|It is easier to love humanity than to love one's neighbor. - Eric Hoffer|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 132 Part II, 13 July 1998
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 132 Part II, 13 July 1998 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * BELARUSIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS BANNED FROM ENTERING EU * POLISH FARMERS CLASH WITH POLICE IN PROTEST MARCH * UCK DOES NOT RECOGNIZE RUGOVA AS LEADER End Note: RUSSIA PRESSED TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM MOLDOVA xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE BELARUSIAN GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS BANNED FROM ENTERING EU... The EU on 10 July banned Belarusian government officials from entering its member states, dpa reported. The ban is in retaliation for the eviction of EU diplomats from their residences at Drazdy, near Minsk, and applies to some 30 ministries and senior officials from President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's administration. The charges d'affaires of Germany, France, the U.K., Greece, and Italy handed over a note to the Belarusian Foreign Ministry on 10 July informing it of the EU decision. According to dpa, France has proposed that the EU foreign ministers discuss severing diplomatic relations with Belarus. Meanwhile, the U.S. Embassy in Minsk has released a statement denying that several Western ambassadors are willing to move to new residences, as claimed by the Belarusian authorities. Both Germany and France earlier denied that claim (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 July 1998). JM ...WHILE BELARUS SAYS BAN 'UNPRECEDENTED PRESSURE.' The Belarusian Foreign Ministry said in a 10 July statement that the EU decision to ban Belarusian officials from entering its member states was accompanied "with threats to take even tougher measures," ITAR-TASS reported. According to the ministry, the EU has taken advantage of a "relatively small problem--the change of residences--as a reason for applying large-scale, unprecedented pressure on sovereign Belarus." Speaking on national television, Lukashenka's administration chief, Mikhail Myasnikovich, called the ban an "ill- considered" decision that is economically disadvantageous for both sides. Myasnikovich added that some foreign embassies in Belarus have already denied visas to children affected by the Chornobyl nuclear accident, who had intended to receive treatment abroad, ITAR-TASS reported on 12 July. JM KUCHMA URGES PARLIAMENT TO APPROVE REVISED 1998 BUDGET. Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma appealed to the parliament on 10 July to approve a revised 1998 budget draft, submitted by the cabinet earlier this month, before the parliamentary summer recess. The draft reduces the budget deficit to 2.3 percent of GDP. The government has faced difficulties in raising funds to finance the 3.3 percent deficit for which the original budget provided. The revised budget must be passed "to alleviate tension in view of the acute economic crisis in the country," Ukrainian Television quoted Kuchma as saying. The president also asked the Supreme Council to refrain from passing bills that "require additional budget assignations or reduce budget revenues." JM UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES PERMANENT COMMITTEE HEADS. The Supreme Council has approved the heads of its 24 permanent committees, Ukrainian Television reported on 10 July. The Communist Party received six chairs, the Popular Democratic Party five, the "Hromada" party four, and the Socialists/Peasants, the Greens, and the Social Democrats three each. Former speaker Oleksandr Moroz heads the committee for agrarian policy, former Foreign Minister Hennadiy Udovenko the committee for human rights; former Prime Minister Yevhen Marchuk the committee for social policy and labor. The Progressive Socialists have strongly protested this distribution, which deprives both its deputies and non-affiliated parliamentary members of any committee chairs. JM BALTIC STATES MOVE TOWARD COMMON ECONOMIC MARKET. The prime ministers of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, meeting in Silguda (Latvia) on 10 July, signed an agreement standardizing customs procedures. The three also agreed to draw up a treaty next year on the free movement of labor. Observers say that because the countries are so small, a common market is critical for growth and investments in the long term. At the same meeting, the Baltic foreign ministers signed an accord pledging that each country will recognize the others' secondary and vocational school certificates. JC ESTONIAN SS MEETING TAKES PLACE WITHOUT INCIDENT. Some 1,500 veterans of Estonia's former World War II SS battalion held a rally in Tallinn on 11 July, which passed without incidence. No top officials or military leaders attended the event. The previous day, Estonian Foreign Minister Toomas Hendrik Ilves had warned that the meeting could trigger a propaganda campaign against Estonia in the international press, according to ETA. However, Reuters reported on 11 July that there was "little or no