|Три пути у человека, чтобы разумно поступать: первый, самый благородный, - размышление; второй, самый легкий, - подражание; третий, самый горький, - опыт. - Конфуций|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 36, Part I, 23 February 1998
___________________________________________________________ RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 36, Part I, 23 February 1998 A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx SEARCH RFE/RL NEWSLINE BY REGION Use the RFE/RL Web site's new search engine to limit your search to a regional section of RFE/RL Newsline, e.g. Russia or Southeastern Europe: http://www.rferl.org:8080/ xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part I * YELTSIN "SATISFIED" WITH UN-IRAQ AGREEMENT * DUMA REJECTS BUDGET IN FOURTH READING * ABDUCTORS RELEASE ONE UNOMIG HOSTAGE xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx RUSSIA YELTSIN 'SATISFIED' WITH UN-IRAQ AGREEMENT. President Boris Yeltsin has said he is satisfied with the agreement reached between UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan and Iraqi President Saddam Hussein, ITAR-TASS and AFP reported on 23 February. According to Yeltsin, an agreement was already close the previous day. Interfax quoted Yeltsin as saying "Hussein has given the word. The UN Security Council meets on Tuesday. Let us await the results." The Russian president also praised his country's diplomats for their efforts in resolving the crisis, noting "Russia has from the start been advocating a peaceful solution." BP RUSSIA, JAPAN FINALLY SIGN FISHING AGREEMENT. Following 13 rounds of discussions between Russian and Japanese representatives over nearly three years, visiting Foreign Minister Keidzo Obuchi and Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov signed a fishing agreement in Moscow on 21 February. Under that agreement, Japanese fishermen have the right to fish about 2,500 tons of fish and octopus annually in the waters around the Kuril Islands. In return Japan will pay $400,000 yearly and donate funds to develop Russia fisheries on islands in the western Pacific. BP OBUCHI, PRIMAKOV MEET... Russian Foreign Minister Yevgenii Primakov met with his Japanese counterpart, Obuchi, on 22 February to discuss a wide range of issues, ITAR-TASS and Kyodo reported. The two ministers agreed that peaceful means must be used to resolve the Iraqi crisis, and they discussed the situation on the Korean peninsula. Obuchi agreed to speed up the process for Russian businessmen to obtain a Japanese visa and promised to help Russia gain entry into the Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation group and the World Trade Organization. The two also agreed that a bilateral peace treaty formally ending World War Two would be signed by the year 2000 and that their deputy foreign ministers will meet in Tokyo next month to begin discussions on the treaty. BP ...EXCHANGE NECK-TIES. Following his meeting with President Boris Yeltsin on 23 February, Obuchi said Japan will provide $1.5 billion for construction of housing for the Russian military. Yeltsin announced he will meet with Japanese Prime Minister Ryutaro Hashimoto from 11-13 April in Kawana, Japan. In the spirit of the first informal meeting between the leaders of the two countries, which took place in November and was dubbed the "meeting without neckties" Yeltsin encouraged Foreign Minister Primakov to trade neck-ties with Obuchi. BP DUMA REJECTS BUDGET IN FOURTH READING. The State Duma on 20 February rejected the draft 1998 budget in the fourth reading. In two votes, only 191 and 187 deputies supported the document, short of the 226 needed for passage, Interfax reported. Earlier that day, the Duma had rejected by 282 to 64 the most important of the 12 government-backed amendments to the budget. Only the Yabloko faction supported that amendment, which would have made the allocation of 27.9 billion rubles ($4.6 billion) in spending conditional on receiving enough revenues to cover the expenditures (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 18 and 19 February 1998). The Duma is to consider the budget in the fourth reading again on 4 March. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin said he was disappointed by the Duma's vote but expressed hope that a "reasonable compromise" on the budget can be found. LB SELEZNEV BLAMES GOVERNMENT FOR BUDGET VOTE. Duma Speaker Gennadii Seleznev blamed the government for the Duma vote, charging that the government "finds it much easier" to work without a budget, Russian news agencies reported on 20 February. A government directive issued last December set monthly spending in 1998 at one-twelfth of total 1997 expenditures, pending the adoption of a budget. That spending level is significantly lower than that foreseen by the draft 1998 budget. Seleznev also noted that without a budget, the Duma is unable to monitor the government's allocation of funds and cannot request