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RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 187, Part II, 28 September 1998
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 187, Part II, 28 September 1998 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Note to readers: We regret that owing to staffing problems, this issue of "RFE/RL Newsline" covers developments in the Transcaucasus and Central Asia only until 16:00 CET on 26 September. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * SLOVAKIA OPTS FOR POLITICAL CHANGE * COHEN SAYS PLANS FOR AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVA READY * FEW SURPRISES AS OSCE FINALLY RELEASES BOSNIAN ELECTION RESULTS End Note: OPPOSITION WINS SLOVAK ELECTIONS xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT ACCUSES PARLIAMENT OF BLOCKING REFORMS. In a letter to the Ukrainian Supreme Council, Prime Minister Valeriy Pustovoytenko and National Bank Chairman Viktor Yushchenko have accused opposition parliamentary deputies of blocking fiscal austerity measures and economic reforms needed to stabilize Ukraine's finances, Reuters reported on 25 September. The letter--which singles out the Socialist Party and the Hromada party for criticism--stresses that further opposition will lead to the complete depreciation of the hryvnya, a political crisis, the isolation of Ukraine in the international arena, and heightened social tension. The parliament has so far vetoed three of President Leonid Kuchma's eight economic decrees issued last month to meet the IMF's requirements for obtaining a $2.2 billion loan. JM UKRAINIAN FINANCE MINISTRY URGES FOREIGN INVESTORS TO CONVERT T-BILLS. The Finance Ministry has extended until 2 October the period in which Ukrainian hryvnya-denominated bills held by foreign investors can be converted into longer-term bonds, Ukrainian News reported on 26 September. Despite the previous optimistic announcement of the National Bank (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 23 September 1998), some 25 percent of foreign investors have not converted their Ukrainian treasury bills under conditions proposed by the National Bank. The U.S. Standard & Poor's rating agency said on 24 September that Ukraine defaulted on its debt to both domestic and foreign investors. "The recovery value of treasury bills held by foreign investors is estimated at around 40-50 percent [of their original value]," the 25 September issue of the "Financial Times" quoted the agency as saying. JM UKRAINIAN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS PROTEST UNPAID WAGES. Employees at Ukraine's five nuclear power plants staged protests on 26 September to demand back wages for the past five months, AP and ITAR-TASS reported. Demonstrations took place in satellite towns built near the nuclear plants, which continued to operate normally. Ukraine's nuclear power plants account for some 50 percent of electricity produced in the country, but they can barely make ends meet because of huge debts owed to them by electricity consumers. The director of the Zaporizhska Nuclear Power Plant told journalists the previous day that the money received by his plant is only enough "to pay taxes and fines for overdue taxes." JM LUKASHENKA DISSATISFIED WITH SITUATION IN AGRICULTURE. Belarusian President Alyaksandr Lukashenka unexpectedly inspected farms in Minsk and Vitsebsk Oblasts on 27 September, ITAR-TASS reported. According to the presidential press service, the Belarusian president is "very dissatisfied with the quality of land cultivation and the situation of farms and machinery pools." Lukashenka instructed the government to "introduce order in raions" by 1 November. He added that he will send representatives of the government, the presidential administration, and oblast executive committees to check that his order is being implemented. JM RUSSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ACCUSES TALLINN OF REPRESSION. Igor Ivanov, addressing the UN General Assembly last week, accused Estonia of repression against its Russian-speaking minority, BNS and ETA reported. Ivanov said Russia cannot remain indifferent to the fate of hundreds of thousands Russians subjected to "brutal repressive measures" by the Estonian and Latvian authorities. He gave no concrete examples but demanded that the international community impose sanctions on countries that abuse human rights on various pretexts. Estonian Foreign Ministry Secretary-General Indrek Tarand, who on 25 September addressed the assembly, noted that violations of human rights unfortunately still occur throughout the world. He urged the assembly to address