criticism" of the event, while ETA commented that only "Nezavisimaya Gazeta" wrote about the "rehabilitation of fascism" in Estonia. A meeting of Latvian SS veterans in March provoked a sharp reaction from Moscow as well as the dismissal of the commander of the Latvian army, who had taken part in the Riga rally. JC ADAMKUS WANTS CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO RULE ON LUSTRATION LAW. Lithuanian President Valdas Adamkus has proposed that the parliament postpone enacting the lustration law to allow the Constitutional Court to rule on whether the legislation is constitutional, BNS reported on 10 July. Last week, Adamkus announced that he will not sign the law (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 July 1998). He also said he will consider proposing amendments to the law only after the Constitutional Court has made a ruling. According to the Baltic news agency, parliamentary speaker Vytautas Landsbergis, who initiated the legislation, has the support of more than one-third of deputies to hold an extraordinary session on 15-16 July in the event that the president returns the law to the parliament. JC POLISH PREMIER SAYS EARLIER NATO ENLARGEMENT POSSIBLE. Following his visit to the U.S., Jerzy Buzek said on 12 July that Poland, Hungary, and the Czech Republic may join NATO in January 1999, three months earlier than anticipated, Reuters reported. Buzek said the proposal to speed up the admission of new members to NATO has been accepted by the U.S. administration (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 2 July 1998). NATO enlargement was initially planned to coincide with the alliance's 50th anniversary, in April 1999. He noted that if voting on NATO enlargement is completed by November and the Czech, Hungarian, and Polish parliaments ratify the NATO treaty in December, the new countries could formally join in January. He also said the U.S. agrees that the costly change-over of Poland's military hardware to NATO standards may be postponed. JM POLISH FARMERS CLASH WITH POLICE IN PROTEST MARCH. Some 10,000 Polish farmers marched in Warsaw on 10 July to protest the government's agricultural policy, "Rzeczpospolita" reported. The farmers demanded that the government introduce higher duties on food imports and allot more funds to modernize agriculture before Poland joins the EU. Scuffles broke out between marchers and police, who used truncheons, tear gas, and water cannons to prevent traffic blockades. Farm leaders met later with Deputy Prime Minister Leszek Balcerowicz and agreed that regular negotiations between agricultural trade unions and the government would begin in mid-July. Poland has more than 2 million farms, mostly small and inefficient, which employ some 25 percent of the population but provide only 6 percent of GDP. JM HAVEL LIKES NEITHER AGREEMENT NOR PROPOSED CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES. Czech President Vaclav Havel says that although he is "disturbed" by the wording and content of the "opposition" agreement between the Civic Democratic Party (ODS) and the Social Democrats (CSSD), he will probably appoint CSSD chairman Milos Zeman as prime minister, "Mlada fronta Dnes" reported on 12 July. But Havel cautioned that "anything is possible." He added that he wants to appoint a new cabinet before 22 July, when he is scheduled to enter the hospital. Havel said a change in the constitution to increase the threshold for a party to enter the parliament is "an attack on pluralism." The ODS and CSSD have enough votes in parliament to alter the constitution, and both parties have spoken of a need to change the proportional system used to elect the lower house. The same day, the ODS's Miroslav Macek accused Havel of being paranoid after the president asserted that the ODS has considered accusing him of treason in an effort to remove him. PB ZEMAN WANTS END TO RESTITUTION OF CHURCH PROPERTY. CSSD chairman Milos Zeman said on 10 July that his party will demand a halt to the restitution of property to the Catholic Church if it comes to power, CTK reported. Zeman said, however, that his party will support the return of Jewish property seized by the Nazis during World War II. Miloslav Fiala, the press director at the Czech Bishops' Conference, said such an action by the government would be alarming. He noted that such measures "might have a populist accent, but they are a warning signal abroad." PB MECIAR ADDRESSES PARLIAMENT... Slovak Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar said on 10 July that the country's main goal is to join the EU, Slovak Radio reported. He added that Slovakia is also "interested in NATO membership," but he said that comments by former President Michal Kovac have hurt its chances for membership. He noted that relations with Poland, Ukraine, and Austria were good, although Bratislava and Vienna have "contrasting views" on nuclear energy, a reference to Austria's opposition to Slovakia's operation of the Mochovce nuclear power plant. Meciar argued that relations with Hungary have improved but are weakened by Budapest's failure to adhere to an international court verdict on the controversial