accusing the state media of waging a campaign
to discredit and intimidate trade unions. The statement
said that the official media resort to "juggling with
facts and bare lies, cynical misrepresentation of public
opinion, and planting in people's consciousness
distorted views of the true role and activities of trade
unions." For several days before the planned protest,
Belarusian Television strongly criticized the protest
action and suggested that trade union leaders are
pursuing private interests in inciting workers to take
part in street protests. JM

LUKASHENKA MAKES NEW CABINET APPOINTMENTS. President
Lukashenka has made several new appointments to the
government and administration bodies, following his
statement that he intends to deal "firmly" with the
current crisis in the country, Belarusian Television
reported on 2 December. Vasil Dalhalyou was appointed
first prime minister and Agricultural Minister Ivan
Shakola replaced by Yuryy Maroz. Minister of Statistics
Uladzimir Nichyparovich was replaced by Uladzimir
Zinouski. Minsk Oblast Governor Pyotr Pyotukh yielded
his post to Mikalay Damashkevich, former chairman of the
State Control Committee. Colonel Yuryy Barodzich was
dismissed from the post of presidential security service
chief and transferred to the KGB. JM

NO CHANGES IN ESTONIAN CABINET, FOR TIME BEING. Estonian
Prime Minister Mart Siimann has said he currently has no
plans to change the lineup of his cabinet but does not
rule out such a possibility in the future, ETA reported
on 2 December. Siimann told journalists that any such
changes will depend on the "climate" within the
government coalition and on agreements likely to be
concluded with the Rural Union and the Pensioners and
Families Party whereby those parties will run on the
Coalition Party's election lists. Speculation about a
possible government reshuffle emerged last month when
the fourth coalition partner, the Country People's
Party, voted with the opposition in favor of banning
electoral alliances. JC

KALLAS TRIAL KICKS OFF IN TALLINN. The trial of former
Central Bank President and former Foreign Minister Siim
Kallas began in the Tallinn City Court on 2 December,
ETA reported. Kallas, together with former bank adviser
Urmas Kaju, is charged with, among other things, abuse
of power and intended embezzlement in the so-called $10
million affair, which began with the Central Bank
lending $10 million to the North Estonian Bank in
November 1993. That sum was intended to be invested in a
Swiss fuel company, El Paradiso SAL, with an anticipated
one-year interest of some 107 million kroons ($8.2
million). However, the Swiss firm failed to repay the
investment, and the Central Bank received only $2
million in interest. Kallas denies the charges, arguing
that Bank of Estonia officials were guilty only of
having transferred the funds to the commercial North
Estonian Bank, which has since been liquidated. JC

KRISTOPANS HOPES FOR MEETING WITH PRIMAKOV EARLY NEXT
YEAR. Latvian Prime Minister Vilis Kristopans said after
talks with Russian Ambassador to Riga Aleksandr Udaltsov
on 1 December that he believes he may meet with his
Russian counterpart, Yevgenii Primakov, as early as the
beginning of next year, "Diena" reported the next day.
Kristopans underlined in his talks with Udaltsov that
good relations with Russia are a main priority of the
new Latvian government's program. According to the
daily, the three main topics of their talks were
organizing a meeting at government level, resuming the
work of the intergovernment commission, and preparing
for signature several bilateral accords, including the
Latvian-Russian border agreement. JC

LITHUANIAN PEASANTS' PARTY TO OPPOSE EURO-INTEGRATION.
Peasants' Party Chairman Ramunas Karbauskis has said his
party will oppose Lithuania's integration into NATO and
the EU if those aims are pursued at the expense of the
agricultural community, BNS reported on 2 December. He
pointed out that the country's defense budget is being
increased at the expense of agriculture, noting that
funds for the latter sector have been slashed by 200
million litas ($50 million) in next year's budget. The
Peasants' Party currently has less than 1 percent of the
vote in opinion polls. Lithuania is considered to have
the best chances of the three Baltic States to be
included in the next wave of NATO expansion. JC

BALCEROWICZ ASSESSES POLAND'S ECONOMIC PERFORMANCE IN
1998. Deputy Premier and Finance Minister Leszek
Balcerowicz told journalists on 2 December that the
Solidarity-led government increased budget discipline in
public finances and decreased the budget deficit this
year, PAP and AP reported. Balcerowicz said Poland is
better equipped than a year ago to deal with global
problems such as the Asian and Russian economic crises.
"We have prevented growing signs of crisis in our
economy and strengthened our credibility among other
emerging markets," he commented. He added that Poland
has maintained a high rate of growth, reduced inflation,
and improved its creditworthiness. Poland's priorities
next year will be lowering unemployment, reforming the
tax system, and stepping up privatization, he concluded.
JM