the issue and find the most effective mechanisms to put a stop to such violations. JC LATVIAN PRESIDENT SAYS HIS UN ADDRESS 'MISUNDERSTOOD.' Guntis Ulmanis has said his address to the UN General Assembly last week was aimed at bringing Latvia and Russia closer and not at deepening their differences, BNS reported on 26 September. In that speech, Ulmanis had called on nations to address the issue of "one of the most inhuman regimes--Soviet totalitarianism." "I hope that the Russian Foreign Ministry after having studied [the text of] my address will still see my wish to get closer through the assessment of different stages of history," he said upon returning from the U.S. He added that assessing Soviet totalitarianism is equally important to the people of Latvia and Russia as the regime affected both nations. The Russian Foreign Ministry last week criticized Ulmanis for what it called an "openly unfriendly speech" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 25 September 1998). JC REMAINS OF LATVIAN WAFFEN SS TROOPS REBURIED. The remains of 10 Latvian Waffen SS troops were buried with full military honors at the village of Lestene on 27 September, AFP reported. Nearly 1,000 people, including veterans of the war- time Latvian Legion and their relatives, attended the ceremony. The Latvian government did not participate in the event. Some parliamentary deputies from the Fatherland and Freedom party, however, were reported to have attended. The veterans maintain they were patriots who fought against the Soviet troops that had occupied the country in the early stages of World War II. JC SOLIDARITY BANS TOP OFFICIALS FROM PARTY POSTS... By a vote of 241 to 42, the 10th Congress of Solidarity on 26 September forbade its leaders from simultaneously holding posts in the trade union and in Solidarity Electoral Action Social Movement (AWS), Television Polonia reported on 28 September. The ban applies only to the Solidarity trade union leadership--chairmen and members of the National Commission and regional commissions as well as department and branch heads. The decision is widely seen as a move to "depoliticize" the trade union, "Rzeczpospolita" commented on 28 September. Re-elected Solidarity chairman Marian Krzaklewski commented to the daily that the trade union is "now primarily a professional, expert machine, not the super- party led by Lech Walesa." Before the conference, Krzaklewski had announced he will step down as AWS leader (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 25 September 1998). JM ...ADOPTS PROGRAM FOR NEXT FOUR YEARS. The Solidarity Congress also adopted a four-year action program that aims at achieving universal property enfranchisement, a reduction in unemployment, and "family-friendly" taxes. The trade union will also strive to have wages increase in proportion to national income growth and will demand that the government implement an "employment-friendly" policy, including a mandatory insurance against unemployment. Delegates to the congress opposed the flat tax idea proposed by Finance Minister Leszek Balcerowicz (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 1 September 1998) and spoke in favor of a system with several tax brackets. JM POLISH BISHOP SUSPENDS PRIEST FOR ERECTING AUSCHWITZ CROSS. Bishop Marian Golebiewski has suspended Ryszard Krol for his part in erecting a 1.5 meter cross at a gravel pit adjoining the former Nazi death camp Auschwitz, Reuters reported on 26 September. Krol told Radio Zet on 26 September that he had hidden three Jews from the Nazis during the war, and he accused the media of turning him into an anti-Semite. The suspension was the severest penalty imposed on a clergyman to date in the continuing Polish-Jewish row over crosses erected by radical Catholic groups to commemorate the Poles shot by the Nazis in the pit. In a poll published by "Gazeta Wyborcza" on 25 September, only 5 percent of respondents said Auschwitz symbolizes the genocide of the Jews, while 48 percent said the former death camp symbolizes the martyrdom of many nations. JM CZECH CHRISTIAN DEMOCRATS' LEADER RESIGNS. Josef Lux, chairman of the Christian Democratic Party, resigned on 24 September from all his positions for health reasons, CTK reported. Lux told journalists that he is suffering from chronic leukemia and that doctors are looking for suitable donors of bone marrow. Lux will be replaced as party leader and as chairman of the Christian Democratic group in the Chamber of Deputies by party deputy chairman Jan Kasal until a new chairman is elected. In other news, Czech Defense Minister Vladimir Vetchy on 25 September told journalists in