|The greatest happiness is to know the source of unhappiness. - Dostoevsky|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 160 Part II, 20 August 1998
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 160 Part II, 20 August 1998 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * UKRAINE SAYS FINANCIAL SITUATION UNDER CONTROL * SLOVAKIA DENIES CUTTING HUNGARIAN-LANGUAGE TV PROGRAM * SESELJ SAYS SERBS NEED NOT HURRY TO TALK End Note: THIRTY YEARS LATER, CZECHS STILL DEBATE LEGACY OF 1968 xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE UKRAINE SAYS FINANCIAL SITUATION UNDER CONTROL... In a joint statement issued on 19 August, the Ukrainian National Bank and the government said they are taking measures to ensure the stability of and control over Ukraine's financial markets, Ukrainian Television reported. The statement stresses that the situation in Ukraine is "essentially different" from that in Russia following the devaluation of the Russian ruble. National Bank Chairman Viktor Yushchenko told a cabinet meeting on 19 August that non-residents now hold 18 percent of Ukraine's government bonds, down from 50 percent last year. The bank and the government pledge to meet their domestic and foreign debt obligations, ensure a stable national currency, maintain the existing trade balance, and protect Ukrainian export-import traders. "There are no signals that Ukraine's banking system was directly affected by the Russian crisis," Yushchenko commented. JM ...BUT HRYVNYA CONTINUES TO FALL. The National Bank on 19 August lowered the official exchange rate of the hryvnya to 2.225 to $1, down from 2.18 to $1 on 17 August. Ukrainian News reported on 19 August that in the next few days the official exchange rate will exceed 2.250 to $1, which is the upper limit of the hryvnya exchange corridor set for 1998, and that the bank will cancel the corridor altogether. "Since the Russian ruble is falling, the National Bank decided it would be better to devalue the hryvnya than uphold it to the detriment of the trade balance," a financial specialist told Ukrainian News. JM PUSTOVOYTENKO LAUNCHES 'THIRD STAGE' OF TAX COLLECTION. Following two unorthodox measures to collect tax debts-- civil defense exercises for directors of debtor companies and the seizure of cars from tax delinquents--Ukrainian Premier Valeriy Pustovoytenko announced a third stage of tax collection on 19 August. The government is to immediately establish "tax collection posts" at all debtor companies. "The tax collection posts will exercise control over the production and sale of all output and the payment of taxes, including barter and goods exchange operations," Ukrainian Television quoted Pustovoytenko as saying on 19 August. But Pustovoytenko's unorthodox measures to collect outstanding taxes have not proved very effective to date. Tax arrears totaling 8.3 billion hryvni ($3.7 billion) on 1 August were reduced only by 5.6 percent by 17 August. JM RUSSIAN RUBLE DEVALUATION AFFECTS BELARUS. The market exchange rate of the Belarusian ruble has fallen from 68,000 to 80,000 to $1 since the de facto devaluation of the Russian currency on 17 August, Belapan and RFE/RL's Belarusian Service reported on 19 August. A Belarusian economics expert told RFE/RL that the recent financial turmoil in Russia may prompt the Belarusian government to re-establish customs checkpoints at the border with Russia in order to shield the country from a "large-scale socio- economic problem." Meanwhile, the Belarusian National Bank said on 18 August that it has full control over the country's financial market. The bank added that it predicted the Russian financial crisis and took steps as early as in July to minimize its impact on the Belarusian economy. The official exchange rate of the Belarusian ruble, maintained at an artificially low level, remains unchanged at some 44,000 to $1. JM ESTONIAN-RUSSIAN BORDER TALKS DEEMED 'SUCCESS.' Chief negotiators at the two-day talks in Moscow on the delimitation of the Estonian-Russian border said on 19 August that the meeting was a "success," BNS reported. It was the first time the two negotiating teams had met since November 1997, largely due to the replacement earlier this year of Russian chief negotiator Vasilii Svirin by Ludvig Chizhov, who had conducted border talks with Latvia. Estonian chief negotiator Raul Malk said the two sides signed a memorandum setting down the positions from which they will proceed when they next meet in October. BNS quoted the Estonian Foreign Ministry as saying "no disagreements in principle" emerged at the talks. JC RIGA BELIEVES SKRUNDA TO BE SHUT DOWN ON TIME. The Latvian parliamentary Commission on National Defense announced on 19 August that it believes Russia will vacate the early-warning radar station at Skrunda on 21 August, as stipulated in a bilateral accord, BNS reported. Beginning 31 August, the radar will be dismantled by a team of up to 33 Russian military personnel; that task is slated to be completed by 29 February 2000. Moscow has repeatedly said it would like to continue to operate the station, which was built during the Soviet era, but