|The greatest happiness is to know the source of unhappiness. - Dostoevsky|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 112 Part II, 12 June 1998
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 2, No. 112 Part II, 12 June 1998 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * AMBASSADORS TO BELARUS DELIVER LETTER OF PROTEST OVER EVICTION * NATO TO DISPLAY AIR POWER NEAR KOSOVA * YELTSIN INVITES MILOSEVIC TO MOSCOW End Note: HOW NOT TO FIGHT AN ANCIENT EVIL xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE AMBASSADORS TO BELARUS DELIVER LETTER OF PROTEST OVER EVICTION. Diplomats from 14 countries who face eviction from their residences at the Drazdy compound, near Minsk, have delivered a formal letter of protest to the Belarusian Foreign Ministry. The action was prompted by President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's statement that he has postponed the eviction but not canceled it (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 11 June 1998). The U.S. Embassy press service denied Lukashenka's claim that U.S. Ambassador to Belarus Daniel Speckhard asked for a postponement, RFE/RL's Belarusian Service reported. It stressed that Speckhard has no intention of leaving his residence. Meanwhile, ITAR-TASS reported that the ambassadors of Bulgaria, Kyrgyzstan, Ukraine, and Yugoslavia have already left the compound. Russia, which has bought its residence at Drazdy, has been promised by Lukashenka that its ambassador will be allowed return after planned repairs of utility systems have been carried out. JM MORE THAN 1,000 MINERS END PROTEST MARCH. More than 1,000 coal miners from Pavlovhrad in Dnipropetrovsk Oblast have ended a 600 kilometer protest march to Kyiv over unpaid wages. They are picketing the Supreme Council, the Cabinet of Ministers, and the Presidential Administration offices, Ukrainian Television reported on 11 June. The protesting miners say they will not leave Kyiv until all the wage arrears have been paid into their bank accounts. Kyiv residents are showing solidarity with the miners, providing them with food and medicine. Prime Minister Valeriy Pustovoytenko said on 11 June that beginning this month, wages in the coal mining sector will be paid in full. JM UKRAINE REPORTS FIRST GDP GROWTH SINCE 1989. Anatoliy Halchynskyy, President Leonid Kuchma's adviser for macro- economic issues, has said GDP grew by 0.1 percent during the first five months of this year, Ukrainian Radio reported. The State Statistics Committee said this is the first time since 1989 that GDP has increased. According to Halchynskyy, Ukraine is now experiencing "unstable economic balance." He believes that 1998 will be a year of economic stabilization for the country. JM ESTONIA'S HANSAPANK, HOIUPANK SIGN MERGER AGREEMENT. Hansapank and Hoiupank on 11 June signed a merger agreement that will create the largest financial institution in the Baltic States, ETA and BNS reported. Hansapank will have a 65 percent majority stake in the new entity, which will also carry its name and whose assets will exceed 25 billion kroons ($1.8 billion). The agreement still has to be approved by the banks' shareholders, who are due to meet on 12 July. JC LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT FOUNDS CITIZENSHIP LAW COMMISSION. Valdas Adamkus has issued a decree establishing a commission to examine the provisions of the citizenship law and oversee its implementation, BNS reported on 11 June. The president also instructed the commission to draft amendments to the law if such are deemed necessary. The commission will be headed by presidential adviser Armanas Abramavicius and include officials from the President's Chancellery and various ministries. JC KOHL SUPPORTS POLAND'S WESTERN INTEGRATION. Polish Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek and German Chancellor Helmut Kohl opened an international youth center in the village of Krzyzowa, in southwestern Poland, on 11 June. The center, whose construction was financed by the German government, is located on the former estate of a German count who staged an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler. Kohl pledged Germany's support to Poland in its drive "to enter the EU as swiftly as possible." "Our aim is for Poland, together with the Czech Republic and Hungary, to join NATO in spring 1998," Reuters quoted the German chancellor as saying. JM POLISH PRIMATE CENSURES 'EROTIC FREEDOM,' 'LUST FOR MONEY.' Addressing a 20,000-strong crowd in Warsaw on Corpus Christi Day, Polish Primate Jozef Glemp sharply criticized the moral and socio-economic situation in the country, "Gazeta Wyborcza" reported on 12 June. "Poland is trying to catch up with Western Europe and in some spheres has even outpaced it: erotic freedom is greater, pornography is available everywhere," he said. Glemp added that Poland is witnessing the "modern-day exploitation of man," where the "soulless lust for money" pushes aside a "sense of honor and national values." He also reproached the trade unions, saying that "some time ago they defended workers while now they are supporting their