Vilamoura, Portugal, that NATO must admit Slovakia into the alliance. Vetchy said that the "gap" created between Slovakia and its neighbors after the admission of the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Poland into the organization is "unfortunate". MS SLOVAKIA OPTS FOR POLITICAL CHANGE. Unofficial results of the 25-26 September Slovak parliamentary elections show that Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS) is the strongest party in the 150-seat legislature, with 27 percent of the vote and 43 seats. The only party prepared to enter into a coalition with the HZDS is the Slovak National Party, which garnered 9.07 percent and won 14 seats; their combined mandates are insufficient for a parliamentary majority. The Party of the Democratic Left (SDL), which won 14.66 percent (23 seats), said it will support the united opposition. With 26.33 percent and 42 seats, the Slovak Democratic Coalition (SDK) came a strong second to the HZDS. Together with the SDL, the Hungarian Coalition (9.12 percent and 15 seats) and the party of Civic Understanding (8.01 percent, 13 seats), the opposition commands a 93-seat majority. MS HUNGARY, ROMANIA DISCUSS MINORITY UNIVERSITY. Visiting Romanian Foreign Ministry state secretary Mihai Razvan Ungureanu told his Hungarian counterpart, Zsolt Nemeth, that the Romanian parliament will probably support the establishment of a Hungarian-German "multicultural university" in Transylvania, Hungarian media reported on 25 September. Nemeth expressed his hopes that a solution meeting the demands of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania to remain in the Romanian governing coalition will soon be found. MSZ RUSSIAN MAFIA MEETS ZHIRINOVSKY IN BUDAPEST? Several Russian mafia leaders have recently met in Budapest with Russian extreme right politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky, "Nepszava" reported on 26 September, citing secret service sources. Zhirinovsky reportedly met with Semen Mogilievich, whom Western media have called "the mafia kingpin of Eastern Europe." The Hungarian secret services monitored the meetings and the talks. MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE COHEN SAYS PLANS FOR AIR STRIKES IN KOSOVA READY. U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen again warned Belgrade on 28 September to pull back Serbian security forces or face air strikes, AP reported. Cohen, speaking in Rome with his Italian counterpart, Beniamino Andreatta, said that NATO has finished its planning for the air strikes. Cohen said "a very strong, credible threat must be made" to Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic so that he will pull his forces back, allow humanitarian missions into the area, and "sit down at the bargaining table to peacefully resolve" the Kosova crisis. Cohen and Andreatta said some 50,000 ethnic Albanians risk either starving or freezing to death. German Foreign Minister Volker Ruehe said on 26 September that he disagrees with NATO plans to give Milosevic a couple of weeks before issuing an ultimatum. He said if NATO does not act soon, the world will have "the dead on its conscience." PB SERBIAN PREMIER DECLARES 'TERRORIST' THREAT DEFEATED... Mirko Marjanovic told the Serbian parliament on 28 September that "armed terrorist groups have been defeated" and that security forces could begin withdrawing to their barracks, AP reported. Marjanovic said Belgrade has shown that there is "no compromise with those who want to create a new state on Serbia's territory by terror and force." He did not give a timetable for scaling back troops but said the move was in accordance with an agreement Milosevic had signed in Moscow with President Boris Yeltsin in June. A withdrawal of troops is one of NATO's demands to Belgrade for it to avoid air strikes by the alliance. PB ...BUT FIGHTING CONTINUES. A new Serbian offensive southwest of the Kosova capital of Prishtina began on 26 September, causing several more thousands of ethnic Albanians to flee their villages, Reuters reported. The operation is reportedly directed against members of the Kosova Liberation Army that have regrouped after fleeing recent attacks by Serbian forces in northern and central regions of Kosova. Reports say 11 villages are being targeted in the attack and that Serbian forces are backed by a large contingent of tanks. U.S. envoy Christopher Hill said in Skopje on 26 September that his mediation in the crisis has reached a critical stage and that continued attacks by Serbian security forces are "intolerable." PB BALKAN DEFENSE MINISTERS AGREE TO FORM JOINT FORCE. The defense ministers from seven Balkan