Riga insisted on closing down the facility. JC POLISH GOVERNMENT CANCELS LEASE OF AUSCHWITZ CROSS SITE. The Oswiecim local authorities have notified the Association of War Victims (SOW) that it is canceling the lease on a land plot outside the former Auschwitz concentration camp where radical Catholic groups have erected more than 100 crosses, Polish Radio reported on 19 August. The move is seen as the government's attempt to remove the crosses, which has sparked a prolonged Polish-Jewish controversy about Christian symbols at the camp. SOW head Mieczyslaw Janosz said he intends to fight the eviction notice in court. Another radical Catholic activist, Kazimierz Switon, has threatened to immolate himself if anyone tries to remove the crosses from the site. JM POLAND NOTIFIED ABOUT ATTACKS ON RUSSIAN TOURISTS. Russia has sent a diplomatic note to the Polish government expressing concern over attacks on Russian tourists traveling through Poland, Television Polonia reported on 18 August. The note, which mentions 47 attacks, comes on the heels of one sent by Russia in July. The Polish Foreign Ministry said it will respond to the note only after the Polish police have submitted a detailed report on attacks. According to a Foreign Ministry official quoted by the television station, Russian tourists in Poland are most often attacked by criminal groups from Russia impersonating Polish policemen. Polish police distribute leaflets at border crossings with information on how to avoid attacks and what a genuine Polish policeman looks like. JM CZECH GOVERNMENT WINS CONFIDENCE VOTE. The minority Social Democrat cabinet headed by Milos Zeman has been endorsed by a vote of 73 to 39 in the Chamber of Deputies, CTK reported on 19 August. In line with an agreement between the Social Democrats and the main opposition Civic Democratic Party of former Premier Vaclav Klaus, the latter's deputies walked out of the chamber and did not participate in the vote. All 24 Communist deputies abstained, while one Social Democrat deputy was absent due to illness. In other news, Zeman told Czech Television the previous day that he considers a statement by German deputy Erika Steinbach to have been "outrageously impudent and an offense to the Czech nation." Steinbach had demanded that the 1945 decrees expelling the Sudeten Germans be abolished and that the property of the Sudeten Germans be returned. MS FORMER CZECH INTELLIGENCE CHIEF 'COMMITTED SERIOUS MISTAKES.' Interior Minister Vaclav Grulich on 19 August told journalists that the former chief of the National Security Office, Pavel Kolar, "committed serious mistakes" both while holding that position and after he left office in July. Grulich said Kolar's mistakes were not "worth prosecution but were sufficient reason to dismiss him." Grulich added that he had reached an agreement with Kolar whereby he would leave the post voluntarily on 31 August rather than be dismissed. Shortly after being accused of attempting to take out classified documents, Kolar rejected the accusation and said he is ready to defend himself in court. MS SLOVAKIA'S COMMITMENT TO DEMOCRACY QUESTIONED. In a report released on 19 August, the Vienna-based International Helsinki Federation (IFH) and the Slovak Helsinki Committee said they fear that basic human and political rights are under threat in Slovakia, AP reported. Among other things, the 14-point report lists the 1997 alteration of ballots by the government in the referenda on NATO membership and the direct election of the president, threats to the freedom of the media, government interference in criminal investigations, and the infringement of minority rights. IFH director Aaron Routs told journalists that the two organizations are particularly "concerned that the [September 1998] election process may be manipulated, based on the behavior of the government up to this point." MS SLOVAKIA DENIES CUTTING HUNGARIAN-LANGUAGE TV PROGRAM. In a statement to MTI on 19 August, Slovakia's new ambassador to Hungary, Arpad Tarnoczy. said Slovak Television will not reduce the air time allotted to its Hungarian-language program but will "give a chance to other minorities to appear on the same program" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 August 1998). Tarnoczy said he would "personally object" to any move to cancel the program. Meanwhile, a partial resolution to the dispute over the transfer of the ownership of TV Markiza has been reached. The station's new owner has agreed to let director-general Pavol Rusko remain in his post and to abstain from interfering pending a final resolution of the dispute in court. MS SLOVAKIA HAS NEW CHIEF OF STAFF. Parliamentary chairman Ivan Gasparovic on 19 August accepted the resignation of outgoing chief of staff General Jozef Tuchyna and appointed Colonel Marian Miklus as his replacement. The presidential prerogative of appointing the chief of staff was transferred to Gasparovic after the parliament failed to elect a new president as Michal Kovac's successor. Gasparovic disregarded the Defense Ministry's proposal for Tuchyna's replacement and appointed Miklus, who was proposed by