examinations of government spending by the Audit Chamber. Meanwhile, Duma Deputy Speaker Sergei Baburin on 20 February began collecting signatures for a vote of no confidence in the government. He is unlikely to be able to collect the 90 signatures needed to call such a vote unless Communist leaders decide to back his efforts. LB DUMA BANS TORTURE BUT NOT DEATH PENALTY... The Duma on 20 February voted by 348 to nine to ratify the European Convention for the Prevention of Torture, Interfax reported. Earlier that day, the Duma had ratified the European Convention on Human Rights (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 February 1998). However, deputies rejected ratification of a protocol on banning capital punishment. Abolishing the death penalty is a condition of membership in the Council of Europe, which Russia joined in February 1996. Hundreds of Russian prisoners remain on death row, although no executions have been carried out since August 1996. LB ...APPROVES LAW ON TERRITORIAL INTEGRITY. The Duma on 20 February passed a law "on ensuring the territorial integrity of the Russian Federation," which would prohibit the secession of any part of the federation, Russian news agencies reported. Territorial exchanges with neighboring foreign states could occur only if such an exchange were approved by the legislature of the Russian region containing that territory. The law would allow the president to deploy the armed forces immediately if a "non-international" armed conflict developed that threatened Russia's territorial integrity. The president would only have to report his action to both houses of the parliament. Article 102 of the constitution empowers the Federation Council to approve presidential decrees establishing martial law or a state of emergency. Yeltsin did not declare either in Chechnya and never sought the Council's approval for the deployment of troops there. LB OPPOSITION RALLY BEFORE RED ARMY DAY. Some 15,000 people attended a rally on Moscow's Lubyanka Square on 22 February marking the 80th anniversary of the creation of the Red Army, ITAR-TASS reported. Defenders of the Fatherland Day (formerly Red Army Day) is celebrated on 23 February. Leaders of several communist groups attended the rally, along with members of the Communist, Agrarian, and Popular Power Duma factions. Duma Defense Committee Chairman Lev Rokhlin, the leader of the Movement to Support the Army, predicted that the opposition will take to the streets in April or May to "force the regime to resign," Interfax reported. Communist Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov called for holding a nationwide protest on 9 April. He also charged that there are few ethnic Russians in the government and presidential administration. Zyuganov recently called for policies to revive the (ethnic) Russian people (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 16 February 1998). LB ANOTHER SUSPECT ARRESTED IN KHOLODOV CASE. The Prosecutor-General's Office on 19 February arrested Vladimir Morozov, a major in the Airborne Troops, in connection with the October 1994 murder of journalist Dmitrii Kholodov, "Kommersant-Daily reported on 21 February. Morozov is a former subordinate of Pavel Popovskikh, the first suspect to be arrested and charged in the Kholodov case (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 11 and 13 February 1998). On 20 February, Prosecutor-General Yurii Skuratov said former Defense Minister Pavel Grachev, who has already been questioned on the Kholodov murder, may again be interrogated on the matter, ITAR-TASS reported. LB CHECHEN FIELD COMMANDERS BACK RADUEV. A congress of some 10,000 Chechen freedom fighters in Grozny on 21 February unexpectedly evolved into a massive demonstration of support for maverick field commander Salman Raduev, ITAR-TASS reported. The congress was convened by acting Prime Minister Shamil Basaev with the express aim of condemning Raduev's claims of responsibility for the failed 9 February attempt to assassinate Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze. Basaev and Chechen President Aslan Maskhadov had argued that those claims, which Raduev has since retracted, constitute "anti-state activity." Raduev told journalists on 22 February that he has resolved his differences with Chechen leaders and will work with them "as a united team to strengthen our state and construct an Islamic republic." LF ANOTHER GOVERNOR CALLS FOR LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION. Saratov Oblast Governor Dmitrii Ayatskov has become the second regional leader to advocate legalizing prostitution in order to combat the spread of AIDS. Ayatskov told Interfax on 21 February that the Saratov legislature is drafting a bill that would allow registered brothels. Prostitutes would have to undergo regular medical examinations, and customers would have to practice "safe sex," he said. According to Ayatskov, such a law would also increase the