countries agreed in Skopje on 26 September to form a joint peacekeeping force, AFP reported. Defense ministers from Albania, Bulgaria, Greece, Italy, Macedonia, Romania, and Turkey signed the agreement. Slovenia said it may join the force, which is to number some 4,000 troops, at a later date. The U.S. also attended the meeting. U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen said the establishment of the joint force is a step toward bringing security and stability to the region. He said it is needed because many people in the Balkans would rather "dig fresh graves than bury old hatreds." PB SILAJDZIC ACCUSES BELGRADE OF ETHNIC CLEANSING. Haris Silajdzic, a member of Bosnia-Herzegovina's Council of Ministers, said that Yugoslavia is repeating the ethnic cleansing that it committed in Bosnia and Croatia, Reuters reported. Silajdzic, former Bosnian foreign minister, said "everything is being repeated in Kosova." He added that ethnic cleansing is "a project drawn up by intellectuals and carried out by the [Yugoslav army] in Serbia." Silajdzic sharply criticized the international community for not acting to prevent the violence against ethnic Albanians. PB FEW SURPRISES AS OSCE FINALLY RELEASES BOSNIAN ELECTION RESULTS. The OSCE released final results from the general elections in Bosnia-Herzegovina on 25 September. As had been leaked by several sources, Serb ultranationalist Nikola Poplasen defeated incumbent Biljana Plavsic for the presidency of the Republika Srpska. Poplasen said there are differences in the way the Dayton agreement can be interpreted but that such differences will be "resolved through discussion." While Western officials were disappointed by Poplasen's win, they were pleased with moderate Serb Zivko Radisic's narrow victory over hard-liner Momcilo Krajisnik for the Serbian seat on the Bosnian presidency. But the moderate Croatian member of the presidency, Kresimir Zubak, lost decisively to hard-line rival Ante Jelavic. The incumbent Muslim member of the presidency, Alija Izetbegovic, was overwhelmingly reelected to his post. Radisic will be the chairman of the three-member presidency. PB MODERATES DO BETTER IN PARLIAMENT VOTES. OSCE Ambassador Robert Barry said that despite the win of some hard-liners to executive posts, there was "continued erosion" of support for nationalist parties at the parliamentary level, Reuters reported on 26 September. Barry said there had been greater competition between political parties and that nationalist parties did not fare as well as in the last election. The OSCE said it is withholding an announcement on the number of parliamentary seats won by each of the parties in the respective parliamentary bodies until the results are certified by an electoral commission. Izetbegovic said he is satisfied with the results of the elections and noted that his Bosnian Party of Democratic Action and its coalition partners did well at the state and local levels. PB SFOR TROOPS ARREST WAR CRIMES SUSPECT. The Stabilization Force (SFOR) peacekeeping forces in Bosnia arrested Stevan Todorovic, an indicted war criminal, and sent him to The Hague on 27 September, Reuters reported. Todorovic was captured in the northern part of Bosnia without incident. He is alleged to have instigated, ordered, and taken part in crimes against civilians while serving as a police chief in Bosanski Samac in 1992. A SFOR spokeswoman denied a report by Todorovic's lawyer that he was taken from Serbian territory. PB ALBANIAN PRESIDENT CALLS FOR CHANGE, END TO FEUDS. Rexhep Mejdani issued a plea to Albanian political parties on 25 September, telling parliamentary deputies that it is time to end their fighting, Reuters reported. Mejdani, in a statement read by parliamentary speaker Skendar Gjinushi, proposed various political agreements aimed at ending the public protests led by the opposition Democratic Party. Mejdani also called for a reshuffling of the government and a political agreement to improve law and order and disarm the population. He urged the Democrats to end their parliamentary boycott so that the postcommunist consititution can be finished. PB NANO RULES OUT EARLY ELECTIONS. Albanian Socialist Prime Minister Fatos Nano refused on 26 September to consider calling early elections, Reuters reported. Nano, speaking to top officials in his five-party coalition government, said he will reshuffle the cabinet and indicated that he will add some independents to it. Nano again accused opposition leader Sali Berisha of initiating riots on 12 September in an attempt to topple Nano's government. Also on 26 September, some 3,000 people demonstrated in central