Premier Vladimir Meciar, RFE/RL's Bratislava bureau reported. Legal experts consider this to be a breach of the law. Tuchyna, whose resignation was prompted by his candidacy on the lists of the opposition Party of the Democratic Left in the September elections, told TV Markiza that the move "simply confirms that we are somewhere in the Congo." MS HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER ON 'ADVOCACY OF NATIONAL INTEREST.' Janos Martonyi, in an interview with "Magyar Nemzet" on 19 August, said Hungary's Euro-Atlantic aspirations are "not impeded by a firmer advocacy of national interest." He noted that by giving stronger emphasis to that interest, the cabinet headed by Viktor Orban is "not acting in an unusual way, we simply have a clear vision and [openly] declare it." Martonyi said that the cabinet "considers regional cooperation extremely important" and that Orban's recent visit to Romania "underlined that improving links with Romania is a top foreign policy priority." He said he will meet with "nearly all" his Central and East European counterparts to discuss regional cooperation. MS SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE SESELJ SAYS SERBS NEED NOT HURRY TO TALK. Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Vojislav Seselj said in Nis that the Serbs should wait one year for a more favorable international negotiating atmosphere on Kosova, the Belgrade daily "Danas" reported on 20 August. He charged that the "Americans and Germans" have decided to reduce the size of Serbia and will raise the question of Vojvodina once the Kosova issue is settled. "The Germans are already planning to seek the return of the property of the ethnic Germans," whom the Yugoslav communists expelled in the wake of World War II, he added. Seselj said that the Serbian government has been careful not to provoke a NATO intervention in Kosova and that it has "successfully concluded the police and military action aimed at wiping out Albanian terrorism. We have not yet destroyed all the terrorists, but all that remains is to finish them off in the forests and small localities, which the police will do soon." PM UNHCR'S FOUR-POINT PLAN FOR AVERTING REFUGEE DISASTER. Soeren Jessen Petersen, a deputy to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, said in Prishtina on 19 August that it is likely that "many, many people [will die in Kosova] during the coming winter. Humanitarian action must not, once again, as happened in Bosnia four or five years ago, become a substitute for political action." Petersen recommended four steps to avert a major humanitarian disaster, AP reported. First, hostilities must end and negotiations start. Second, journalists and aid agencies must have better access to Kosova. Third, the 170,000 displaced persons within the province and the 50,000 refugees outside it must be able to go home. And fourth, the UN aid operation must receive more support. PM BONINO SAYS NO HUMANITARIAN RELIEF WITHOUT POLITICAL SOLUTION. Emma Bonino, who is the EU's chief official for human rights, said in Prishtina on 19 August that Kosova is headed for a major "humanitarian catastrophe" in the coming months unless a political solution is found. She warned that the rainy season will begin soon, followed by the winter, and that the worsening weather conditions will make the thousands of displaced persons' temporary shelters useless. She added that the "international community must face reality" and seek a political solution in order to avert the crisis. Bonino stressed that it will not be possible to carry out a humanitarian relief mission while fighting is going on, as the international community attempted to do during the recent wars in Croatia and Bosnia. Elsewhere, the Council for the Defense of Human Rights in Prishtina published the names of 800 Kosovars whom the Council claims the Serbian authorities have abducted since the beginning of 1998. PM ALBANIAN FOREIGN MINISTER URGES KOSOVARS TO UNITE. Paskal Milo told Reuters in Tirana on 19 August that the divisions between President Ibrahim Rugova's shadow state and the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) are undermining the Kosovars' international credibility. Milo added that ethnic Albanian political groups need to develop a coordinated strategy, and he urged individual factions to put aside their differences. Milo also said that the UCK has lost political influence as a result of its recent military setbacks and that the five- member negotiating team that Rugova appointed last week should serve as a nucleus for uniting all Kosovar political forces. Meanwhile, the Albanian Foreign Ministry sent a protest note to the federal Yugoslav embassy on 19 August condemning Serbian troops for firing 15 shells on the border town of Padesh the previous day, "Gazeta Shqiptare" reported on 20 August. FS MONTENEGRIN MINISTER DEFENDS TALKS WITH CROATIA. Montenegrin Foreign Minister Branko Perovic said in Podgorica on 19 August that he is pleased with the results of the previous day's Yugoslav-Croatian talks (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 August 1998). He stressed that