Gabcikovo-Nagymaros dam. And he said that tension over the Hungarian minority in Slovakia needs to be overcome, commenting that Slovakia is responsible to international institutions but not to any other government regarding minority rights. PB ...SAYS HE'S WILLING TO WORK WITH NEW CZECH GOVERNMENT. Meciar praised former Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus on 10 July, saying his ability to compromise and his "personal stature" are highlighted by the "opposition" agreement between Klaus's ODS and the Social Democrats, CTK reported. Meciar said he welcomes the steps toward "stabilizing the political environment" in Prague. He added that Slovakia is waiting for the government leadership to "emerge" and that Bratislava was ready to cooperate with it in all areas. According to the Slovak leader, relations with Prague are good and the only problem in those relations is the "failure to settle property issues." PB HUNGARY'S HORN DECLINES HONORARY POST. Outgoing Socialist Party (MSZP) chairman and former Prime Minister Gyula Horn unexpectedly told a party board meeting that he does not intend to become the party's honorary chairman, "Magyar Hirlap" reported on 13 July. Horn said he made that decision because of recent debates within the party about the need for the post. MSZP Executive Deputy Chairman Magda Kovacs Kosa said Horn does not lay claim to any other posts within the party but will remain active in the party's domestic and international affairs. MSZ HUNGARIAN FOREIGN MINISTER WANTS EU MEMBERSHIP IN FOUR YEARS. Janos Martonyi said that if Hungary is not admitted into the EU by 2002 it will be due to reasons "beyond our control," Hungarian Television reported on 12 July. Martyoni said Budapest's accession to the EU would be "favorable for the Hungarian communities beyond our borders." He added that once in the EU, Budapest would work to accelerate the process of accession for Hungary's neighbors. Meanwhile, eight FBI agents have arrived in the Hungarian capital to help police investigate the 2 July car bombing that killed four people. PB SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE UCK DOES NOT RECOGNIZE RUGOVA AS LEADER. Kosova Liberation Army (UCK) spokesman Jakup Krasniqi told the Prishtina daily "Koha Ditore" of 11 July that his organization does not "recognize shadow-state President Ibrahim Rugova as the UCK's commander because [Rugova] did not create it." Krasniqi called on all political parties "to unite in a broad national front and recognize the UCK as Kosova's legitimate army. He added that the UCK fights for "the liberation of all occupied Albanian territories and for their unification with Albania" and that "we have not taken up arms just to gain autonomy." Krasniqi noted that the UCK is ready for talks with Belgrade, but he stressed that the Serbian authorities must first "free all political prisoners and hostages and withdraw their forces from Kosova." The spokesman added that foreign powers, "preferably the U.S.," must establish "control" over the province. And he pledged that the UCK will be in Prishtina "soon." FS DAYTON-TYPE CONFERENCE FOR KOSOVA? German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel failed to secure the agreement of his Russian counterpart, Yevgenii Primakov, in Moscow on 11 July for international military intervention to end the crisis in Kosova, the "Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung" reported. Primakov informed his guest that Russia insists Kosova become autonomous within the frontiers of Yugoslavia. Kinkel told reporters that the international community must seek "creative [diplomatic] solutions." He told the Berlin daily "Tagesspiegel" of 12 July that one possibility would be to hold an international conference on the model of the Dayton meeting that ended the Bosnian conflict in 1995. The German minister concluded that the first order of business for the international community in Kosova is to secure a cease-fire. Meanwhile in Paris on 10 July, French Foreign Ministry officials said France and the U.K. have submitted to the UN Security Council a joint resolution on Kosova. PM TURKEY SAYS READY FOR NATO ACTION OVER KOSOVA. President Suleyman Demirel told the Tirana daily "Koha Jone" of 12 July that Turkey is "ready to be part of any mission [in Kosova] that has the mandate of the international community." Demirel stressed that Turkey will not support independence for Kosova unless Belgrade and Prishtina agree to it. He criticized the EU's Balkan policy as "based on the lowest common denominator." Demirel argued that the EU "does not have a vision [for the region] and underestimates the role that it can play in developing a new international order." Meanwhile, Defense Minister Ismet Sezgin said before meeting his Albanian counterpart, Luan Hajdaraga, in Ankara on 10 July that military intervention may be necessary in Kosova if the international community does not find a diplomatic solution. FS FIGHTING CONTINUES IN WESTERN KOSOVA. Serbian and Kosovar sources reported fighting in the Peja, Gjakova, and Decan areas from 10-12 July. The Kosovar news agency KIC added on 11 July that the Serbian forces used ground-to ground missiles near Peja. The "International Herald Tribune" reported on 13 July that the UCK is steadily acquiring more and better weapons and that Serbian forces are increasingly reluctant to enter UCK-controlled territory. The Tirana daily "Shekulli" reported the previous day that seven UCK fighters are receiving treatment in the Albanian capital's military hospital. PM/FS OSCE FEARS NEW WAVE OF REFUGEES. An OSCE spokesman told Albanian State Television on 11 July that monitors on the Kosovar-Albanian border have observed extensive fighting in the area around Gjakova. He added that the fighting could trigger a new influx of tens of thousands of refugees into northern Albania. Official statistics currently put Albania's Kosovar refugee population at 12,000, but refugee workers estimate that there are another 5,000 or so unregistered people there. Meanwhile on 11 July, the U.S. humanitarian organization AmeriCares flew five tons of medicine, blankets, and other supplies into Tirana. FS MACEDONIAN BORDER GUARDS STOP ARMS SMUGGLERS. Macedonia border guards on 11 July fired on some 30 suspected arms smugglers about 60 miles southwest of Skopje. The smugglers escaped after an exchange of gunfire, but nobody was injured. Interior Ministry officials did not say whether the border guards seized any arms during the incident. Meanwhile in an interview published in the Skopje daily "Dnevnik" on 11 July, President Kiro Gligorov said that NATO cannot use his country as a base for possible armed intervention in Kosova. He nonetheless welcomed NATO support to help stop arms smuggling by the UCK. FS SREBRENICA SURVIVORS, IZETBEGOVIC TRADE CHARGES. More than 3,000 Muslims from Srebrenica staged a protest in Tuzla on 11 July to mark the third anniversary of the town's fall to Bosnian Serb forces. The demonstrators, who were mainly women, children, and elderly, demanded information regarding the fate of their 10,000 missing relatives, most of whom are males presumed to have been massacred by the Serbs. Speakers blamed the international community, but especially the Bosnian political and military leadership, for what happened. Alija Izetbegovic, who is the Muslim member of the joint presidency and who was Bosnian president in 1995, denied the charges. He stressed in an interview with state- run television that the government and the army did all they could to prevent the fall of Srebrenica. Izetbegovic said that the international community is responsible for what happened to Srebrenica and its people, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. PM CROATIAN OPPOSITION CALLS OFFICIALS' PAY 'SCANDALOUS.' The Istrian Democratic Assembly, a regional opposition party, passed a resolution on 12 July that sharply criticized a measure on officials' salaries passed by the parliament two days earlier, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Zagreb. Parliament set the president's salary at $8,000 per month and pegged the pay of top officials at 33-50 percent of that figure. Members of the parliament and the government must publicly declare all their property from the time they were elected. The Istrian party charged that the governing Croatian Democratic Community should pay some of the officials' salaries out of its own coffers. The government recently claimed that it is too poor to pay pensioners back benefits to which a court recently ruled they are entitled. The average monthly income in Croatia is $400. On 10 July, postal and telecommunications workers staged a warning strike for better pay. PM EU DISAPPOINTED BY ROMANIAN ECONOMY. Gunther Burghardt, head of the foreign relations department of the European Committee, said on 10 July that he is worried by the slow pace of economic reforms in Romania, AP reported. Burghardt said that Romania has the worst economic performance of any EU applicant over the past year. He said reforms have been stalled by political infighting, corruption, and too much bureaucracy. PB ROMANIAN, BULGARIAN, TURKISH PREMIERS AGREE TO BOOST TRADE. Radu Vasile, Ivan Kostov, and Mesut Yilmaz agreed in Sofia on 11 July on measures to increase trade in an effort to offset possible losses resulting from sanctions against Yugoslavia, Reuters reported. Yilmaz also stressed Turkey's unconditional support for Sofia and Bucharest's attempts to join NATO. Bulgaria's Kostov and Turkey's Yilmaz agreed to phase out tariffs on 60 percent of Bulgarian exports and 40 percent of Turkish exports beginning on 1 January. They expect the agreement to increase bilateral trade fivefold. The three premiers and Bulgarian President Petar Stoyanov also discussed construction of a second bridge over the River Danube near Serbia to increase access to the West. PB FOUR LIBERAL BULGARIAN PARTIES FORM ALLIANCE. The Movement for Rights and Freedoms, the New Choice Liberal Alliance, the Liberal Democratic Alternative, and the Free Radical Democratic Party on 10 July announced the formation of the Liberal Democratic Alliance, Bulgarian Radio reported. Former Bulgarian President Zhelyu Zhelev was named the alliance's honorary president. The parties will be allowed to act independently in matters outside the scope of agreements made by the alliance. PB END NOTE RUSSIA PRESSED TO WITHDRAW TROOPS FROM MOLDOVA by Roland Eggleston The U.S. and other delegations to the OSCE have told Russia to honor its promise to withdraw all troops and ammunition from Moldova's breakaway region of Transdniester. At two meetings in Vienna last week, Moscow was accused of ignoring the commitments made by former Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin at the OSCE summit in Lisbon in December 1996. Russia was also accused of ignoring repeated requests to allow OSCE monitors to check the levels of troops, equipment, and arms still deployed in Transdniester. The charges were made by Moldova's deputy foreign minister, Iurie Leanca, and were backed by the U.S., France, Canada, and the EU. Romania and Azerbaijan also became involved in the debate. France said that "absolutely no progress has been made" in resolving the problem. And the EU delegate, Jutta Stefan-Bastl, said the OSCE has no real information on how many troops are still there. In 1994, Russia said that it had 8,500 troops stationed there. Last November, the OSCE said it believed there were still more than 3,000 in place. Russia responded that it was not deliberately trying to maintain a military presence in the region but that there were many difficulties--including political ones--in fulfilling the commitment. Russian delegates said that the promises would be kept but gave no deadline for doing so. At a meeting of the OSCE permanent council, the U.S. responded by proposing a number of concrete steps that it wants Russia to take before the end of the year. Moldova demanded the withdrawal of the Russian troops when it declared independence in 1992, but the operation was complicated by domestic problems. The Transdniester region, largely-populated by ethnic Russians, declared separation from Moldova. The move led to heavy fighting in which scores of people died. The Russian 14th Army, then led by General Aleksandr Lebed, remained in the Transdniester. Moscow described it as a "peacekeeping" force but Moldova considered it to be a foreign army to be illegally based on its territory. In October 1994, Russia and Moldova agreed on the withdrawal of the troops, but they nonetheless stayed in place. Russian commanders said that hundreds of their men were locals who wanted to remain in Transdniester. In an OSCE summit meeting in Lisbon in December 1996, Russian Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin joined other government leaders in a statement calling for the "early, orderly, and complete withdrawal of Russian troops." The statement forms part of the final document issued by the summit meeting. Delegates to last week's meetings in Vienna were told that some troops and military materiel were indeed withdrawn last year. But the withdrawal stopped and, as far as is known, no more troops have moved this year. The EU described this as "deplorable" behavior. Speaking on behalf of the EU, the Austrian delegate Jutta Stefan-Bastl, said that "the EU would very much welcome a decision by the Russian side to provide detailed information on the number of troops, equipment, and arms still present in Transdniester." She added that Russia should allow international observers to inspect the situation. And she commented that "we deplore that our repeated requests for access to weapons depots have never been taken into consideration by Russia." The U.S., the EU, and other countries said they regard the continued storage of arms in Transdniester as a "serious factor of instability and a risk for the preservation of stability in the whole region." They asked Russia to provide detailed information on how many weapons and other equipment were still in Transdniester. Russia responded that it is ready to begin the destruction of munitions by the end of this month. Romania, for its part, commented that it is ready to assist in the destruction if required. The U. S. delegate, David Johnson, said that Russia should establish a number of targets to be fulfilled before the OSCE foreign ministers meet in Oslo at the end of the year. "They should include the actual departure of several trainloads of equipment back to Russia and the conclusion of a comprehensive schedule for the complete withdrawal of Russian forces and equipment," Johnson said. He welcomed Russia's statement that the destruction of munitions would begin this month. Johnson also proposed that Russia allow the OSCE mission in the region to monitor the withdrawal and the destruction of weapons. The U.S.--backed by several other countries--proposed that another meeting on the problem be held in Vienna in October. It would assess how much progress Russia has made in meeting those proposals and draw up a report for the OSCE foreign ministers conference in December. The author is an RFE/RL correspondent based in Munich. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word subscribe as the subject of the message. HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word unsubscribe as the subject of the message. 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