Everyone knows it is much harder to turn word into deed than deed into word. - Maxim Gorky
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 113 Part I, 15 June 1998


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 113 Part I, 15 June 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern
Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by
the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central,
Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed
simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL
Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's
Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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Headlines, Part I

* KOMI MINERS THREATEN TO RESUME RAIL BLOCKADE

* CHECHNYA THREATENS TO HALT EXPORTS OF AZERBAIJANI OIL

* GEORGIAN PRESIDENT CALLS FOR EMERGENCY CIS SUMMIT

End Note: LINKING FREUD, TSAR NICHOLAS, NIETZSCHE, AND
TROTSKY
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RUSSIA

KOMI MINERS THREATEN TO RESUME RAIL BLOCKADE... Sergei
Nikitinskii, who leads a trade union for coal industry
workers in Inta (Komi Republic), told ITAR-TASS that coal
miners in Inta plan to resume a blockade of the Vorkuta
Moscow railroad on 15 June. That line was the first railroad
to be blocked last month by unpaid workers. The protests
soon spread to Kemerovo and Rostov Oblasts, abating after
government officials paid emergency visits to the regions
affected by the blockades (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 25 and 27
May 1998). According to Nikitinskii, the miners gave the
government until 15 June to help settle their wage arrears
but have received back wages only for November and December
1997. LB

...AS NEMTSOV SAYS GOVERNMENT IS FULLY FUNDING COAL
INDUSTRY. Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov on 15 June
said the coal industry is receiving 100 percent of funds
allocated to it under the 1998 budget, ITAR-TASS reported.
In contrast, he noted, spending on soldiers, doctors, and
teachers is falling short of budget targets. Earlier the
same day, Nemtsov briefed President Boris Yeltsin on
government policies toward the coal industry. On 11-12 June,
hundreds of coal miners from Komi Republic and other regions
picketed government headquarters in Moscow, carrying
placards demanding Yeltsin's resignation and the payment of
back wages. Citing the protesters' refusal to drop their
political demands, Nemtsov and Economics Minister Yakov
Urinson refused to meet with representatives of the
protesters, Interfax reported. LB

UPPER HOUSE DELAYS ADDITIONAL FUNDING FOR COAL INDUSTRY.
During the wave of railroad blockages last month, the
government proposed cutting 1998 expenditures by 526 million
rubles ($85 million) and spending the money saved on
additional support for the coal industry. Although the State
Duma approved that proposal less than a week after the
government submitted the draft law to the parliament (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 21 May 1998), the Federation Council
rejected the law on 10 June. The law now goes to a
conciliatory commission. It could take weeks or months to
reach a compromise text. LB

INGUSH HOSTAGES RELEASED. Five ethnic Ingush who were
abducted from a bus in the North Ossetian village of Zilgi
on 8 June were liberated by Ingush and North Ossetian police
four days later, Russian agencies reported. Earlier on 12
June, thousands of participants at a demonstration in the
Ingush capital, Nazran, addressed an appeal to Russian
President Boris Yeltsin to secure the hostages' release. At
a meeting on 13 June, Ingush President Ruslan Aushev thanked
his North Ossetian counterpart, Aleksandr Dzasokhov, for
helping to free the hostages. The two presidents issued a
joint statement calling on the populations of their
respective republics not to give in to provocations by
elements seeking to instigate a confrontation between the
two ethnic groups. Six Ossetians whose abduction on 7 June
provoked the kidnapping of the Ingush have still not been
found (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 9 June 1998). LF

RUSSIAN SERVICEMEN ABDUCTED IN DAGESTAN. A bus carrying
Russian soldiers and some civilians was hijacked in
Makhachkala on 11 June, Russian agencies reported. Dagestani
Interior Ministry officials said that four women passengers
and several servicemen were subsequently released at the
border between Dagestan and Chechnya. Another 10 Russian
servicemen and officers are still missing, but Chechen
Foreign Minister Movladi Udugov told ITAR-TASS on 14 June
that they are not being held captive in Chechnya. Also on 11
June, one person was injured when a bomb exploded in a
Muslim cemetery in Makhchkala. LF