Montenegrin representatives participated in all stages of the negotiations. Representatives of the smaller parties in the governing coalition had said that the talks did not serve Montenegro's interests because Serbian diplomats failed to give priority to opening border crossings between Croatia and Montenegro, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. PM SERBIAN NGO PRESENTS BOSNIAN WAR EVIDENCE. Representatives of the Fund for Humanitarian Justice sent documents to the Hague-based war crimes tribunal on 19 August, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. The texts allegedly prove the involvement of top officials of the Serbian Interior Ministry in the 1992-1995 Bosnian conflict, a spokesman for the fund said in Belgrade. Slobodan Miljkovic "Lugar," who recently died in a bar-room shoot-out, allegedly played a key role in Serbia's involvement in the war (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 August 1998). PM ALBANIA, U.S. HUNT TERRORISTS. An unidentified Albanian Interior Ministry official told AP on 19 August that U.S. and Albanian secret service agents have launched a "intensive search" across Albania for suspected members of an international Islamist terrorist group. The official added that the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency has found "serious evidence" that the suspected terrorists planned to blow up the American embassy in Tirana (see "RFE/RL Newsline" 19 August 1998). An anonymous Albanian-speaking caller made several phone calls to the embassy last week in which he threatened to drive a car bomb into the building. Each time he spoke only for a few seconds and gave no explanation for his threat, the official said. Unknown persons have also given bomb threats recently to Albania's embassies in France, Italy, and Germany, as well as the offices of the daily "Shekulli," which has written about Islamist activities in Albania. FS EXPLOSION DAMAGES ALBANIAN ORTHODOX CHURCH. A bomb heavily damaged an Orthodox church in Shkodra on 19 August, "Gazeta Shqiptare" reported. The blast caused no casualties. Police said they have not been able to identify who was behind the attack or what were the motives. They added, however, that they are looking into all possibilities, including a land dispute. Local politicians and representatives from all religious communities condemned the bombing. The wooden church was built in 1996 in a park near the university. The previous day, unidentified criminals attacked a depot for heavy arms in Palikesht, near Berat. The attackers used machine guns and grenades but failed to take the building. They fled after a shoot-out that lasted over half an hour, "Gazeta Shqiptare" reported on 19 August. FS MOLDOVAN FOREIGN MINISTER ON RUSSIAN TROOPS WITHDRAWAL. Nicolae Tabacaru on 19 August said in Washington that by the end of 1998 he will give the OSCE a new plan for the Russian troops' withdrawal from the Transdniester. The plan will call for the withdrawal of the 2,600 troops stationed in the separatist region, but only after 43,000 tons of ammunition are first removed--as Tabacaru put it, to avoid its falling into the hands of drug traffickers and money launderers, "many of whom operate out of the Transdniester." He also said that during his meeting on 19 August at the State Department, he was informed that the U.S. has decided to include Moldova in the Action Plan for Southeast Europe, which is aimed at intensifying political and economic cooperation among the countries belonging to the program., an RFE/RL correspondent reported. MS BULGARIAN OFFICIALS DENY MACEDONIAN ALLEGATIONS. Prosecutor- General Ivan Tatarchev and parliamentary deputy Kazimir Karakanchov, leader of the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization, on 18 August denied accusations published the previous day in Skopje's "Nova Makedonija" that they are interfering in Macedonian affairs "in a way unparalleled in Europe." Citing speeches the two officials made at a gathering in early August in Predela marking the anniversary of the 1903 uprising against the Turks, the daily wrote that the two are displaying "extreme impatience to see the border between the two countries abolished and the two peoples spiritually united." In an interview with the BBC on 18 August Karakanchov said that "the idea to lift borders did not originate in Bulgaria and did not apply to the Bulgarian-Macedonian border alone," BTA reported. MS END NOTE THIRTY YEARS LATER, CZECHS STILL DEBATE LEGACY OF 1968 by Jeremy Bransten It has been 30 years since Soviet troops rolled down Wenceslas Square and the Prague Spring was crushed under the metallic tread of tanks on cobblestones. But this year, there will be no big anniversaries, no national outpouring of emotion such as in February, when the hockey team won the gold medal at Nagano and half of Prague spilled out onto the streets. A decade ago, with public opinion muzzled, and Soviet troops still occupying Czechoslovakia, the 20th anniversary of the 1968 invasion had deep resonance. But today, even the 1989 Velvet Revolution seems an increasingly distant memory. And those who