I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up, live out the true meaning of its creed: we hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal. - Rev. Martin Luther King 1929-1968
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 190, Part I, 1 October 1998


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 190, Part I, 1 October 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern
Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the
staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document.  Back issues of RFE/RL
NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web
site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part I

* TO NATIONALIZE OR NOT TO NATIONALIZE?

* CABINET NEARS COMPLETION

* KAZAKH PRESIDENT ANNOUNCES LIBERALIZATION MEASURES

End Note: THROWING BAD MONEY AFTER BAD
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

RUSSIA

TO NATIONALIZE OR NOT TO NATIONALIZE? The draft version of
Deputy Prime Minister Yurii Maslyukov's economic plan,
according to "Kommersant Daily" on 30 September, calls for a
fixed ruble rate, a 60 percent increase in the money supply,
and the nationalization of banks to fund failing industries.
The cabinet was scheduled to discuss the plan on 1 October,
and the debate may grow heated -- particularly since Central
Bank chairman Viktor Gerashchenko told Interfax that he does
not support a nationalization of the nation's commercial
banks and that the Central Bank will allow the ruble's
exchange rate to float. However, a compromise may already be
in the works. Gerashchenko told reporters that he supports
the idea of a state bank for reconstruction and development;
the only problem, he added, is how to provide this bank with
funds. JAC

CABINET NEARS COMPLETION... By 30 September, Russian
President Boris Yeltsin had filled all the major posts in the
cabinet, except for the one abandoned by Aleksandr Shokhin
last week. Among the latest appointees are rector of the
Patrice Lumumba University Vladimir Filippov, who will become
minister of education, Director of the Russian State Library
Vladimir Yegorov (minister of culture), Deputy Health
Minister Vladimir Starodubov (minister of health), and
President of the Union of Russian Cities Valerii Kirpichnikov
(minister of regional policy). Yeltsin also reappointed
Yevgenii Adamov as minister of atomic energy and Viktor
Semenov as minister of food and agriculture. JAC

...GAINS NEW PARTY REPRESENTATIVE. Yeltsin also appointed
Sergei Kalashnikov, a member of the Liberal Democratic Party
(LDP), as minister of labor. A moderate, Kalashnikov is the
only member of the cabinet from the LDP. In an interview with
"Trud" on 1 October, Kalashnikov declared his support for
indexing pensions as soon as November. After Kalashnikov's
appointment was announced, LDP leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky
declared that Primakov's entire cabinet has his party's full
backing. JAC

PRIMAKOV TO TAKE TOUGH APPROACH TO REGIONS? Sverdlovsk
governor Eduard Rossel told reporters on 1 October that he
suggested to President Yeltsin that a firm top-down
management system be introduced in Russia. Rossel also said
that Yeltsin promised that the role of governors in federal
policy-making will be considerably enhanced. "Kommersant-
Daily" concluded on 30 September that the appointment of
Kirpichnikov as regional policy minister indicates that the
Primakov has decided to adopt a "tough approach" to the
regions. According to the newspaper, Kirpichnikov is one of
the "founding fathers" of the movement for strong local self-
government in which municipal authorities provide a
counterweight to governors. JAC

ARMY CHECKS ARE IN THE MAIL? One day before the army
conscription campaign was scheduled to begin, a number of
Russian newspapers reported on 30 September that the various
military districts have not yet received their back wages,
despite Prime Minister Yevgenii Primakov's earlier
announcement that the government has cleared its debt to the
military. According to "Izvestiya," the airborne, air
defense, and strategic missile troops as well as the navy and
General Staff have so far been paid only for June. In an
interview with "Krasnaya zvezda" on 29 September, Duma
Defense Committee chairman Roman Popkovich pledged that the
"1999 budget won't be approved if the government doesn't
increase the size of allowances for servicemen by 2.06
times." He added that allowances have not increased since
1995. JAC

IVANOV SAYS DIPLOMACY TO RELY MORE ON SKILL. In an interview
with "Komsomolskaya pravda" on 30 September, Foreign Minister
Igor Ivanov addressed the question of the future of Russian
foreign policy in the context of both its current economic
crisis and the prospect that its wishes for a solution in
Kosova will be ignored by the international community. Ivanov
said that Russian diplomacy, deprived of "a dynamic economy
behind it," has to rely more on skill, "the skill of seeking
compromises, of considering the interests of different states
on different issues, of seeking allies." He added that Russia
"does not dictate" but is "an important player on the very
complex chessboard" of international diplomacy. He expressed
"optimism" that the Baltic States' desire to enter the EU
will encourage them to observe human rights and that
Afghanistan's "friends and allies" will implement accords
meant to isolate the Taliban, forcing them to negotiate a
peace treaty under UN auspices. JAC