parties." JM CZECH DEFENSE MINISTER URGES 'SHOW OF STRENGTH' IN KOSOVA CRISIS. Michal Lobkowicz, speaking at the NATO meeting of defense ministers in Brussels on 11 June, said that "without a credible show of force, it is unlikely to find a political solution" to the Kosova crisis, CTK reported. He added that it is "premature" to suggest what the Czech contribution to a military intervention might be. But he added that it would be unlikely to have "enormous dimensions," as the Czech forces are "already stretched to a maximum in Bosnia." MS HUNGARY'S FIDESZ, SMALLHOLDERS AGREE ON COALITION PRINCIPLES. Federation of Young Democrats-Hungarian Civic Party (FIDESZ-MPP) chairman Viktor Orban and Independent Smallholders' Party (FKGP) leader Jozsef Torgyan have reached an agreement on coalition issues that proved problematic until now, Hungarian media reported on 11 June. The "secret" meeting between the two party chairmen took place in Torgyan's summer house outside Budapest. According to FKGP sources, Orban will submit the lineup of his coalition cabinet to the parliament on 18 June. The FKGP reportedly will have the agriculture and defense portfolios. Torgyan is likely to take over the former and FKGP deputy chairman Zsolt Lanyi the latter. MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE NATO TO DISPLAY AIR POWER NEAR KOSOVA. NATO defense ministers agreed in Brussels on 11 June that the alliance will hold air exercises in Albania and Macedonia designed to show Belgrade their resolve in ending the violence in Kosova, Reuters reported. NATO said the military exercises could be held as early as next week. In its communique, the alliance condemned the use of "violence for political ends by either the authorities in Belgrade or Kosovar Albanian extremists." German Defense Minister Volker Ruehe said several other options were discussed at the meeting, including air strikes anywhere in Yugoslavia and the deployment of ground troops. He said "meaningful military measures" have to exist along with diplomatic efforts and that "the bloodshed" has to stop. Other measures discussed by the NATO ministers include creating a heavy weapon "exclusion zone" in Kosova, a no-fly zone, and the destruction of Yugoslav air defenses. In Belgrade, Serbian Deputy Prime Minister Vojislav Seselj, an ultra-nationalist, said Serbia will defend Kosova with all means at its disposal. PB COHEN SAYS SECURITY COUNCIL'S BLESSING NOT REQUIRED. U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen said after the NATO defense ministers meeting in Brussels that UN Security Council authorization to use force in stopping the violence in Kosova is "desirable" but not required, Reuters reported. Cohen said "the U.S. does not feel it is imperative." He said that NATO military intervention in Kosova would be justified if it were "collective defense in terms of the instability that could be created" by a continuation of the current situation. U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine Albright said Washington's goal is to create a cease-fire that would allow the two sides to resume talks. PB YELTSIN INVITES MILOSEVIC TO MOSCOW. Russian President Boris Yeltsin has invited Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to visit Moscow on 15-16 June to discuss the Kosova crisis, Russian agencies reported on 11 June. Meanwhile, Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Vladimir Rakhmanin outlined Moscow's position on Kosova. He said Moscow would only agree to the use of force there with the approval of the UN Security Council, where Russia has a veto. Russia could foresee NATO troops being used only for monitoring Kosova's borders with Albania and Macedonia. And while Moscow will not oppose the expansion of autonomy for Kosova, it would be against "tearing Kosova from Serbia or, especially, Yugoslavia." Russian Defense Minister Igor Sergeev is to be consulted in Brussels on 12 June about the NATO defense ministers meeting. PG BLAIR REASSURES RUGOVA IN LONDON. British Prime Minister Tony Blair told Kosova shadow state President Ibrahim Rugova on 11 June that Britain will try to gain the approval of the UN Security Council for the use of force to stop the violence in Kosova, Reuters reported. Rugova, who also met with British Foreign Secretary Robin Cook, thanked Blair for his support and said the meeting was important for the ethnic Albanians in Kosova. "We urged urgent action," Rugova said. "There is a great danger that a massive ethnic cleansing will take place." Rugova is due to arrive in Paris on 12 June for a meeting with French President Jacques Chirac. PB BERISHA WANTS NATO, UCK TO COORDINATE ACTIVITIES. Former Albanian President Sali Berisha has proposed that NATO coordinate any intervention in Kosova with the Kosova Liberation Army (UCK)," "Gazeta Shqiptare" reported on 12 June. He added that "both sides have the same aim, to stop ethnic cleansing." Berisha recently praised the UCK publicly. "Koha Jone" reported on 12 June that Berisha's relatives in the northern village of Vucitol, near Tropoje, have turned their house and land into a base for UCK fighters. FS