oblast's revenues, since prostitutes would pay taxes "to the regional budget rather than to pimps." Kaliningrad Oblast Governor Leonid Gorbenko has advanced a similar proposal, but some analysts say federal crime legislation would have to be changed before regions could legalize prostitution (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 17 September 1997). LB GOVERNOR WANTS FULL-TIME DEPUTIES IN UPPER HOUSE. Leningrad Oblast Governor Vadim Gustov argued in an interview with "Rossiiskaya gazeta" on 20 February that the law on forming the Federation Council should be changed. Under current legislation, the top executive and top legislative officials from each region become deputies in the Council "ex officio." They work in the upper house of the federal parliament only two or three days each month. Gustov argued that the system impedes the Council's legislative work. He advocated making half the Council members full-time deputies chosen specially for that job in regional legislative elections. But Gustov supported retaining the right of leaders of republics and governors of oblasts, krais, and okrugs to become Council deputies automatically. LB HEALTH EXPERTS SOUND ALARM ON TUBERCULOSIS. Representatives of international medical organizations warned on 18 February that shortages of medicine and improper use of antibiotics are facilitating the spread of tuberculosis in Russia, especially the drug-resistant form of the disease, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. New York-based doctor Alexander Goldfarb told journalists that medical workers and patients often do not understand that antibiotics must be taken daily for several months, even after symptoms have disappeared. Goldfarb added that 20 percent of Russian prison inmates are believed to have drug-resistant tuberculosis. Some 22,000 Russian citizens died of tuberculosis last year, and another 2.2 million are estimated to have the disease, "Rossiiskaya gazeta" reported on 13 February. The government recently approved an anti-tuberculosis program calling for 17.5 billion rubles ($2.9 billion) in spending from 1998 through 2004. LB REGIONAL AFFAIRS RUSSIAN, UKRAINIAN PREMIERS INITIAL ECONOMIC PROGRAM. Viktor Chernomyrdin and Valery Pustovoytenko, meeting in Kyiv on 20 February, initialed a 10-year economic cooperation program, AFP reported. Chernomyrdin, who was in the Ukrainian capital to prepare for President Leonid Kuchma's trip to Moscow, said the program "deals with all main aspects of economic relations between our two countries." The agreement is to be signed by Kuchma and his Russian counterpart, Boris Yeltsin. Chernomyrdin said the program will more than double bilateral trade in the next decade. Last year, the volume of trade between the two countries was some $15.3 billion. Chernomyrdin also extended a $180 million technical credit to Ukraine toward the construction of two new nuclear reactors needed to enable Kyiv to permanently close Chornobyl, the "Eastern Economist" reported on 21 February. PB YELTSIN HAILS IMPROVEMENT IN RELATIONS WITH UKRAINE. Russian President Yeltsin announced on 20 February that Russia and Ukraine left behind "the most difficult phase" in their relations last May, when the two countries signed a wide-ranging friendship treaty and an agreement on dividing the Black Sea Fleet, Russian news agencies reported. He added that Moscow has since made some concessions to Kyiv, such as the bilateral agreement not to charge value-added tax on each other's imports. But Yeltsin said such concessions were worth making in order to protect the "friendship" between the two countries. He attributed the progress in bilateral relations to more frequent meetings and telephone conversations between himself and President Kuchma. Kuchma paid an informal visit to Moscow in late January and is to make a state visit to Russia on 26-27 February. LB LUZHKOV WANTS RUSSIAN JURISDICTION OVER SEVASTOPOL. Moscow Mayor Yurii Luzhkov promised on 21 February to demand "that Sevastopol be placed under Russia's jurisdiction again," Interfax reported. Addressing a group of Sevastopol residents and Black Sea Fleet sailors, he again denounced the "forced Ukrainianization" of ethnic Russians and warned that "relations between Ukraine and Russia will never be transparent or sincerely fraternal if injustice continues with regard to Sevastopol and Crimea." Luzhkov came to Sevastopol for the opening of a new apartment block for families of Black Sea Fleet sailors, which was funded by the Moscow city government. Russia renounced all territorial claims on Ukraine in a treaty signed last May, but Russia has not yet ratified that treaty. LB TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA ABDUCTORS RELEASE ONE UNOMIG HOSTAGE. The 20 armed supporters of former Georgian President Zviad Gamasakhurdia who have been holding four UN military observers and six Georgians hostage in the west Georgian village of Djikhaskari since 