Tirana and called for Nano's government to resign. Berisha repeated accusations that Nano is behind the murder of Democratic Party official Azem Hajdari, whose death sparked the riots. On 25 September, the Democrats and several smaller parties that have joined their cause issued a statement denouncing violence and saying the parties will demonstrate peacefully every day until Nano resigns. PB CASPIAN OIL CONFERENCE IN BUCHAREST REVEALS DISAGREEMENTS. The U.S. government has taken issue with the Italian Eni oil firm, which supports the construction of an oil pipeline from the Black Sea Port of Constanta to Trieste that would pass through Serbia, Croatia, and Slovenia, an RFE/RL correspondent in Bucharest reported on 27 September. Addressing a conference on transporting Caspian Sea oil to Europe, U.S. Ambassador to Romania James Rosapepe said an alternative route that would by-pass Serbia and pass through Hungary, Croatia, and Slovenia has strong "economic and political" potential . Romania is pleading hard to include the Black Sea port of Constanta on the envisaged route. President Emil Constantinescu, addressing the opening session of the conference on 27 September, said the various proposed routes must be viewed as "complementary rather than competitive." MS ROMANIA'S ECOLOGISTS MERGE. A congress of the Romanian Ecologist Federation (FER) on 26 September approved the merger of the party (which is a member of the Democratic Convention of Romania or CDR) with the Romanian Ecologist Movement (MER). Former MER chairman Octavian Ciobota was elected first deputy chairman of the FER. In other news, President Constantinescu. Prime Minister Radu Vasile and the CDR on 24-25 September said they back the nomination of former King Michael for the Nobel Peace prize. The proposal was first made by a Romanian emigre organization, which says the former monarch deserves the prize for his contribution to shortening World War II by having played a crucial role in Romania's switching of alliances. MS MOLDOVAN DEPUTY PREMIER THREATENS TO RESIGN. Ion Sturdza told journalists on 25 September that he might resign owing to differences with his cabinet colleagues over reforms and the budget, Reuters reported. Sturdza, who is also economy minister in charge of reform, said that "different views about reforms have surfaced within the government." He said that ministries have requested funding for the 1999 budget totaling 5.2 billion lei ($1.05 billion), whereas this year's revenues would be half that amount--2.6 billion lei. "If we do not move to an austerity program, we shall find ourselves in financial collapse in the fall," Sturdza said. MS IMF APPROVES LOAN TO BULGARIA. The IMF board on 24 September approved an $840 million three-year loan to Bulgaria aimed at supporting market reforms and economic growth, AP reported. The loan will help Bulgaria service its $9 billion foreign debt while simultaneously revamping its social benefit system and closing or selling off inefficient state companies. Finance Minister Muravei Radev said the government expects the loan to be matched by credits from the World Bank, the EU, and the G-24 group, bringing the total amount of loans in the next three years to $1.6 billion. MS BULGARIA ANNOUNCES CHANGES IN INTERIOR MINISTRY. Interior Minister Bogomil Bonev on 24 September announced the setting up of a commission to draft plans to change the ministry's present system of military ranking to one closer to those used by Western police forces, an RFE/RL correspondent in Sofia reported. Also on 24 September, Foreign Minister Nadezhda Mihailova told the UN General Assembly that there is a "serious risk" that the conflict in Kosova might spill over to other parts of the region. On 26 September, Mihailova met with Russian Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov to discuss both bilateral relations and international issues, primarily the situation in Kosova, ITAR-TASS reported. MS END NOTE OPPOSITION WINS SLOVAK ELECTIONS by Jolyon Naegele The defeat of Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar's populist-nationalist coalition in parliamentary elections on 25-26 September presents the democratic opposition with its best opportunity since 1990 to turn the political tide and put Slovakia firmly on the road to European integration and NATO membership. Four opposition parties won a constitutional majority of 93 of the 150 seats in the Slovak parliament. Within hours after preliminary election results were announced on 27 September, the leaders of those parties began roundtable talks on forming a stable coalition government. Meciar's Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS), which