remember are asking: Does the Prague Spring have any meaning for Czechs today, 30 years after its premature death? Political scientist Bohumil Pecinka doesn't think so. He says that most people prefer to look to the period before the Communist takeover in 1948, rather than to the 1968 interlude. "After 1989, and the Velvet Revolution," he says, "there wasn't a return to 1968, but a return to 1948, or more accurately, to before 1948, when democracy was destroyed in our country. And the majority of people now look at 1968 as an attempt by the Communist elite to humanize the then Communist regime--not to change it." Yet 1968 was much more than that. Although it was originally devised as a modest reform program within the Czechoslovak Communist Party, the Prague Spring quickly mushroomed into a grassroots movement. And when it was crushed, for a brief few day newspapers splashed photos across their front pages of a sad, defiant people meeting tanks with clenched fists. Prague became synonymous with the dashed hopes of a generation. But the world's attention soon shifted, until another revolution came, whose velvet embrace swept those humiliating memories away. The cobblestones are the same, but these days, wandering down Wenceslas Square, where the American Express and McDonald's outlets disgorge flocks of admiring backpackers, it's hard to conjure up the tanks, or the heady atmosphere of 1968. The only Russians you'll see today are nouveau rich "biznemeni" who cruise by in their BMWs. A small wooden cross and a plaque dedicated "in memory of the victims of Communism" mark the spot where in 1969, Jan Palach, a 20-year-old student, immolated himself to protest the Soviet invasion. Tourists take photos, and move on to the T-shirt stands. Remembering hurts in this country, says Pecinka. "The Communist system was so well perfected that anyone who wanted to live here and not just exist had to somehow conform...to make lots of small compromises. And people don't want to recall that," he explains. Ludvik Vaculik, a leading Czech writer, is one local who didn't compromise and who likes to remember. Vaculik published the "2,000 Words" declaration in the summer of 1968. The manifesto called for true democratic change in Czechoslovakia, from the ground up, directly challenging the regime's role in leading reform. Moscow branded the document counter-revolutionary and used its publication, in part, to justify the invasion. Vaculik says the Prague Spring still has great significance, but many people prefer to ignore it. "The legacy of 1968 is that people, at that time, stepped away from their personal interests and careers and understood that there was a common task. It was an ability to rise above things and act as a human whole--and this, with our new freedom, is now being whittled away." Vaculik notes that the lessons of the Prague Spring are more appreciated in the West than in the East, and he adds that without wanting to, Czechoslovakia became the sacrificial lamb that helped dispel any myths about Eastern European Communism. "This whole process and all of 1968 had greater significance for Europe than for us. The leftist intelligentsia in Europe learned what the USSR was all about--what kind of power it was--and that socialism in the Soviet mold was unreformable. Although he spent the next 20 years shuttling from one interrogation cell to another, for Vaculik the Prague Spring was worth the personal cost." It really can't be measured by the standard of was it worth it or not," he says. "No, that's not important. It was necessary. Some people stood the test, and some simply did not." Historian Pavel Zacek explains the Sisyphean struggle he faces. Zacek, a one-time student activist, is now deputy director of the Office for the Documentation and Investigation of Communist Crimes. The office is a part of the Interior Ministry. Its task is to investigate the activities of the former State Security apparatus and compile evidence against individuals who committed specific crimes on behalf of repressive institutions. On paper, the office enjoys broad powers - more power in fact, than any other such body in Eastern Europe. Its staff-members, as Interior Ministry employees, have broad access to classified files and have prepared indictments against scores of individuals, including some of the main actors in the post-1968 "normalization" period. But the indictments must then proceed to the courts, where they are often thrown out. But Zacek says he is not after punishment. He just wants Czech society to honestly assess its past so that it can move on to a secure democratic future. "We have to bear in mind that some of these perpetrators are 70- to 80-year-old pensioners. The point is not to lock them up, but to decide that what they did was a crime and for society to acknowledge that among it are criminals. Without this assignation of blame, society cannot come to terms with its past, accept a democratic order, and move forward." The author is an RFE/RL editor based in Prague. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc. 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