RUSSIAN-WESTERN BANK RELATIONS BECOME FROSTY. A Moscow
arbitration court on 30 September froze the assets of U.S.
investment bank Lehman Brothers held in Russian banks. On 24
September, Lehman Brothers had a British court freeze the
assets of Uneximbank and Inkombank held in British banks,
which reportedly owe them $87 million and $25.9 million,
respectively, for unfulfilled forward contracts (agreements
to buy a certain amount of currency at a future date, see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 24 September 1998). On 28 September,
Lehman obtained an additional court order freezing the
British bank accounts of SBS-Agro bank, which it claims owes
it $15 million. Bloomberg reported on 30 September that the
agenda of Russian government talks with domestic and foreign
holders of defaulted treasury bonds has been expanded to
include discussion of the settlement of more than $10 billion
in currency forward contracts. JAC

MAIL STOPPED IN ITS TRACKS. The Moscow Post Office has
stopped accepting parcels to be sent to remote regions
because of a dispute between the Communications Ministry and
the Railroads Ministry, according to "Segodnya" on 30
September. "Izvestiya" had reported on 26 September that the
Post Office, which is overseen by the Communications
Ministry, owes the Railroads Ministry 210 million rubles ($13
million) and that the Railroads Ministry responded by halting
all services at midnight on 25 September. The "Moscow Times"
reported on 1 October that the Post Office has brought in
trucks to deliver mail to regions within 2,000 kilometers of
Moscow but because of the lack of train access, little mail
is making it past the Ural Mountains. The same newspaper
reports that Post Office Director Valerii Sokolov believes
the Railroads Ministry manufactured the dispute in order to
steal shipping business away from the post office, since some
citizens have resorted to paying train conductors to deliver
parcels. JAC

ZYUGANOV NOT TO SUPPORT LUZHKOV FOR PRESIDENT. In an
interview with Interfax on 30 September, Communist Party
leader Gennadii Zyuganov appeared to confirm earlier press
speculation that the Communist Party is forming an alliance
with Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov. He said that a center-left
coalition with Luzhkov is "possible" and that the creation of
a broad center-left coalition "would benefit everyone."
Zyuganov admitted that Luzhkov has support not only in Moscow
"but also in the republics, territories, and regions with
which he deals actively." But he told NTV it is unlikely that
his party would support Luzhkov for president. LDP party
leader Vladimir Zhirinovsky said he himself would beat
Luzhkov in a second round by 2 percent. Meanwhile, "Segodnya"
reported that the Moscow Mayor's Office will obtain 25
percent of the stock of "Literaturnaya gazeta" Publishers by
providing them with a 49-year lease to a local building. JAC

PROTEST FALTERED? "Moskovskii komsomolets" reported on 1
October that the previous day's protests by Communist Party
activists and trade union members on highways leading to
Moscow "amounted almost to nothing" (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
30 September 1998). According to the newspaper, protesters on
one highway managed to get past assembled policemen but were
chased away by angry truck drivers. JAC

CORRECTION: "RFE/RL Newsline" of 30 September incorrectly
identified Dmitrii Ayatskov as governor of Sverdlovsk. He is
the governor of Saratov.

REGIONAL AFFAIRS

LUKASHENKA, PRIMAKOV CALL FOR STRONGER BELARUS-RUSSIA UNION.
On his first trip abroad as Russian prime minister, Yevgenii
Primakov met with Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka
in Minsk on 30 September and proposed strengthening the two
countries' strategic partnership. "It is time to move from
words to deeds," Interfax cited Primakov as saying. The two
leaders agreed to convene the Belarusian-Russian Union
Executive Committee on 16 October. The meeting will focus "on
reaching concrete results instead of exhibitionism," Primakov
commented. Lukashenka commented that Belarus "has always been
and [always] will be with Russia" and that other former USSR
republics are bound to join the Belarusian-Russian Union.
"The people will make it happen," he added. For his part,
Primakov said "the number of supporters willing to join the
union will grow as its economic efficiency becomes evident."
JM