took first place, just seven-tenths of a percentage point ahead of the largest opposition party, the Slovak Democratic Coalition (SDK), is expected to go into opposition with its partner, the Slovak National Party (SNS). Meciar has repeatedly said he will not form a minority government. The main opposition force, the SDK won 26.33 percent of the vote and 42 parliamentary seats. The post-communist Party of the Democratic Left (SDL) gained over 14 percent and 23 seats, the Hungarian Coalition Party (SMK) over 9 percent and 15 seats, and the populist center-left Party of Civic Understanding (SOP) won 8 percent and 13 seats. Together, the four opposition parties have 93 seats, three more than the three-fifths majority required to amend the constitution. The man most likely to succeed Meciar as Prime Minister, SDK chairman Mikulas Dzurinda, says the election outcome shows that "Slovakia wants a change, a different orientation, and an end to constant confrontation." Dzurinda is 43 years old, a Christian Democrat, and former transportation minister. He is a close associate of former Prime Minister and ex-dissident Jan Carnogursky. Dzurinda or whoever eventually becomes prime minister will have the difficult task of stopping Slovakia's economic slide downward and eastward, disentangling the country from its very close economic and defense industry ties with Russia, and re-establishing solid relations with the West. The new government will have to implement measures, some of them likely to be unpopular belt-tightening ones, to enable Slovakia to become a legitimate candidate for EU and NATO membership. Parliamentary speaker and Meciar associate Ivan Gasparovic has 30 days to call the new parliament into session, after which, he says, the current Meciar government will resign. The new parliament will have to elect a new president. The four parties have the votes to elect whomever they can agree on among themselves. Slovakia has been without a president since March, when Michal Kovac's five-year term expired. Ever since, Meciar's HZDS repeatedly prevented any candidate from being elected. The outgoing speaker of parliament, Gasparovic, says the election outcome is a "mirror image" of parliamentary elections in Romania nearly two years ago, which resulted in an end to strong-arm, post-communist rule and the coming to power of the democratic opposition, including the ethnic Hungarian party. HZDS deputy chairman Sergej Kozlik told reporters that the HZDS is a "standard" party and will go into opposition in the event it fails to form a majority government. In an important signal to the international community, the current opposition leaders agreed in roundtable talks on 27 September that the SMK should be in the government. Anti- Hungarian sentiment has been traditionally strong in Slovak politics, and the nationalist SNS once again played the Hungarian card during the campaign for these elections. The international community has been critical of the Meciar government's treatment of the Hungarian minority, which numbers more than half a million and inhabits a compact area of rural southern Slovakia. In another important signal, the chairman of the post- communist SDL, Jozef Migas, said his party will do everything to ensure the formation of a functional government that will ensure post-election stability in Slovakia. After years of flirting with the idea of forming a coalition with HZDS, Migas has finally ruled out that idea. In his words, "the government must be functional and majority." Despite predictions of election tampering, representatives of all parties said the two-day vote took place freely and fairly. International observers, however, were a little more reserved, criticizing the campaign, particularly the government's attempt through last-minute legislation to stave off an opposition victory. A preliminary report issued by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) in Bratislava on 27 September said that "although an atmosphere of political polarization led to a lack of confidence in the overall process by many Slovak citizens, the election as such was carried out in an apparently correct and acceptable manner." Voter participation was almost 85 percent. The head of the Council of Europe monitoring delegation, Franciszek Adamczyk of Poland, praised the high turnout, saying it reflects a belief in the fundamental values of democracy. 'The elections do reflect the will of the people," he commented. The author is an RFE/RL correspondent. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. 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