19 February released two of the Georgians on 21 February and an Uruguayan captain the following day. But the kidnappers are now demanding that the Georgian Interior Ministry forces surrounding the village be withdrawn and that the Georgian authorities cease hounding Gamsakhurdia's followers. They also want talks between Georgian President Eduard Shevardnadze and members of Gamsakhurdia's government. Shevardnadze agreed to this last demand on 22 February. The previous day, following appeals by Czech President Vaclav Havel and Swedish Prime Minister Goeran Persson, Shevardnadze ruled out the use of force to secure the hostages' release. He agreed that UN representatives should join the Georgian security officials engaged in negotiating the hostages' release. LF KARABAKH ANNIVERSARY CELEBRATIONS. Speaking on Armenian television on 19 February, one day before the 10th anniversary of the Nagorno-Karabakh Oblast Soviet's appeal to the Soviet leadership to transfer the oblast to Armenia's jurisdiction, Armenian Prime Minister and acting President Robert Kocharyan criticized the Karabakh policy of former President Levon Ter-Petrossyan as counter-productive. Karabakh Prime Minister Leonid Petrossyan said on 19 February that Baku and the international community should recognize that the Karabakh Armenians' determination to build an independent state is unshakable. Former Russian Security Council secretary Aleksandr Lebed said in Stepanakert on 20 February that the ongoing Karabakh mediation effort by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe is "moving in the wrong direction," according to Interfax. Also on 20 February, the Azerbaijani parliament condemned the visit to Karabakh by Lebed and some 30 other Russian State Duma deputies as "open support for separatism" and an "example of double standards," Turan reported. LF CRIMINAL CHARGES FILED AGAINST HASANOV. Former Azerbaijan Foreign Minister Hasan Hasanov has been charged with abuse of power and with forgery, Prosecutor-General Eldar Hasanov (who is not related to Hasan) announced on 20 February. Those charges could carry a prison sentence of up to eight years, Interfax reported. Hasan Hasanov was fired on 16 February for misappropriating Turkish credits to finance construction of a luxury hotel and casino complex. He is also implicated in drug-trafficking, according to Turan on 21 February. LF IRAN DENIES ENDORSING CASPIAN AGREEMENT. The Iranian Embassy in Moscow has denied Turkmen Foreign Minister Boris Shikhmuradov's claim that President Mohammed Khatami wrote to his Turkmen counterpart, Saparmurat Niyazov, earlier this month approving the Turkmen-Azerbaijani agreement on delineating those countries' sectors of the Caspian, Interfax reported on 21 February. In an official press release, the embassy affirmed that Tehran continues to insist that all matters related to the Caspian should be resolved jointly by the littoral states. On the eve of a trip to Moscow, Iranian Foreign Minister Kamal Kharazi told "al Hayat" on 21 February that Iranian-Russian cooperation is in the interests of both countries and is not directed against the U.S., ITAR-TASS reported. LF CHANGES IN KAZAKHSTAN'S TOP ECONOMIC POSTS. President Nursultan Nazarbayev has signed a decree dismissing Aleksandr Pavlov as finance minister and replacing him with his deputy, Sauat Mynbayev, ITAR-TASS and AFP reported on 20-22 February. National Bank Chairman Uraz Jandosov has been appointed first deputy prime minister and chairman of the State Investment Committee. He is replaced by his deputy, Kadyrjon Damitov, who is also adviser to the prime minister. Akhmetzhan Yesimov, until now first deputy prime minister, is to take over as head of the presidential administration. BP TROUBLES IN SOUTHERN UZBEKISTAN. Uzbekistan's southwestern Surkhandarya Oblast was the scene of a shooting and a major narcotics bust last week, ITAR-TASS reported. Uzbek authorities revealed on 22 February that five days earlier, a dispute had broken out between Uzbek border guards over food rations. One of the guards shot dead eight of his colleagues before being disarmed. Meanwhile on 21 February, customs guards seized 444 kilograms of various narcotics from two citizens of Kazakhstan. BP KYRGYZ ORGANIZATION ENDORSES AKAYEV FOR THIRD TERM. The Assembly of the Peoples of Kyrgyzstan on 20 February endorsed President Askar Akayev as a candidate for the 2000 presidential elections, RFE/RL correspondents in Bishkek reported. "Slovo Kyrgyzstana" the same day carried an article by the group's chairman, Sopubek Begaliev, calling on Akayev to run again. But under the Kyrgyz Constitution, a president may serve only two terms in office. Akayev was elected president of the Kirghiz SSR in October 1990. He was elected president of Kyrgyzstan in October 1991 and again in December 1995. BP xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1998 RFE/RL, Inc. 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