CHECHNYA THREATENS TO HALT EXPORTS OF AZERBAIJANI OIL...
Acting Prime Minister Shamil Basaev told Interfax on 14 June
that he has written to his Russian counterpart, Sergei
Kirienko, warning him that Chechnya will cut off oil exports
via the Baku-Grozny-Tikhoretsk-Novorossiisk pipeline unless
Russia implements by the end of this month agreements signed
with the Chechen leadership. Basaev said that Russia has not
yet paid anything toward the cost of maintaining and
guarding the export pipeline. LF

...AND TO CRACK DOWN ON KIDNAPPERS. Basaev also warned that
the Chechen leadership intends to employ harsher measures
against kidnappers, including detaining their close
relatives, until abductors release their hostages, Interfax
reported. He also advocated creating "death squadron" forces
to fight those criminal groups against which the existing
law enforcement agencies are powerless. Those squads would
have special powers delegated by the president and Supreme
Shariah Court to carry out investigations and searches
without obtaining a warrant. Speaking at a news conference
in Grozny on 14 June, Basaev said that an Islamic
peacekeeping force is currently being set up to deal with
the "problems of Muslims." Basaev argued that such a force
is needed because the UN and OSCE "have never defended the
interests of Muslim peoples." LF

BASHKIR PRESIDENT WINS ANOTHER TERM... Murtaza Rakhimov has
won re-election with some 73 percent of the vote, RFE/RL's
Moscow bureau reported on 14 June. Turnout was high, at
nearly 70 percent. But Rakhimov's margin of victory was
surprisingly low, given that he faced only token opposition
on the ballot from the republic's forestry minister, Rif
Kazakkulov, who gained 9.3 percent. Some 15 percent of
voters cast ballots against all candidates, including nearly
35 percent of voters in Ufa, the republic's capital, ITAR-
TASS reported. The conduct of the campaign drew sharp
criticism from Rakhimov's political opponents and from some
Russian media. Three would-be opponents were excluded from
the ballot, and the local media provided one-sided support
for the incumbent. In addition, the republican authorities
shut down an independent radio station in late May and
arrested its director, prompting protests involving several
thousand residents of Ufa. LB

...AS OPPONENTS SEEK CANCELLATION OF ELECTION. In an
interview with RFE/RL's Moscow bureau on 15 June, Duma
deputy Vyacheslav Igrunov of the Yabloko faction said the
Central Electoral Commission has ample reason to declare the
presidential election in Bashkortostan invalid. During the
final week of the campaign, the Russian Supreme Court
instructed the republican electoral commission to register
two candidates who were excluded from the ballot, including
Duma deputy Aleksandr Arinin of the Our Home Is Russia
faction. However, the republican commission defied the court
ruling and an appeal from the Central Electoral Commission,
refusing to add any more names to the ballot. Arinin and the
other would-be candidate, Marat Mirgazyamov, have vowed to
seek to have the election overturned. Despite Arinin's
difficulties, former Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, the
leader of the Our Home Is Russia movement, endorsed
Rakhimov's re-election bid during a visit to Bashkortostan
on 10 June. LB

KALMYKIAN PRESIDENT VOICES HIGHER POLITICAL AMBITIONS.
Kirsan Ilyumzhinov announced in a 14 June interview with the
TV-6 network that he plans to seek the Russian presidency in
2000, ITAR-TASS reported. At 36, Ilyumzhinov is one of the
youngest regional leaders in the Russian Federation.
According to official records, he is also the richest,
having declared more than $1 million in 1996 income alone.
Although Ilyumzhinov violated federal law by running
unopposed for re-election as president of Kalmykia in 1995,
the federal authorities did not seek to annul that election.
Ilyumzhinov faces little political opposition in Kalmykia,
and human rights defenders say his administration routinely
tramples on citizens' rights and seeks to intimidate
opponents. A former employee of Ilyumzhinov's administration
is among the three suspects detained in connection with the
recent murder of "Sovetskaya Kalmykia" editor Larisa Yudina
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 11 and 12 June 1998). LB