LUKASHENKA PRAISES PRIMAKOV'S GOVERNMENT. After his meeting
with Primakov, Lukashenka said he is 'highly satisfied with
the work of Yevgenii Primakov's government," Interfax
reported. He said he is confident that Primakov's government
will stabilize the situation in Russia. And he noted that
Belarus will do its best to help Russia overcome its economic
problems. Primakov said Russia faces no political crisis,
only "social and economic tension." He added that Russia is
"on the threshold of economic reforms and changes that must
benefit the people." But he commented that the government
needs to have a tighter grip on regulating the economy. "This
is not a step back but rather forward towards transforming
the economy, including market-based change, but with a
strengthening of state regulation," Reuters quoted Primakov
as saying. JM

BELARUS MAY RECEIVE RUSSIAN LOAN, PAY FOR GAS BY BARTER.
Primakov and Lukashenka agreed in Minsk to "try to prepare"
two accords for the 16 October session of the Belarusian-
Russian Union Executive Committee, Interfax reported. Citing
an unnamed official from Primakov's delegation, the agency
reported that one accord will grant a loan to Belarus with
which it can buy Russian engines for Belarusian trucks. The
other will permit Belarus to pay off its gas debt to Russia
with goods. Belarus's debt for Russian gas deliveries
currently stands at some $220 million. JM

TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

KAZAKH PRESIDENT ANNOUNCES LIBERALIZATION MEASURES ... In his
annual address to the parliament on 30 September, Nursultan
Nazarbayev outlined broad measures to expedite
democratization that are clearly intended to undercut support
for any potential challenger in the presidential poll due in
2000. Nazarbayev proposed curtailing the powers of the
president and increasing those of the parliament, making the
government more accountable to the parliament, enhancing the
independence of the judiciary by appointing a separate head
of the Supreme Court (that post is currently held by the
country's president), and privatizing some state-owned media,
Interfax and Reuters reported. Nazarbayev also advocated
reforming the procedure for elections at all levels by
abolishing the present minimum 50 percent turnout and all
fees to register as a candidate and creating 10 additional
seats in the lower house, where all seats will be allocated
under the proportional system. LF

...RULES OUT PRETERM PRESIDENTIAL POLL... Nazarbayev
categorically rejected a proposal by four parliamentary
deputies to bring forward the date of the next presidential
elections to 1999 so they are not overshadowed by the
presidential poll in Russia in 2000, AP and Reuters reported.
The deputies also reasoned that preterm presidential
elections are needed to prevent the current social and
economic instability in Russia spilling over into Kazakhstan.
But Nazarbayev, who has repeatedly affirmed in recent weeks
that the financial crisis in Russia has not affected
Kazakhstan, said the country's constitution takes precedence
over such arguments. LF

...ANNOUNCES PRIVATIZATION OF SOME FARMLAND. Nazarbayev told
journalists in Astana after addressing the parliament that he
will soon submit to lawmakers a draft law introducing the
private ownership of land, Interfax reported. He said that
initially, some 30 - 40 million hectares of arable land will
be sold, but only to citizens of Kazakhstan who have
demonstrable expertise and experience in the agricultural
sector. LF

FORMER KAZAKH PREMIER COMMENTS ON NAZARBAYEV INITIATIVES.
Nazarbayev also met in Astana on 30 September with former
Prime Minister Akezhan Kazhegeldin, RFE/RL's bureau in the
Kazakh capital reported. At joint press conference,
Kazhegeldin described Nazarbayev's democratization program as
"timely." Nazarbayev, however, declined to answer a question
posed by an RFE/RL correspondent about the very close
similarities between the measures he had proposed to the
parliament and recommendations that Kazhegeldin had made to
the parliament on behalf of his businessmen's union two weeks
ago. LF

DEVELOPMENT OF FOREIGN TOURISM NOT A PRIORITY IN
TURKMENISTAN? National Security Committee chairman Mukhamet
Nazarov disclosed on 29 September that 760 foreigners have
been deported from Turkmenistan so far this year for
violating the country's laws. He added that "administrative
measures" have been taken against another 1,840 foreigners,
"Noviye izvestiya" reported. Nazarov added that 50 Turkmen
officials, mostly from the banking sector, have been arrested
so far this year. LF

SOLANA ENDS TALKS IN TBILISI, TRAVELS TO BAKU. During talks
in Tbilisi on 30 September with Georgian Foreign Minister
Irakli Menagharishvili and parliamentary speaker Zurab
Zhvania, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana said that
security in the South Caucasus goes beyond the purely
military sphere and depends also on political and economic
factors, Interfax reported. Solana expressed the hope that
close regional cooperation may contribute to stability and to
a solution to existing conflicts, which, he said, might
otherwise present a serious obstacle to European security. In
Baku later that day, Solana met with Azerbaijani
parliamentary speaker Murtuz Alesqerov and President Aliev,
who complained of Russia's "destabilizing" role in the
Caucasus, Reuters reported. In particular, Aliev condemned
the presence of Russian military bases in neighboring Georgia
and Armenia and Russian arms supplies to Armenia. Solana said
he hopes that the OSCE will be able to mediate a settlement
of the Karabakh conflict. LF