WESTENDORP SEES MODERATION IN SOME BOSNIAN-SERB AREAS... Carlos Westendorp, the international community's high representative in Bosnia-Herzegovina, said on 11 June that there have been "encouraging signs" of political moderation in parts of eastern Republika Srpska, Reuters reported. Westendorp spoke at the opening of a health clinic in Rogatica, near Serbia. He said that support for the current moderate government in Republika Srpska will be rewarded with increased aid. "Your people cannot live just on nationalism," he told them. "They need security, they need jobs." PB ...BUT UN SECRETARY-GENERAL SAYS INCREASED VIOLENCE AGAINST REFUGEES. Kofi Annan said in New York on 11 June that refugees and displaced persons returning to their pre-war homes in Bosnia-Herzegovina are experiencing increased violence, dpa reported. Annan said in a report to the UN Security Council that the number of violent events has increased dramatically in the last three months. Annan asked the council to extend the mandate of the 2,000-strong international police force in Bosnia. He said that local police forces in Croatian areas of Bosnia and in the Republika Srpska are opposing the integration of the forces with minority officers. In Brussels, NATO defense ministers agreed to extend the mandate of the 30,000-troop strong Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia. PB GERMANY APPROVES SAKIC'S TRANSIT TO CROATIA. The Croatian Justice Ministry said on 11 June that Bonn has granted Croatia permission for concentration camp commander Dinko Sakic to change planes in Germany on his way to Zagreb where he is to stand trial on war crimes, Reuters reported. Sakic denies any wrongdoing during his term as head of the Jasenovac camp in Croatia, where several tens of thousand of people died during World War II. Croatia has until the end of June to extradite Sakic from Argentina. In other news, the Croatian government closed all schools a week before the beginning of the summer vacation to avoid a strike threatened by teachers over pay raises. Education Minister Bozidar Pugelnik said the closure would end "this circus" of failed negotiations between teachers' unions and his ministry. PB ALBANIAN POLITICIAN DENIES MAFIA LINKS. Ritvan Peshkepia, a former legislator of the Democratic Alliance Party, told "Gazeta Shqiptare" on 12 June that he is not involved in any criminal activities. The daily wrote the previous day that Italian police are looking for Peshkepia on arms smuggling charges. Peshkepia said someone stole his diplomatic passport in 1991 and that he suspects someone has since used the document to pass himself off as Peshkepia. He added that he has contacted the Italian embassy and Albanian Prosecutor-General Arben Rakipi to clarify the matter. FS ROMANIAN EDUCATION MINISTER OPPOSED TO HUNGARIAN UNIVERSITY. Andrei Marga on 11 June told journalists that ethnic Hungarians face "no restrictions" in studying in their own language at universities and that setting up a separate state-financed Hungarian-language university is above all a "symbolic" demand. He said it is "deplorable" that university education in Cluj has been turned into an "ethnicized issue." Marga stressed that he continues to support a "multi-cultural approach" such as exists at the Babes-Bolyai University in Cluj. That approach, he explained, allows each ethnic community to preserve its identity without disrupting "inter-ethnic cultural communication." Marga said a separate university in Transylvania could be the harbinger of movements that are "undesirable," an RFE/RL correspondent reported. In a separate statement, the Education Ministry said solutions providing for "ethnic assimilation or ethnic separation" are "equally counter-productive." MS MOLDOVAN COALITION STALEMATE CONTINUES. Premier Ion Ciubuc and the leaders of the Democratic Convention of Moldova (CDM) and the Party of Democratic Forces (PDF) have failed to reach an agreement on the distribution of deputy cabinet ministers posts, RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported on 11 June. CDM co-chairman Mircea Snegur said after the meeting that the "warning" issued recently by the CDM and the PDF "remains in force" (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 June 1998). MS WORLD BANK OFFICIAL 'SATISFIED' WITH MOLDOVAN VISIT. Robert Grawe, World Bank regional director for Moldova, said in Chisinau at the end of a three-day visit that he was "very satisfied" with his talks with Ciubuc and other Moldovan officials. He said the talks produced a "partnership accord" on financing several projects in Moldova. However, the two sides did not discuss the frozen tranche of a World Bank loan. Discussions on that issue will take place in September depending on how the Moldovan economy performs, RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported. MS END NOTE HOW NOT TO FIGHT AN ANCIENT EVIL by Paul Goble Many governments and political leaders in the post- communist states are responding to manifestations of anti- Semitism and ethnic extremism in ways that seem certain to make these problems worse. Some mainstream