YABLOKO PLANS ALTERNATIVE INVESTIGATION OF JOURNALIST'S
MURDER. Duma deputy Sergei Ivanenko on 12 June announced
that members of the Yabloko faction plan to form a
commission to conduct a separate investigation into the
murder of journalist Larisa Yudina, Interfax reported.
Yudina headed the Yabloko branch in Kalmykia. Ivanenko said
the alternative investigation will seek to put pressure on
the government not to halt the probe into Yudina's murder if
high-ranking officials are implicated. (Yeltsin on 15 June
again pledged to personally supervise the efforts to find
those who killed Yudina and said law enforcement agencies
will investigate the case "at the highest level," ITAR-TASS
reported.) Meanwhile, the Duma on 11 June approved a
Yabloko-sponsored motion instructing the Audit Chamber to
investigate the use of budget funds in Kalmykia from 1996
through 1998. Ivanenko argued that the audit will aid the
investigation into Yudina's murder. LB

LEBED AGAINST DECREE ON FOREIGN BORROWING BY REGIONS.
Krasnoyarsk Krai Governor Aleksandr Lebed has criticized a
recent presidential decree that sets limits on foreign
borrowing by regional governments. He told Interfax on 13
June that the decree has made the Federation Council
"tense," but he predicted that it will not be enforced. On
10 June, the same day Yeltsin signed the decree, Finance
Minister Mikhail Zadornov addressed the Federation Council
and sought to assuage the concerns of regional leaders.
Zadornov said the decree will not prohibit regions from
issuing Eurobonds but will set limits based on the
capacities of regional budgets, ITAR-TASS reported. The
decree stipulates that regions must be rated by at least two
international credit rating agencies before issuing
Eurobonds. In addition, no regional Eurobond may be worth
more than 30 percent of that region's annual budget
revenues. LB

RUSSIA'S DEMOCRATIC CHOICE PLANS FOR DUMA ELECTIONS...
Russia's Democratic Choice (DVR) leader Yegor Gaidar on 13
June called for creating a broad "center-right coalition"
for the December 1999 parliamentary elections, Interfax
reported. In a speech to a special party congress in Moscow,
Gaidar admitted that the DVR has "a very low level of
electoral support" and said it would be "unrealistic" for
the party to claim a "dominant role" in a coalition. (In
December 1995, the electoral bloc headed by the DVR gained
less than four percent of the vote.) Instead, Gaidar called
for aligning the DVR with "the most influential and the
strongest non-communist and non-fascist organizations in the
regions." In some areas, such as Saratov and Novgorod
Oblasts, alliances with governors may be possible, Gaidar
said. In other regions, the DVR may work with business
groups in order to recruit strong candidates for Duma seats.
LB

...AS GAIDAR REFRAINS FROM BACKING GOVERNMENT. Many Russian
commentators and some political opponents of the government
have compared Prime Minister Kirienko's cabinet to the
government of 1992, when Gaidar was acting prime minister.
However, Gaidar told delegates to the DVR congress that it
is too early for the party to declare its support for the
new cabinet, Russian news agencies reported on 13 June. He
argued that "the government has announced a worthy
[economic] program, but it still has to do a great deal of
work to convince society, investors, and markets that it is
able to implement this program." LB

TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

GEORGIAN PRESIDENT CALLS FOR EMERGENCY CIS SUMMIT. Eduard
Shevardnadze has written to CIS President Boris Yeltsin
demanding that an emergency CIS summit be convened, an
RFE/RL correspondent in Tbilisi reported on 15 June.
Shevardnadze wants the summit to consider the repatriation
of the Georgian fugitives to Abkhazia's Gali Raion. LF

ABKHAZIA ACCUSES GEORGIA OF SHOOTING HOSTAGES. The Abkhaz
Foreign Ministry has accused Georgian authorities of
shooting three Abkhaz civilian hostages after last month's
fighting in Gali Raion ended, ITAR-TASS reported. The12 June
statement condemned the failure of international human
rights organizations to protect Abkhazia's civilian
population. The Georgian parliament's ad hoc commission on
Abkhazia has sent a letter to the UN protesting the alleged
"passivity" of the unarmed UN observers in western Georgia
and calling on the UN, the OSCE and the international
community to expedite the repatriation of Georgians forced
to flee Abkhazia during the fighting. Addressing a council
on foreign investment on 14 June, Georgian President Eduard
Shevardnadze said that if the Georgian fugitives are allowed
to return to Abkhazia, the $5 million donated by the U.S.
government will be spent on rebuilding Georgian homes
destroyed in the fighting. LF