ARMENIAN OPPOSITION CHALLENGES LEGITIMACY OF CE DELEGATION.
In a recent letter addressed to the Council of Europe, former
parliamentary speaker Babken Ararktsian, who heads the
Hanrapetutyun parliamentary faction, protested the recent
dismissal of the head of the Armenian delegation to that
organization and cast doubts on the delegation's legitimacy,
RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported on 30 September.
Hanrapetutyun deputy Hovannes Igitian headed the delegation
until his replacement in August by Armen Martirosian of the
Reforms parliamentary group, who is an ally of current
parliamentary speaker Khosrov Harutiunian. Martirosian told
RFE/RL that Ararktsian's action is "inadmissible," and that
it damaged Armenia's efforts to become a full member of the
Council of Europe. He added that the council's Parliamentary
Assembly has postponed recognition of his delegation's status
until after a fact-finding visit to Armenia in November. LF

AZERBAIJANI POLICE FOIL ANOTHER UNSANCTIONED DEMONSTRATION.
Opposition supporters were forcibly prevented by police on 30
September from staging a march and protest rally near the
parliament building. The Baku mayor had refused permission
for the opposition to march along their proposed route but
suggested an alternative. Several hundred police intercepted
and beat some of the estimated 5,000 marchers as they
approached the parliament building. The opposition continues
to demand the postponement of the 11 October presidential
elections in order to ensure they are held in free and fair
conditions, the release of persons arrested during the 12
September clashes with police in Baku, and an international
investigation into the alleged use of torture in Azerbaijani
prisons. Also on 30 September, the Azerbaijani parliament
voted by 86 to 2 to adopt a statement condemning the
opposition's activities as violating public order, provoking
confrontation, and damaging Azerbaijan's international image,
Turan reported. LF

CONGRESS OF MUSLIMS OF CAUCASUS OPENS IN BAKU. Russian
Nationalities Minister Ramazan Abdulatipov, Chechen Vice
President Vakha Arsanov, and representatives of Muslim
organizations in Russia, Ukraine, and Central Asia are among
the delegates to the 10th Congress of Muslims of the
Caucasus, which opened in Baku on 30 September, Caucasus
Press reported. Addressing the congress, Azerbaijani
President Heidar Aliev said that stability in Dagestan is
crucial for the entire Caucasus, and he expressed support for
his Georgian counterpart Eduard Shevardnadze's "Peaceful
Caucasus" initiative. Chechen mufti Haji Akhmed Kadyrov
blamed Moscow for what he termed the "very tense" situation
in the North Caucasus. He argued that Russia is encouraging
Wahhabism, which he described as a serious threat to Islam,
pointing to Interior Minister Sergei Stepashin's pledge not
to take legal action against the inhabitants of two Dagestani
villages that recently proclaimed an independent Islamic
territory (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 4 September 1998). LF

KARABAKH DEFENSE MINISTER DENIES INFILTRATION ATTEMPT. The
press service of the Defense Ministry of the unrecognized
Nagorno-Karabakh Republic issued a statement on 28 September
denying that two Armenians were killed during an attempt to
infiltrate Azerbaijani positions east of Karabakh earlier
that day, Noyan Tapan reported (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 30
September 1998). The Armenian statement also rejected claims
by the Azerbaijani Defense Ministry that Azerbaijani
positions in Ter-Ter Raion came under artillery fire on 27
September. LF