leaders deny that any problem exists or claim that it is so marginal that it need not be addressed. Others assume that banning the symbols of such extremist groups will be sufficient to deal with these phenomenon. Still others appear to believe that the best way to deal with such groups is to adopt part of the extremists' program in order to undercut the extremists. The history of Western Europe suggests that none of these strategies will work. Even more, it indicates that democratic leaders must take an active role in fighting such phenomena to prevent the latter from expanding and threatening democracy itself. Since the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, governments and mainstream political leaders across the region have routinely denounced anti-Semitism and ultra-nationalism. Sometimes leaders make these declarations under pressure from the West. Sometimes they do so out of a genuine commitment. Sometimes they speak from a recognition of just what these extremist movements might mean to the still fragile democratic systems in their countries. But a rising tide of anti-Semitic and ultra- nationalist activities across this region shows that these leaders have not yet found a way to implement these commitments. Not surprisingly, many governments and mainstream political leaders have dismissed incidents like the attacks earlier this year on the Moscow and Riga synagogues as the work of a few extremists who enjoy little support in the broader population. That is certainly what many in these countries and the West want to believe, but public opinion polls in these countries show that far more people continue to harbor anti-Semitic and extreme nationalist views. A recent poll in Russia, for example, found that approximately half the population could be described as anti-Semitic to one extent or another. If the authorities fail to bring those responsible for anti-Semitic or extreme nationalist actions to justice, many people are likely to conclude that the extremists enjoy even more support than they do. And such conclusions, in turn, will give these groups more influence, not less. Faced with that challenge, other leaders are considering taking actions that would ban the symbols of the extremists, such as the Nazi swastika. Such steps, these leaders believe, would be sufficient to keep the extremists at bay. However, as the experience of Western Europe shows, such bans may have an unintended effect. They may even give extremist groups the ability to win support among people who do not share their core views but who are angry at the government for other reasons. But the most dangerous pattern in the post-communist region now, however, is not that of denial--either by claiming the problem does not exist or outlawing hated symbols. Rather, it is the tendency of governments or political leaders to succumb to the temptation to exploit anti-Semitic or ultra nationalist rhetoric or actions to win support for themselves. Many times politicians do this without any apology. Thus, Russian communist leader Gennadii Zyuganov used openly anti-Semitic language in his effort to win votes in the last Russian presidential race. But often political leaders advance a different argument, one suggesting that they can only isolate the extremists and win support for themselves by adopting part of the extremists' programs. Unfortunately, all too many both in these countries and abroad appear willing to accept that argument, at least implicitly, thereby failing to see that it can open the door to even worse horrors. A tragic example of this is the decree issued in October 1993 by Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov and backed by President Boris Yeltsin calling for the expulsion from the Russian capital of "persons of Caucasian nationality." Seeking to exploit the hatred many Russians feel toward persons from the North Caucasus and Transcaucasus, Luzhkov and his backers apparently felt that they needed to take this step to build up their own support in the wake of the bloody conflict between Yeltsin and the old Supreme Soviet. But despite violating the Russian Constitution and despite its ominous echo of Stalin's decrees against Jews nearly 50 years ago, this decree is still on the books, nearly five years after the conflict that was used to justify it. And even if, as some like to suggest, Luzhkov's decree is at present not always enforced, its continued existence not only casts a shadow over Russian democracy but almost inevitably encourages other forms of ethnic extremism. That danger -- and it exists in many places across the region -- underscores why it is too soon to declare victory over these ancient evils and why it is absolutely necessary that everyone involved continue the fight. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx HOW TO SUBSCRIBE Send an email to email@example.com with the word "subscribe" as the subject or body of the message. HOW TO UNSUBSCRIBE Send an email to firstname.lastname@example.org with the word "unsubscribe" as the subject or body of the message. 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