KARABAKH PRESIDENT NAMES NEW PRIME MINISTER. Arkadii
Ghukasian told a news conference in Stepanakert on 13 June
that the leadership of the unrecognized Nagorno-Karabakh
Republic has decided to appoint Deputy Premier Zhirair
Poghosian as prime minister, RFE/RL's Stepanakert
correspondent reported. Ghukasian denied there are
animosities within the Karabakh leadership, although he
admitted that its members disagreed over social and economic
policy. Five days earlier, Ghukasian had finally accepted
the resignation of Premier Leonard Petrosian, whom the
parliament had criticized for his failure to implement
economic reform. Ghukasian said that Karabakh Defense
Minister Samvel Babayan, one of Petrosian's harshest
critics, declined the offered premiership, arguing that the
enclave's army needs him more. A 56-year-old electro-
mechanical engineer, Poghosian has been deputy prime
minister since 1992, according to ITAR-TASS. LF

FRANCE DENIES PLANS TO SHIP NUCLEAR WASTE TO ARMENIA. The
French embassy in Yerevan issued a statement on 12 June
denying claims by Armenian ecological activists that the
French and Armenian governments have concluded a secret deal
on storing French nuclear waste in Armenia, RFE/RL's Yerevan
bureau reported. Three days earlier, the Union of Greens
chairman Hakob Sanasarian said that the Armenian government
has agreed to store the waste at a special facility under
construction at the Medzamor nuclear power station in return
for French assistance in reactivating the facility in 1995
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 11 June 1998). The statement said
France is helping Armenia to build a storage facility at
Medzamor "in strict compliance with the norms set by the
International Atomic Energy Agency." LF

UN CONDEMNS DETENTION OF OBSERVERS IN TAJIKISTAN. The UN
observer mission in Tajikistan issued a statement on 13 June
deploring an incident two days earlier in which two of its
members were intercepted, beaten, and robbed, ITAR-TASS
reported. The two observers and their interpreter were taken
from their vehicle at gun point in a region controlled by
opposition forces. They were roughed up and threatened with
execution before finally being released. Opposition
commanders denied any involvement in the attack, which they
suggested may have been the work of criminals seeking to
discredit the opposition. LF

TAJIK OPPOSITION LEADER RESUBMITS MINISTERIAL NOMINEES.
United Tajik Opposition leader Said Abdullo Nuri has written
to President Emomali Rakhmonov asking him to expedite the
appointment of opposition representatives to the new
coalition government, ITAR-TASS reported on 13 June. Nuri
noted that under the 1997 peace agreement, the opposition is
entitled to 30 percent of government posts. Six opposition
representatives have already been named to the new cabinet,
but a decision on another eight is still pending. Those
nominees include Islamic Revival Party leader Mukhammed
Sharif Khimmatzod as deputy premier and opposition forces
commander Mirzo Ziyeev as defense minister. LF

KYRGYZ PARLIAMENT DEBATES BARSKOON CYANIDE SPILL... The
Kyrgyz parliament on 13 June voted to create an
international commission to monitor the aftermath of the 20
May spill of 20 tons of sodium cyanide into the Barskoon
river, which flows into Lake Issyk-Kul. The previous day,
deputies rejected the testimony of cabinet ministers who
claimed that the cleanup of contaminated soil and water at
the site of the accident has been completed, RFE/RL's
Bishkek bureau reported. The deputies demanded the
resignation of Ecology Minister Kulubek Bokonbaev and
President of the State Gold Company Dastan Sarygulov. They
also voted to revise the agreement between the Kyrgyz
government and Canada's CAMECO corporation, one of whose
lorries was involved in the accident, and to request that
the Canadian government pressure CAMECO to pay compensation,
estimated at $1 million. Four people have died of cyanide
poisoning and 790 are still hospitalized. LF

...WHILE PRESIDENT WARNS AGAINST "POLITICAL GAMES."
President Askar Akaev, who visited the Barskoon region on 12
June, has warned against politicizing the disaster, RFE/RL's
Bishkek bureau reported. Akaev's press secretary Kanybek
Imanaliev issued a statement the next day accusing the
parliament of playing "political games," which he warned
could destabilize the domestic political situation and thus
deter potential foreign investors. LF

TWO DRUG DEALERS SENTENCED TO DEATH IN UZBEKISTAN. Two
Kazakh citizens who smuggled 40 kilos of opium from
Tajikistan to Uzbekistan have been sentenced to death by the
Tashkent regional court, Supreme Court chairman Sabir
Kadyrov told Interfax on 12 June. In a separate development,
the Uzbek authorities have publicly burned 7.5 tons of
confiscated narcotics with an estimated market value of $80
million. LF

END NOTE

LINKING FREUD, TSAR NICHOLAS, NIETZSCHE, AND TROTSKY

by Charles Fenyvesi

	The turn of the century was the last era in which
Europe was one--though not free. That period was followed by
a dark age in which it was neither one nor free. As Europe
is now becoming one as well as free, writers are
rediscovering long-lost ties linking European centers of
thought.
	One such writer is Aleksandr Etkind, a 42-year-old
professor of humanities at the European University of St.
Petersburg, founded two years ago. Etkind has been writing
what the Russians call "cultural bestsellers" on
intellectual connections between the Russian empire, on the
one hand, and the Austrian and German empires, on the other.
His focus is the period from the late19th century to the
1930s.
	 Etkind argues that Sigmund Freud's invention of
psychoanalysis created a busy trade of ideas between Vienna
and St. Petersburg. And he suggests that the second most
influential thinker was Friedrich Nietzsche, whose prophecy
of the "superman" spurred a generation of Russian
revolutionaries.
	Etkind spoke recently in Washington, a city fascinated
with empires new and old, as well as with Freud, whose
influence remains strong among psychiatrists on the East
Coast of the U.S. The Austrian embassy provided Etkind with
the forum. His audience was dominated by scholars of Russian
culture and practitioners of psychoanalysis--two sizable
communities that seldom get together otherwise.
 	In his lecture, Etkind described what he called the
morbid affinities between the Romanov and Habsburg empires.
Both imperial families were troubled, neurotic, and
dysfunctional. Both Nicholas and Franz Josef suffered from
psychological problems and lived unhappy personal lives. In
both empires, psychoanalysis brought to the surface archaic
and demonic elements from the unconscious. Nevertheless, the
governing elite in both repressed all thoughts of an
imminent decline, ruling out the fall of the monarchy.
	In a letter to a friend, Freud mused about what he
would do if asked to treat Nicholas, but Etkind has found no
evidence that Nicholas ever considered making himself
comfortable on Freud's couch. As far as is known, Freud did
not muse about treating his own emperor, Franz Josef.
	Freud's inventions of the id and the unconscious
fascinated Russian intellectuals and revolutionaries,
including the early Bolsheviks, Etkind argued. Similarly,
Nietzsche's call for the superman beyond good and evil
prompted powerful echoes among the same people yearning for
freedom from tsarist oppression.
	Etkind said that at one point, Commissar Leon Trotsky
even supported the psychoanalytical movement with government
funds. Combining the ideas of Freud and Nietzsche, Trotsky
argued that the Soviet regime should apply psychoanalysis in
"cleaning up the mess" in the unconscious of the emerging
new Soviet superman. Thus purged, the Soviet superman would
be better able to rebuild society.
	According to Etkind's analysis, Trotsky "shed rivers
of blood in order to get rid of the power of human
instincts." But, Etkind notes, Russia rejected Trotsky's
proposed treatment, choosing Stalin, who encouraged "faith
and the cult of his personality" and brought death to
millions.

The author is a member of RFE/RL's Communications Division.

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