ZEMAN SAYS NO PLANS FOR CHANGES TO GOVERNMENT. Czech
Premier Milos Zeman said on 2 December that the
government is not considering the formation of a new
coalition or a reshuffling of the cabinet, CTK reported.
Responding to comments made the previous day by Deputy
Premier Pavel Rychetsky that a "national unity"
government would be formed next year (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 2 December 1998), Zeman said that despite a
worsening economic situation, the leadership of his
Social Democrats is not discussing "a reconstruction [of
the cabinet] or a new coalition." Zeman said Rychetsky's
statement reflected his personal opinion. Former Premier
Vaclav Klaus, accused by Rychetsky of not wanting to
govern the country because he knew that bad economic
times were ahead, said the Czech National Bank is
responsible for the Czech Republic's economic woes.
Klaus added that perhaps his Civic Democratic Party
"understands economics better than Mr. Rychetsky." PB

PARLIAMENT BACKS NEW SLOVAK GOVERNMENT. The Slovak
parliament voted in favor of the new government's
program, which focuses on revitalizing the economy and
integrating with Euro-Atlantic structures, Reuters
reported. Deputies voted 88 to 50 for the program. Prime
Minister Mikulas Dzurinda said the result was a vote of
confidence in his government and will allow the cabinet
to implement its domestic and foreign policies. Dzurinda
has said the government will encourage foreign
investment, restructure and privatize banks, and revive
the depressed equity market. PB

SLOVAKIA SEEKS, RECEIVES PRAISE. Slovak Foreign Minister
Eduard Kukan called on support from Germany and other EU
members for the new direction of the Slovak government,
TASR reported on 3 December. Kukan, in Oslo for the
annual OSCE Ministerial Council meeting, said his
government wants "to prove that now there is a new
situation in Slovakia..., a government determined to
strive for democratic development." Kukan added that he
hopes Germany will issue a statement showing its support
for the new government and will begin discussions on
Slovakia's EU prospects in April, when Bonn takes over
the EU presidency. He also said Slovakia feels it is
headed in "the right direction, but we also want to hear
it from the EU." In Brussels, Jan Wiersma, the European
Parliament's rapporteur for Slovakia, praised the new
government in Bratislava and called on the European
Commission to adopt a more flexible position on Slovakia
with regard to its chances of joining the fast-track to
EU membership. PB

HUNGARIAN OPPOSITION WITHDRAWS SUPPORT FOR NATO DEAL.
Two Hungarian opposition parties has withdrawn support
for an amendment to the constitution that is necessary
for the country's armed forces to cooperate with NATO,
AFP reported on 2 December. The Socialist Party and the
Alliance of Free Democrats withdrew their support
because of the ruling coalition's failure to allow
committees to investigate government appointments (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 2 December 1998). Opposition support
for the amendment is needed for its passage. The
amendment would extend the government's authority in
sending the military abroad and in allowing troops from
other countries to be deployed on the country's
territory--both of which are considered necessary
activities for a NATO member. Socialist Party chairman
Laszlo Kovacs said his party continues to back full NATO
membership for Hungary but added that his party cannot
support the government if it refuses to cooperate with
the Socialists. PB

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

NATO ARRESTS BOSNIAN SERB GENERAL... U.S. SFOR troops
arrested Radislav Krstic near Brcko on 2 December and
sent him to the Hague-based international war crimes
tribunal. Chief Prosecutor Louise Arbour said that the
court indicted Krstic in October but did not announce
the indictment lest he know that the tribunal was
seeking to arrest him. She called his capture "very
significant." Krstic is wanted for genocide and
violations of the Geneva Convention on the conduct of
war because of his direct personal involvement as
commander of the Drina Corps in the fall of Srebrenica
in July 1995 and in the alleged subsequent massacre of
some 7,000 Muslim men. At the time, Bosnian Serb leader
Radovan Karadzic said that Krstic "planned...the action
on Srebrenica. He has done an extraordinary job." Krstic
is the highest-ranking Bosnian Serb officer to go to The
Hague and the fifth person to be captured for war crimes
by peacekeepers. PM