END NOTE

THROWING BAD MONEY AFTER BAD

by Julie A. Corwin

	The father of Russia's commercial banking system,
Central Bank chairman Viktor Gerashchenko, has returned to
oversee his creation. So far, it appears that his second
tenure will be as permissive as his first.
	The Central Bank (CB) is about to perform its third debt
swap to inject some life and liquidity into Russia's
paralyzed banking system. And as Dmitrii Vasiliev, who
recently resigned from the head of the Federal Securities
Commission, suggested, the bank has done little to sort out
viable banks from those that are hopelessly insolvent. To
paraphrase former U.S. presidential candidate Ross Perot, the
world may be hearing a giant sucking sound from Moscow as
Russia's scarce financial resources are diverted to prop up
too many unsound banks.
	Soon after the bank's second swap on 25 September, CB
First Deputy Chairman Andrei Kozlov declared the CB's effort
a success. And although ITAR-TASS reported the same day that
the Dalrybank in Russia's Far East had resumed handling
individual clients' deposits, it may be too soon for
congratulations. There is still insufficient evidence that
the CB's operations have had or will have the desired effect
on the banking sector by making the nation's payment system
functional once more.
	Western analysts have suggested that at the very least,
the CB's effort has already been far too costly: Kozlov said
that the second debt swap alone required the addition of 960
million rubles to the nation's money supply. Too much money
is being thrown at too many banks considering that a drastic
weeding out of their ranks--they numbered more than 1,500 as
of 1 September--is in order.
	Moreover, the CB's solution seems expensive given that
Russian industry and consumers are less reliant on the
domestic banking industry than their counterparts in most
developed industrial nations. For example, in 1997, according
to Juliet Johnson, visiting assistant professor at Dartmouth
College, New Hampshire, fewer than 10 percent of all Russian
banks' loans to enterprises were long-term. Nevertheless, the
banking system was worth preserving if only because it
functioned as the nation's payment system and provided some
working capital. When it stopped working, so did the economy.
	When Viktor Gerashchenko was appointed CB chairman on 11
September, economists on either side of the Atlantic
questioned whether he was the right choice. Certainly, the
enthusiastic support his candidacy received in early
September from Russian commercial bankers inspired skepticism
that Gerashchenko would be the tough taskmaster needed. Even
more damning was Gerashchenko's record overseeing commercial
banks.
	It was, after all, under Gerashchenko's rule that the
number of commercial banks mushroomed. In the early 1990s, it
was easier to get a license from the Central Bank to form a
commercial bank than it was to open a kiosk on one of
Moscow's long avenues. Such niceties as more than minimal
reserve requirements were not introduced until after Tatyana
Paramonova took over as acting director of the bank in 1994.
	Gerashchenko has a history not only of loose supervision
of commercial banks but also of wiping away debts with
inflationary emissions. In the first few months of his tenure
at the bank in 1992, monetary emissions amounted to 20 -30
percent of GDP, according to Gary Peach in the "Moscow Times
of 22 September. Economists linked this increase in the money
supply to the hyperinflation that followed and the ruble's
crash on Black Tuesday, 11 October 1994, when it lost more
than 25 percent of its value.
	Some Western analysts and bankers, according to Peach,
believe that it is both unfair and misleading to judge
Gerashchenko on his past record. They report that he learned
later in his professional life to appreciate the benefits of
a tight monetary policy. And although the CB's increase of
the money supply in September 1998 bears an eerie resemblance
to that which occurred in 1991, it is always possible that
Gerashchenko will follow up these emissions by placing the
ruble printing presses in cold storage. It is also possible
that the CB will use its new unprecedented powers, which were
granted under a draft law on bankruptcy that has already
sailed through three readings in the State Duma, to force a
number of banks into bankruptcy.
	A final answer to the questions of whether Gerashchenko
has seen the light and rescued the Russian banking system
requires more time. But one thing to monitor is whether some
banks actually are closed. Another is the rate of inflation,
which has measured 64 percent since August. Should it spiral
as it did between 1992 and 1994, when a significant chunk of
the Russian population's savings was wiped out, then it might
be fair to say that cost of resurrecting the nation's payment
system -- no matter how efficiently it may begin to operate
-- was simply too high.

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

HOW TO SUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word subscribe as the subject of the message.

HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE
Send an email to newsline-request@list.rferl.org with
the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message.

For subscription problems or inquiries, please email
listmanager@list.rferl.org
________________________________________________
CURRENT AND BACK ISSUES ON THE WEB
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/
_________________________________________________
LISTEN TO NEWS FOR 23 COUNTRIES
RFE/RL programs are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour LIVE
Broadcast Studio. http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html
_________________________________________________
REPRINT POLICY
To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble via
email at GobleP@rferl.org or fax at 1-202-457-6992
_________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE STAFF
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org
* Julie A. Corwin, CorwinJ@rferl.org
* Jan Maksymiuk, MaksymiukJ@rferl.org
* Bruce Pannier, PannierB@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org

FREE-LANCE AND OCCASIONAL CONTRIBUTORS
* Pete Baumgartner, Jolyon Naegele, Fabian Schmidt, Matyas
Szabo, Anthony Wesolowsky

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
_________________________________________________
RADIO FREE EUROPE/RADIO LIBERTY, PRAGUE, CZECH REPUBLIC

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole