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RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 113 Part II, 15 June 1998


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RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 113 Part II, 15 June 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern
Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by
the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL
Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's
Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part II

* HUNGARY'S SMALLHOLDERS TO HAVE FOUR MINISTRIES

* NATO JETS CARRY 'LAST WARNING' TO MILOSEVIC

* COHEN SAYS NATO CAN ACT IN KOSOVA WITHOUT UN MANDATE

End Note: LINKING FREUD, TSAR NICHOLAS, NIETZSCHE, AND
TROTSKY
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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

BELARUSIAN RADIO BEGINS BROADCASTING TO EUROPEAN RUSSIA.
Belarusian Radio on 15 June began regular broadcasts to a
"large part" of Russia's European territory, ITAR-TASS
reported. The radio station will broadcast to the area for a
total of six hours a day initially and plans transmissions
of up to 16 hours a day in the future. The programs will
focus on "disseminating information about life in the
Republic [of Belarus] and...safeguarding integration
processes between the two fraternal countries," ITAR-TASS
reported. JM

GERMANY AGAIN PROTESTS AMBASSADORS' EVICTION IN MINSK. The
German Foreign Ministry on 12 June summoned the Belarusian
ambassador to Germany to repeat Germany's protest against
the Belarusian authorities' order to evict Western
ambassadors from their residencies at Drazdy, dpa reported.
A German Foreign Ministry spokesman in Bonn said that if
Belarus carries out its eviction order, this step will have
"grave consequences" for diplomatic relations. The ministry
confirmed that the EU member states are discussing joint
action, including the possibility of recalling their
ambassadors from Minsk. JM

MOROZ CALLS FOR LEFTIST TAKEOVER IN UKRAINE. Addressing a
congress of the Socialist Party in Kyiv on 13 June, party
head and former parliamentary speaker Oleksandr Moroz called
on left-wing forces to shoulder responsibility for the
situation in the country, Ukrainian Television reported.
"The left-wing forces should take power irrespective of
whether their representative will be elected head of the
Supreme Council," he said. "We should not be afraid of the
Bulgarian scenario, with which we are being threatened,"
Moroz added. Official media have warned that a
socialist/communist comeback may lead to economic collapse,
as was the case in Bulgaria. JM

UKRAINIAN GOVERNMENT APPEALS FOR END TO MINERS STRIKE.
Speaking on national television on 12 June, Deputy Prime
Minister Anatoliy Holubchenko appealed to miners at some 30
mines to end their strike over unpaid wages, Ukrainian
Television reported. He pledged that the government will pay
wages to all miners beginning this month. He added that the
government will not pay the wages of those miners who remain
on strike. The next day, Holubchenko said the government
will not make any more financial concessions to the miners
until the parliament passes necessary amendments to the
budget. JM

PROBE ORDERED INTO PRINTING OF NEO-NAZI PAPERS IN ESTONIA.
President Lennart Meri has ordered Interior Minister Olari
Taalan to launch an investigation into the printing in
Estonia of neo-Nazi newspapers, ETA reported on 14 June.
According to a Swedish television report the previous day,
Printall has repeatedly printed various neo-Nazi
publications ordered from Sweden. The printing house, which
is 100 percent privatized, has acknowledged that some issues
of two extremist newspapers were published in early 1997,
but it pointed out that since none of its staff speaks
Swedish, the company was unaware of the newspapers'
contents. Meri has requested that the investigators identify
who in Sweden financed the printing of the newspapers. JC

PRIMAKOV IN VILNIUS. Russian Foreign Minister Yevgenii
Primakov was in the Lithuanian capital on 13 June for talks
with President Valdas Adamkus, Prime Minister Gediminas
Vagnorius, and Foreign Minister Algirdas Saudargas, BNS and
ITAR-TASS reported. At a press conference with Saudargas
after their meeting, Primakov said that there are no
problems in Russian-Lithuanian relations that could
"complicate multifaceted ties in the economic, political,
and other spheres." He commented that Russia supports
Vilnius's aspirations to join the EU, adding that as a
result of its "civilized, good, and balanced measures...with
regard to ethnic minorities and the Russian community,
Lithuania meets all EU accession requirements." He struck a
different note, however, with regard to Lithuania's goal of
joining NATO. "The Baltic countries' accession to NATO is
unacceptable to us because it creates certain threats and
inconveniences for Russia," Primakov commented. JC

POLISH PRESIDENT TOURS PROVINCES SLATED FOR ABOLITION.
Aleksander Kwasniewski on 14 June began a tour of those
provinces slated to be abolished in Poland's administrative
reform, "Gazeta Wyborcza" reported. The parliament recently
passed a bill providing for 12 provinces but now wants the
upper house to increase the number of provinces to 15. It is
believed that Kwasniewski will veto the bill if it provides
for fewer than 17 provinces. "The option with 17 provinces
is most dear to me because it has the greatest social
support," he told a 10,000-strong crowd in Kielce. Observers
see the continuing row over administrative reform as
offering the leftist Kwasniewski an opportunity to
consolidate his position in the face of the Solidarity-led
coalition's attempts to curb his powers. JM

POLLS SHOW NEW CZECH PARLIAMENT LIKELY TO BE HUNG. The
opposition Czech Social Democrats' (CSSD) lead over former
Premier Vaclav Klaus's Civic Democratic Party (ODS) has
narrowed, just one week before the elections, Reuters
reported on 12 June, citing the last opinion polls allowed
to be made public before the 19-20 June elections. That vote
seems likely to produce a hung parliament. According to a
STEM institute poll, support for the CSSD is now at 23.2
percent, just 2.5 points ahead of the ODS. A survey
conducted by Sofres-Factum shows the CSSD with 26.7 percent
backing and the ODS with 19.5 percent support. In other
news, the CSSD has presented a "blue book" harshly
criticizing the Klaus and Josef Tosovsky government, which,
the party says, pursued a policy of "incoherent economic and
social policy" that led to "the slowest economic growth in
Central Europe," CTK reported. MS

HAVEL SAYS HE WILL RESIGN IF SERIOUSLY ILL. In an interview
with BBC television on 12 June, President Vaclav Havel said
he will resign if doctors conclude that he suffers from a
"serious illness" preventing him from fulfilling his
presidential duties. But he added that he has been assured
that this is not the case at present. The next day, in an
interview with Czech state television, Havel repeated his
intention to leave the presidency "if my struggle against
death continues." He also said the Czech Republic is "at a
crossroads" and that the elections will decide whether the
country will be "a civilized European democracy...or turn
into a banana republic." The latter may happen if "the Czech
tradition of mutual accusations and intrigues" prevails over
"constructive politics," he said. MS

ETHNIC HUNGARIANS BOYCOTT SCHOOL IN SLOVAKIA. Thousands of
ethnic Hungarian school children boycotted classes in
southern Slovakia on 12 June to protest a proposed amendment
to the education law that would restrict the use of their
mother tongue in the classroom, Reuters reported. The
amendment would reduce the number of subjects that can be
taught in the Hungarian language and increase the
prerogatives of the state over schools catering for ethnic
minorities. MS

HUNGARY'S SMALLHOLDERS TO HAVE FOUR MINISTRIES. The
Independent Smallholders' Party (FKGP) has accepted the
Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Party's
(FIDESZ-MPP) offer of four ministries in the new coalition
government, Hungarian media reported on 12 June . FIDESZ-MPP
deputy chairman Janos Ader said the FKGP will receive the
agriculture portfolio, which will also deal with development
in the provinces and accordingly will be renamed the
Ministry of Agriculture and Provincial Development. It will
also have the Defense Ministry and the Ministry
Environmental Protection. Further talks are needed to decide
on the fourth portfolio, Ader said. In other news, a bomb
exploded during the early hours of 15 June on the balcony of
FIDESZ-MPP's downtown Budapest headquarters. There was some
damage to the building but no injuries. MSZ

SMALLHOLDERS PROMISE STRONGER SUPPORT FOR HUNGARIANS IN
ROMANIA. Jozsef Torgyan, chairman of the FKGP, told visiting
Reformed Bishop Laszlo Tokes, honorary chairman of the
Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, that the FKGP
will set up a special committee to identify areas where
relations with Hungarians living in Transylvania need to be
improved, Hungarian media reported on 15 June. Torgyan said
his party and FIDESZ have identical views on ethnic
Hungarians abroad. The new government will step up "support
for Hungarians in Transylvania and for their rightful
struggle to reopen the Hungarian university in Cluj,"
Torgyan added. MSZ

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

NATO JETS CARRY 'LAST WARNING' TO MILOSEVIC... Some 84
aircraft from 13 NATO member states conducted an exercise
called "Determined Falcon" over Albania and Macedonia on 15
June. NATO defense ministers agreed in Brussels on 12 June
to stage the maneuvers as a "final warning" to Yugoslav
President Slobodan Milosevic to stop the violence in Kosova
and negotiate a settlement with Kosovar leaders. On 14 June,
the Yugoslav Air Force put on an extensive display of skills
in front of a crowd of more than 100,000 people at the
annual Belgrade Air Show. PM

...AS DOES COOK. British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook said
in Cardiff on 15 June that the exercise is a message to
Milosevic that NATO is keeping "all options open," including
air strikes against Serbia and the deployment of ground
troops to Kosova, Reuters reported. Cook added that he hopes
Milosevic "will use his meeting [in Moscow later the same
day] with [Russian] President [Boris] Yeltsin to confirm
that he has accepted the demands of the international
community, including Russia, that he stop the violence, that
he let the refugees go, that he let international monitors
in so that [the refugees] can go home without fear." PM

ALBANIA, MACEDONIA PLEDGE SUPPORT TO NATO. Albanian Prime
Minister Fatos Nano said in a statement on 13 June that
Tirana's international airport and all military airports are
at NATO's disposal. He added that Albania will provide
additional, unspecified logistical support for the Atlantic
alliance. Nano stressed that he hopes a combination of
diplomatic and military actions on the part of the
international community will lead to "a final solution of
the conflict" and "halt the murdering hand of the Stalinist
and militarist regime of Milosevic." Macedonian Prime
Minister Branko Crvenkovski, who was in Tirana for a two-day
visit, also pledged support for the NATO exercises. The two
leaders signed an accord on economic, transport, and trade
cooperation and agreed to expand cooperation in the sphere
of security and border protection, with the aim of stop arms
trafficking. FS

WESTERN LEADERS SLAM SERBIAN POLICIES. Foreign Secretary
Cook said in London on 14 June that Serbia is "carrying out
ethnic cleansing" in Kosova and that Milosevic's policies in
the province have strengthened the position of the Kosova
Liberation Army (UCK). In Paris, President Jacques Chirac
said the previous day that Serbia's behavior in Kosova is
"unacceptable" and warned that the West may use force there.
Chirac added that Serbia's policies are responsible for a
new wave of refugees in the Balkans. On 12 June in London,
foreign ministers of the international Contact Group
countries agreed to reimpose an earlier ban on new foreign
investments in Serbia and to ban flights of Serbia's JAT
airlines to and from Western countries. Russia did not agree
to these measures. PM

COHEN SAYS NATO CAN ACT IN KOSOVA WITHOUT UN MANDATE. In
Warsaw, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana said on 14 June
that the alliance will seek a mandate from the UN before it
launches any intervention in Kosova, but he did not rule out
that NATO would act without such a mandate, the "Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung" reported. In Copenhagen on 13 June, U.S.
Secretary of Defense William Cohen stressed that NATO would
not need a UN mandate to act in Kosova. The previous day,
Secretary of State Madeleine Albright expressed similar
views at the Contact Group meeting in London. The U.S.
standpoint is based on the view that the former Yugoslavia
falls within NATO's traditional area of activity and that
the alliance does not require UN approval to carry out its
policies there. PM

UCK CLAIMS CONTROL OVER ONE THIRD OF KOSOVA. The Kosova
Liberation Army issued a declaration on 13 June saying it
has control over 30 percent of Kosova's territory. It said
it now controls the main road from Prishtina to Peja,
whereas in previous weeks it held only smaller roads in the
countryside. The same day, the Prishtina daily "Bujku"
estimated that the UCK holds more than 40 percent of the
province's territory and has currently 30,000 armed troops,
RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. The daily added that
the UCK could increase that number to some 300,000 if it
wanted to do so. FS

RAPE AS POLICY IN KOSOVA? Several Kosovar women refugees
told Western journalists in northeastern Albania that armed
Serbs raped them before they could escape across the border.
The BBC said on 13 June that, if true, those stories suggest
that Serbian forces may again be using rape as a deliberate
instrument of policy, as they did in Bosnia. The Serbian
paramilitary police include many veterans of the Croatian
and Bosnian wars. Western news agencies reported in recent
days that Serbian forces have mined areas along the border
between Kosova and Albania to discourage refugees from
trying to return to their homes. PM

MORE REFUGEES ARRIVE IN ALBANIA. Latest estimates put the
total number of Kosovar refugees in Albania at almost 14,000
and in Montenegro at 8,000, Reuters reported from Molle e
Kuce on the Yugoslav-Albanian border on 14 June. About one-
third of the refugees in Montenegro are ethnic Serbs.
Refugees from Popoc and Ponoshec told foreign journalists in
Tropoja on 14 June that Serbian forces have completely
destroyed both villages with air missiles and heavy
artillery. They added that thousands of other refugees are
hiding in the mountains in Kosova and that others died on
their way to Albania. On 13 June, the Albanian government
began to convert former military barracks in the Tropoja
area into refugee accommodations and set up a tent camp
nearby for 1,200 people. Most refugees are currently living
in overcrowded family homes. FS

FOOD AID DELIVERY DELAYED AFTER ROBBERY. A Norwegian
Hercules C-130 military aircraft made four flights on 13-14
June to transport aid from Sarajevo to Tirana. Officials of
the UN High Commission for Refugees, however, postponed
delivering the aid to northern Albania after two masked
gunmen hijacked the vehicle of a French aid organization in
Bajram Curri on 13 June. A UNHCR spokeswoman said that the
delivery is "a bit of logistical nightmare" owing to
security problems and the lack of infrastructure. After the
robbery, special police forces from Tirana set up
checkpoints along the roads in the north. Meanwhile, a ship
arrived at Durres from the Croatian port of Ploce on 14 June
carrying enough wheat flour, vegetable oil, and beans to
support 10,000 refugees for three month. FS

ANTI-WAR PROTESTS IN SERBIA. More than 100 parents of
Yugoslav army conscripts from Kragujevac who have been sent
to Kosova have issued a statement pledging to go to that
province "to save our children," "Nasa Borba" reported on 15
June. Some 400 Serbian policemen have refused duty in Kosova
this year. In recent days, Serbian police in several cities
arrested an unspecified number of people who had distributed
leaflets in support of the organization Anti-War Campaign,
RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported on 12 June. PM

SFOR ARRESTS WAR CRIMES SUSPECT. A spokesman for NATO
peacekeepers said on 15 June in Sarajevo that French and
German SFOR troops arrested Milorad Krnojelac in Foca, which
is in the French command area in the southeast. SFOR sent
him immediately to The Hague. He was the commander of the
Foca prison between April 1992 and August 1993 and has been
indicted by the Hague-based war crimes tribunal for
"permitting prolonged torture and beatings, countless
killings, and forced labor practices," the spokesman added.
Krnojelac is among an unknown number of people whom the
court has indicted but whose indictments it has kept secret.
PM

ROMANIAN MINERS' LEADER RECEIVES LIGHT SENTENCE. Miron
Cozma, the leader of miners whose rampage in Bucharest in
September 1991 caused the downfall of Petre Roman's
government, has been sentenced by a Bucharest court to 18
months in prison. The judges changed the charge from
undermining state authority, which carries a sentence of
between 5 and 15 years, to the less serious offense of
illegal possession of arms. Cozma has been in custody since
January 1997, which means he will be released in 25 days,
RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported on 12 June. Both Cozma's
lawyers and the Prosecutor-General's Office said they are
appealing the sentence. MS

ROMANIAN DEPUTY ADMITS TO HAVING BEEN SECURITATE INFORMER.
Adrian Vilau, chairman of the Chamber of Deputies commission
on supervising the activity of the Foreign Information
Service, has admitted to having been an informer of the
communist secret police. The admission was made on 14 June,
after a journalist submitted evidence to Vilau's Democratic
Party, which subsequently decided to withdraw its backing of
Vilau as commission chairman. In other news, the Democrats
on 14 June said the main purpose of their recent meeting
with the opposition Party of Social Democracy in Romania
(PDSR) was to coordinate policies in the parliament on
restructuring, saying that the meeting was "overly
publicized" by the PDSR. The Democrats said collaboration
with the PDSR in local or general elections is not "on the
agenda". Two days earlier, PDSR chairman Ion Iliescu had
said that the two parties have a common past and a common
Social Democratic orientation. MS

MOLDOVAN COALITION CRISIS RESOLVED. Premier Ion Ciubuc and
the leaders of the Democratic Convention of Moldova (CDM)
and the Party of Democratic Forces (PFD) have reached an
agreement over the distribution of the posts of deputy
minister and director-general of ministries. Both sides said
the agreement was a "compromise." CDM co-chairman Mircea
Snegur told journalists that the CDM and the PFD agreed to
renounce the "exact implementation" of the coalition
agreement. Ciubuc, for his part, pointed out that in the
current cabinet, 57 percent of the ministers, deputy
ministers, and directors-general are new, RFE/RL's Chisinau
bureau reported on 12 June. MS

END NOTE

LINKING FREUD, TSAR NICHOLAS, NIETZSCHE, AND TROTSKY

by Charles Fenyvesi

	The turn of the century was the last era in which
Europe was one--though not free. That period was followed by
a dark age in which it was neither one nor free. As Europe
is now becoming one as well as free, writers are
rediscovering long-lost ties linking European centers of
thought.
	One such writer is Aleksandr Etkind, a 42-year-old
professor of humanities at the European University of St.
Petersburg, founded two years ago. Etkind has been writing
what the Russians call "cultural bestsellers" on
intellectual connections between the Russian empire, on the
one hand, and the Austrian and German empires, on the other.
His focus is the period from the late19th century to the
1930s.
	 Etkind argues that Sigmund Freud's invention of
psychoanalysis created a busy trade of ideas between Vienna
and St. Petersburg. And he suggests that the second most
influential thinker was Friedrich Nietzsche, whose prophecy
of the "superman" spurred a generation of Russian
revolutionaries.
	Etkind spoke recently in Washington, a city fascinated
with empires new and old, as well as with Freud, whose
influence remains strong among psychiatrists on the East
Coast of the U.S. The Austrian embassy provided Etkind with
the forum. His audience was dominated by scholars of Russian
culture and practitioners of psychoanalysis--two sizable
communities that seldom get together otherwise.
 	In his lecture, Etkind described what he called the
morbid affinities between the Romanov and Habsburg empires.
Both imperial families were troubled, neurotic, and
dysfunctional. Both Nicholas and Franz Josef suffered from
psychological problems and lived unhappy personal lives. In
both empires, psychoanalysis brought to the surface archaic
and demonic elements from the unconscious. Nevertheless, the
governing elite in both repressed all thoughts of an
imminent decline, ruling out the fall of the monarchy.
	In a letter to a friend, Freud mused about what he
would do if asked to treat Nicholas, but Etkind has found no
evidence that Nicholas ever considered making himself
comfortable on Freud's couch. As far as is known, Freud did
not muse about treating his own emperor, Franz Josef.
	Freud's inventions of the id and the unconscious
fascinated Russian intellectuals and revolutionaries,
including the early Bolsheviks, Etkind argued. Similarly,
Nietzsche's call for the superman beyond good and evil
prompted powerful echoes among the same people yearning for
freedom from tsarist oppression.
	Etkind said that at one point, Commissar Leon Trotsky
even supported the psychoanalytical movement with government
funds. Combining the ideas of Freud and Nietzsche, Trotsky
argued that the Soviet regime should apply psychoanalysis in
"cleaning up the mess" in the unconscious of the emerging
new Soviet superman. Thus purged, the Soviet superman would
be better able to rebuild society.
	According to Etkind's analysis, Trotsky "shed rivers
of blood in order to get rid of the power of human
instincts." But, Etkind notes, Russia rejected Trotsky's
proposed treatment, choosing Stalin, who encouraged "faith
and the cult of his personality" and brought death to
millions.

The author is a member of RFE/RL's Communications Division.

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