...WHILE BOSNIAN SERBS TO LIMIT TIES TO SFOR. Republika
Srpska President Nikola Poplasen told the parliament in
Banja Luka on 2 December that Krstic's arrest
"embittered and upset" all Bosnian Serbs and could
adversely affect the implementation of the Dayton peace
agreement. Poplasen added that the Republika Srpska will
reduce its contacts to SFOR "to the necessary minimum."
Parliamentary speaker Petar Djokic said that the arrest
"brings uncertainty to people, a feeling that every
citizen of the Republika Srpska can be regarded as a
potential war criminal in the eyes of the tribunal," the
London-based "Daily Telegraph" reported. PM

U.S. ADOPTING TOUGHER POLICY TOWARD WAR CRIMINALS?
Washington has adopted a "get tough" strategy toward
indicted war criminals and placed a $5 million bounty
each on Karadzic, General Ratko Mladic, and former
Krajina Serb leader Milan Martic, "The Guardian"
reported on 3 December. Unnamed Western diplomats told
the London-based daily, however, that Karadzic is
unlikely to "ever make it alive to The Hague" because he
knows too much about the wartime roles of Yugoslav
President Slobodan Milosevic and other leaders in the
former Yugoslavia. Other observers suggested that the
new U.S. policy may be linked to a tough line against
Milosevic (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 2 December 1998). The
observers added that the key factor may be a desire to
put an end to instability in the former Yugoslavia by
removing from the scene those most responsible for that
instability. PM

BOSNIAN SERBS PASS PROPERTY LAWS. The Republika Srpska
parliament approved a bill on 2 December that confirms
the right of former occupants to their homes and gives
the government 30 days to respond to demands by Muslims
and Croats for the return of their apartments and
houses. Poplasen's Radicals opposed the measure, but
legislators belonging to Karadzic's Serbian Democratic
Party (SDS) voted for it. SDS spokesmen told AFP that
they backed the bill as "the lesser of two evils"
because it allows Serbian refugees living in Muslims'
and Croats' former homes to appeal their eviction and
requires the Bosnian Serb government to rehouse them if
they lose. The SDS officials added that they feared that
the international community's Carlos Westendorp would
impose a "far worse" law if the parliament voted down
the draft. PM

MACEDONIA APPROVES NATO BASE. Prime Minister Ljubco
Georgievski said in Skopje on 2 December that the
government has made a "big decision" to allow NATO to
base its rapid reaction force at Kumanovo near the
border with Kosova. He stressed that the force's mission
is humanitarian and is aimed at protecting the safety of
2,000 unarmed OSCE monitors in the Serbian province "in
case of natural disasters or if [the monitors] become
victims of extremists." Georgievski added that the
government hopes that its decision "will contribute to
Macedonia's speedier integration with NATO." In
Brussels, unnamed NATO officials told Reuters that the
force can begin to deploy to Kumanovo by 12 December. PM

ALBANIA, RUSSIA CLASH OVER KOSOVA. Norwegian Prime
Minister Kjell Bondevik told the two-day OSCE foreign
ministers' meeting in Oslo on 2 December that he hopes
the monitoring mission will "contribute to paving the
way for a political solution" in Kosova. OSCE ambassador
to Albania Daan Everts dismissed Serbian warnings to the
international community not to maintain contacts with
the Kosova Liberation Army, RFE/RL's South Slavic
Service reported (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 2 December
1998). The next day, Russian and Albanian diplomats
differed over the proposed text of a final statement on
Kosova. Russian officials want to avoid a reference to
any one side--namely Serbia--as being to blame for the
conflict. Albanian Foreign Minister Paskal Milo said his
country cannot accept putting "on the same level the
responsibilities of Milosevic and the Belgrade
authorities with those of the Kosovar Albanian
leadership for the crisis." PM

SERBIA BREAKS PLEDGE ON AMNESTY. The Serbian authorities
have continued to detain some 1,500 Kosovars and have
recently sentenced more than 20 others in connection
with their alleged role in the recent conflict, the
"Washington Post" reported on 3 December. A spokeswoman
for the United Nations High Commissioner for Human
Rights told the daily that there is also a "systematic
pattern of abuse" and torture directed against Kosovars
held in Serbian prisons. The October agreement between
Milosevic and U.S. special envoy Richard Holbrooke
includes an amnesty for all offenses except war crimes.
The Serbian authorities claim that Kosovars, who say
they were only defending their homes, are guilty of
"terrorism" under Serbian law. PM

CROATIAN OPPOSITION BACKS OUT OF TALKS. Spokesmen for a
coalition of six opposition parties said in Zagreb on 2
December that they will not take part in a breakfast
meeting with President Franjo Tudjman that had been
slated for the following day. The opposition leaders
said that Tudjman would not agree to their precondition
that he meet with them as head of his Croatian
Democratic Community (HDZ) and not as head of state (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 1 December 1998). Vladimir Seks, who
heads the HDZ faction in the parliament, said that
Tudjman may yet agree to meet with the opposition in his
capacity of party leader, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service
reported. PM

BOMB BLAST BLACKS OUT SOUTHERN ALBANIA. Unknown persons
blew up a high-voltage electricity tower near Durres on
1 December, blacking out several southern Albanian
towns, dpa reported. Local police found another four
unexploded bombs at the site of the explosion, according
to Interior Ministry spokesman Artan Bizhga. Government
officials called the bombing a "clear terrorist act"
aimed at destabilizing the country. Police are
investigating the incident but have found no suspects
yet. Officials of the Electric Power Corporation
estimated the damage to the high-voltage tower at around
$25,000. FS

ALBANIAN GOVERNMENT TO CURB SMUGGLING VIA ADRIATIC . The
government on 2 December sent a draft law to the
parliament that will require owners of speed boats to
register their vessels and limit their maximum speed to
40 nautical miles per hour (64 kilometers per hour). The
measure is designed to curb smuggling across the
Adriatic, Reuters reported. The Albanian and Italian
coast guards began joint patrols along the Albanian
coastline in early November to intercept smugglers
before they reach the open sea (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 2
November 1998). FS

FIRE BREAKS OUT AT KEY ALBANIAN INVESTMENT PROJECT. A
major fire broke out on 2 December inside the warehouse
of the Coca-Cola bottling plant in Tirana. Fire brigades
fought to control the blaze for nearly 12 hours. There
were no injuries. Workers said the fire started after
plastic boxes placed near huge spotlights melted and
then ignited the blaze. The four-year-old plant is a $10
million joint venture involving Atlanta-based Coca-Cola
and Italy's Gruppo Busi, which also operates bottling
plants in Italy. The Albanian plant produces about 100
million bottles annually or about 33 bottles a year for
every Albanian. It represents the single largest foreign
investment in Albania since the end of communism. The
same day, another large fire destroyed parts of the
Interior Ministry archives in the southern city of
Skrapar, "Gazeta Shqiptare" reported on 3 December.
Circumstances surrounding the blaze are unclear. FS

ROMANIAN FOREIGN EXCHANGE RESERVES REACH NEW LOW. Mugur
Isarescu, the central bank governor, told an economic
conference in Bucharest on 2 December that the country's
foreign exchange reserves have dropped to $1.85 billion,
the lowest level so far this year, AP reported. At the
end of October, they totaled $2.04 billion. Isarescu
said the drop is owing to external debt payments and
central bank intervention to support the leu, which has
depreciated in recent weeks. In other news, Ioan Avram
Muresan was sworn in as agriculture minister. Muresan
had served until now as minister of reform. Defense
Minister Victor Babiuc has been charged with adding the
acting head of the Reform Ministry to his portfolio. PB

STOYANOV PRAISES ROMANIA FOR RATIFYING FREE TRADE
AGREEMENT... Bulgarian President Petar Stoyanov said on
2 December that Romania has shown "exceptional
understanding" in ratifying Bulgaria's accord with the
Central European Free Trade Agreement, Bulgarian radio
reported. Stoyanov said Romania is the first country to
ratify the agreement even before Sofia has repaid its
debts to Bucharest. He said Poland and Hungary first
insisted the squaring of the money owed them before
approving Bulgaria's accession to CEFTA. PB

...WANTS SOFIA TO BE TAKEN SERIOUSLY OVER NATO. Also on
2 December, Petar Stoyanov said that a distinction
should be made between countries "seriously seeking"
membership in NATO and those that have no chance of
joining the alliance in the near future, dpa reported.
Stoyanov, addressing the parliamentary assembly of the
Western European Union in Paris, said that countries
that have already applied for membership should be given
a higher rank than those that have just expressed an
interest. He suggested that an "action plan" be
developed that would better define cooperation with NATO
and pave the way for quicker accession to the alliance.
PB

END NOTE

THE STRUGGLE FOR THE PAST CONTINUES

by Paul Goble

	Efforts to write new national histories in the
post-Soviet states are exacerbating ethnic tensions
across the region, undermining national unity in several
countries, and increasing cynicism about the value of
history itself.
	Each of these three developments threatens not only
the possibilities for intellectual understanding of the
states' complicated pasts but also the countries'
prospects for evolving into stable, open, and democratic
societies. Consequently at a time when most historians
in the region assumed they could focus on correcting the
distortions of the Soviet-era history, many are being
forced to address post-Soviet challenges that may prove
equally fateful.
	These were the unexpected and unsettling
conclusions of a remarkable conference of young
historians from seven of the post-Soviet states that
took place in Moscow earlier this fall but was reported
in a supplement to the Moscow newspaper "Nezavisimaya
gazeta" last week. The meeting was unprecedented in one
way and unusual in a number of others. It was
unprecedented in that it attracted scholars from so many
of those countries to discuss their current common
problems. And it was unusual in that it was sponsored by
private groups rather than state institutions, attracted
junior researchers rather than senior scholars, and
focused on the ideological problems facing historians in
the post-Soviet period.
	While there were significant differences in
emphasis among the participants, all agreed that efforts
by national leaders to use history to bolster their
authority and that of their country pose an extremely
serious threat.
	First, efforts to create new national histories are
exacerbating tensions among the countries of the region
and in some cases among the peoples within those
countries.
	That happens in several ways: Sometimes these
historian-recruits to the national cause simply put a
minus sign in front of Soviet views. Sometimes that
approach seems reasonable. Many North Caucasians, for
example, no longer celebrate the actions of the Russian
generals who conquered them. But sometimes it is
questionable. One speaker noted that some Georgians
refuse to commemorate Hitler's defeat because a few
historians there had suggested that the Georgian
soldiers involved had fought in a foreign--that is,
Soviet--army. In every case, such an approach offends
many people even as it affirms the views of others.
	But this "change of signs" from plus to minus and
from minus to plus is by no means the worst aspect of
the new national histories. According to Tamara
Guzenkova of the Russian Institute of Strategic Studies,
new national history textbooks devote little attention
to anything except military history and enemies within
and without. That, in turn, has the effect of creating
an explosive cycle, one that not only builds up the
image of the enemy, which all the participants said was
an integral part of nationalism, but also infuriates the
nation whose heroes are denigrated.
	Not surprisingly, several participants blamed this
new slant on history for the recent wave of ethnic
violence. In the words of one, "many contemporary
ethnopolitical conflicts have their roots in the pages
of history texts."
	Second, in some cases, attempts to foster national
unity are turning out to be counterproductive,
destroying the very social cohesion that the political
sponsors of such histories hope to achieve. Efforts to
create national histories, several conference
participants said, often prove self-defeating. Many of
the post-Soviet states are divided along ethnic and
regional lines. And what some groups approve, others
find offensive.
	In every case, there is a generational problem.
Older people tend to hold on to the heroes and enemies
of the past, even the Soviet past, while younger people
tend to fasten on new post-Soviet ones. And because
national histories can be either ethnic or political,
historians and political figures who seek to make use of
them have to make a choice. In Kazakhstan, for example,
the new national histories emphasize ethnicity. In
Russia, the latest histories stress politics. Both
approaches create problems at home and abroad.
	Third, because many of these post-Soviet efforts
are so blatant, they are discrediting history in the
minds of many and thus limiting its utility as a means
of overcoming the problems of the past and building a
better future. While the conference devoted relatively
little attention to this problem beyond reporting a poll
showing that fewer than one Russian student in three can
now name the other former Soviet republics, this may
prove the most serious obstacle of all.
	But the meeting ended on a remarkably optimistic
note--precisely because these young historians are now
focusing on this problem and talking to one another,
something they could not have done in the past.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word subscribe as the subject of the message.

HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message.

For subscription problems or inquiries, please email
listmanager@list.rferl.org
________________________________________________
CURRENT AND BACK ISSUES ON THE WEB
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/
_________________________________________________
LISTEN TO NEWS FOR 23 COUNTRIES
RFE/RL programs are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour
LIVE Broadcast Studio.
http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html
_________________________________________________
REPRINT POLICY
To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble
via email at GobleP@rferl.org or fax at 202-457-6992
_________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE STAFF
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org
* Julie A. Corwin, CorwinJ@rferl.org
* Jan Maksymiuk, MaksymiukJ@rferl.org
* Bruce Pannier, PannierB@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org

FREE-LANCE AND OCCASIONAL CONTRIBUTORS
* Pete Baumgartner, Jolyon Naegele, Fabian Schmidt,
Matyas Szabo, Anthony Wesolowsky

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
_________________________________________________
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole