Much unhappiness has come into the world because of bewilderment and things left unsaid. - Dostoevsky
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 27, Part II, 10 February 1998


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 27, Part II, 10 February 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia,
the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free
Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe.  Part I covers Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a
second document.  Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest
are online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

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FIVE NEW LANGUAGES ADDED TO REAL AUDIO SCHEDULE
Listen to one hour of news in Bulgarian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian and
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Headlines, Part II

* BELARUS DENIES HAVING WEAPONS-GRADE URANIUM

* POLISH TRADERS PROTEST TIGHTER VISA REGULATIONS

* MACEDONIAN ALBANIANS WANT DIALOGUE ON KOSOVO

* End Note: ROMANIAN CRISIS ON HOLD

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EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

U.S. PRESSURES UKRAINE OVER TURBINE SALE TO IRAN. The U.S. State Department
said it has made clear its "strong desire" that Ukraine not provide
turbines for an Iranian nuclear station, an RFE/RL correspondent in
Washington reported on 9 February. Russia, despite Washington's objections,
is helping Iran build a nuclear power station in the central city of
Bushehr. The turbines needed to power the station are slated to be
purchased from Ukraine. State Department spokesman James Foley said the
U.S. would like to continue its many cooperative efforts with Kyiv. He said
the U.S. could compensate Ukraine for losses it might sustain for scrapping
the deal, and said that it was not threatening Ukraine with a loss of aid
should it complete the deal. Ukraine received $225 million in aid from the
U.S. last year. PB

BELARUS DENIES HAVING WEAPONS-GRADE URANIUM. A Belarusian official says his
country has no weapons-grade uranium or plutonium, thereby contradicting a
Belarusian Television report the previous day, ITAR-TASS reported on 10
February. Alyaksandr Mikhalevich, the director of the Institute of Energy
Problems at the Belarus Academy of Sciences, said the country has 15 grams
of plutonium and 500 kilograms of enriched uranium for scientific purposes
but that they are not weapons-grade. Belarusian Television reported on 8
February that Minsk has two tons of weapons-grade material, which would
make Belarus a "nuclear-threshold" state, like India, Pakistan, and Israel.
PB

LATVIA'S RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE PRESS PROTESTS LABOR CODE CHANGES. Three
Russian-language newspapers in Latvia have strongly criticized an amendment
to the labor code whereby an employee can be fired for insufficient
knowledge of the Latvian language (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 9 February 1998),
BNS and Interfax reported. "Biznes & Baltija," "SM," and "Panorama Latvii"
urged President Guntis Ulmanis to veto the amendment. Ulmanis, for his
part, told "SM" that he will carefully examine the legislation, but at the
same time, he describe the reaction of the Russian-language press as
"excessively dramatic." Under the Latvian Constitution, the president can
return a bill to the parliament within seven days of its adoption. If
lawmakers decide not to alter the returned bill, the president has no
further recourse. JC

U.S. APPLAUDS VILNIUS DECISION TO PROSECUTE LILEIKIS. U.S. Attorney-General
Janet Reno on 9 February  welcomed what she called the Lithuania
prosecutor-general's "landmark" decision to bring charges against alleged
war criminal Aleksandras Lileikis (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 5 February 1998).
"It is vital that the nations of the world leave no stone unturned in
pursuing justice on behalf of the millions of victims of Nazi genocide,"
she commented. Lileikis, who was head of the Vilnius security police during
World War Two and is alleged to have ordered the deaths of scores of Jews,
was stripped of his U.S. citizenship in 1996 following charges brought by
the Justice Department's Office of Special Investigations. Also on 9
February, the Lithuanian Prosecutor-General's Office announced it has
submitted genocide charges against Lileikis to the Vilnius Regional Court.
JC

LITHUANIA'S PAULAUSKAS TO SET UP POLITICAL PARTY. Former presidential
candidate Arturas Paulauskas has announced his decision to set up a
center-left political party. Paulauskas told Interfax on 9 February that a
working group has  been instructed to draft the statutes of both a public
movement and a party. He added that the documents drafted for a founding
conference, scheduled to take place in mid-March, will be based on his
election program. In the second round of the presidential elections early
last month, President-elect Valdas Adamkus beat Paulauskas by a margin of
less than one percentage point. JC

POLISH TRADERS PROTEST TIGHTER VISA REGULATIONS. Thousands of small
business owners in Poland used cars to block a highway leading to Belarus
in protest at Warsaw's tighter visa restrictions on foreigners, Reuters
reported on 9 February. Protesters near Bialystok say regulations imposed
at the beginning of the year have reduced both the supply of goods at
outdoor markets and the number of customers from Belarus. The EU has
pressured Poland to increase security on its eastern borders, a move that
has angered Belarus and Russia. PB

CZECH OPPOSITION PARTY INVOLVED IN FINANCIAL SCANDAL. Following the
financial scandals involving the Civic Democratic Party and the Civic
Democratic Alliance (ODA), the Czech Social Democratic Party (CSSD) is
reported to have received some 10 million crowns (about $292,000) from the
Communist Party in 1990, "Respekt" said on 9 February. The weekly also
noted large discrepancies between the financial report submitted by the
CSSD leadership to the party's national conference in March 1996 and a
report presented to the Chamber of Deputies two weeks later. Miroslav
Grebenicek, the chairman of the Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia,
confirmed the 1990 payment. ODA Chairman Jiri Skalicky, meanwhile, said
that if party colleagues were to put pressure on him to reveal the names of
the 1995 donors, he would rather resign than do so, CTK reported (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 9 February 1998). MS

HUNGARIAN PREMIER DENIES ACCUSATIONS OVER DAM DECISION. In a 9 February
interview with Hungarian Television, Gyula Horn denied accusations that the
government is willing to make "obstinate and hasty decisions" over the
Nagymaros-Gabcikovo Danube hydropower project. Horn said that working out a
solution will take four years and that another fours years will be needed
to carry out the project in line with the International Court of Justice's
ruling. He also denied that the project would cost 600 billion forints ($3
billion), arguing that half of that sum would suffice. Meanwhile, Hungarian
media reported that Hungarian and Slovak negotiators, meeting in Budapest
on 9 February, failed to reach an agreement on the mutual  waiving of
compensation claims. MSZ

CENTRAL EUROPEAN FOREIGN MINISTERS ON IRAQI CRISIS.  Hungarian Foreign
Minister Laszlo Kovacs told journalists in Washington on 9 February that
Hungary advocates a political solution to the Iraqi crisis but is prepared
to support "the international coalition with all available means," as, he
stressed, it did before and during the Gulf  War. He confirmed that U.S.
requests for Hungarian support in logistics, transportation, and overflight
permission have been received from Washington, Hungarian media reported.
Czech Foreign Minister Jaroslav Sedivy said the Czech government will
discuss "appropriate support" for  a U.S. strike against Iraq but added
that no action has so far been decided, CTK reported. Kovacs, Sedivy, and
Polish Foreign Minister Bronislaw Geremek briefed U.S. Secretary of State
Madeleine Albright on their countries' preparations for joining  NATO. They
are in Washington to lobby for ratification by the U.S. Senate of their
countries' membership in the alliance. MS

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

MACEDONIAN ALBANIANS WANT DIALOGUE ON KOSOVO. The leaders of the two
largest ethnic Albanian political parties in Macedonia--the Party for
Democratic Prosperity and the Party of Democratic Prosperity of the
Albanians--have appealed to the international community to start a dialogue
between Belgrade and the Kosovar leadership, BETA news agency reported on 9
February. The party leaders warned that Kosovo could be sliding toward war
and that any conflict there would affect the stability of Macedonia. Last
month, President Kiro Gligorov said that Macedonia will create a corridor
through its territory in the event of war in Kosovo to enable ethnic
Albanian refugees to flee from there to Albania (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22
January 1998). PM

NO MOBILIZATION FOR KOSOVO? Nenad Canak, the president of the opposition
League of Vojvodina Social Democrats, said in Novi Sad on 9 February that
army officers have denied  his recent accusations that young reservists in
Vojvodina are being called up and sent to Kosovo (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 4
February 1998). Canak says the officers told him that the army does not
have the money to finance a mobilization, the Belgrade daily "Danas"
reported. But the newspaper added that "citizens [nonetheless] maintain
that they have received call-up orders." PM

DODIK INVITES HAGUE COURT TO BANJA LUKA. Bosnian Serb Prime Minister
Milorad Dodik said in Vienna on 9 February that his government will allow
the Hague-based war crimes tribunal to open an office in Banja Luka. But
Dodik noted that Bosnian Serb law prevents the extradition of war criminals
and that the disputed town of Brcko must be assigned to the Serbs or else
his  government will fall. He also stressed that "we are for the return of
all refugees to Brcko. We want to turn Brcko into a demilitarized
free-trade zone.... Our government is the only government that could
implement such a thing." The prime minister argued that his cabinet has
done more to implement the Dayton agreement than its predecessors did in
two years. Meanwhile, his Austrian counterpart, Wolfgang Schuessel, said
that Dodik is "working behind the scenes" to persuade indicted war
criminals to go to The Hague voluntarily. PM

PLAVSIC APPEALS FOR BRCKO. Republika Srpska President Biljana Plavsic said
in Paris on 9 February that Brcko must remain under Bosnian Serb control if
the international community expects Serbian cooperation in implementing the
Dayton accords, RFE/RL's South Slavic Service reported. Plavsic also said
that the Republika Srpska is no longer in danger of splitting "into an
eastern and western part because the Republika Srpska now has, for the past
month and a half, its own parliament..., a single police force across its
territory, and a single set of policies." A spokeswoman for President
Jacques Chirac said that "France, at a crucial moment in the peace process,
intends to strongly encourage those who play the card of moderation and
cooperation with the international community." PM

BOSNIAN RELIGIOUS LEADERS APPEAL TO EU. The heads of Bosnia's Islamic,
Jewish, Serbian Orthodox, and Roman Catholic communities asked European
Commissioner for Foreign Affairs Hans van den Broek in Brussels on 9
February for EU funding to reconstruct mosques, synagogues, and churches
destroyed or damaged in the 1992-1995 war. They made no specific requests
but said they will submit a plan soon. Van den Broek told his visitors that
the EU will provide them with assistance. The four Church leaders also
promised to promote religious tolerance and the return of refugees. PM

BOSNIAN SERBS PROTEST ARREST OF ACCUSED MURDERER. Some 700 Bosnian Serbs
blocked a road near the Sarajevo suburb of Lukavica to protest the arrest
of Goran Vasic by police from the mainly Muslim and Croatian federation
nearby on 6 February. Vasic is wanted in Sarajevo for allegedly killing
Bosnian Deputy Prime Minister Hakija Turajlic on 8 January 1993. A
spokesman for UN police said in Sarajevo on 9 February that the federal
police used unnecessary violence in arresting Vasic. Two days earlier,
Dodik criticized the arrest on the grounds that it would discourage other
non-Muslims from returning to Sarajevo. PM

SARAJEVO WANTS TO HOST WINTER OLYMPICS AGAIN. Midhat Haracic, the governor
of Sarajevo canton, told Reuters on 9 February that Sarajevo has launched a
campaign to host the 2010 Winter Olympics. Haracic added that he is "an
optimist about both the political and economic possibilities of holding the
Olympic games in Sarajevo." President of the International Olympic
Committee Juan Antonio Samaranch "strongly supports this initiative," the
governor stated. Sarajevo officials want to regain some of the positive
image their city won by hosting the 1984 games. The officials also hope
that hosting the Olympics would attract the necessary foreign investment to
rebuild the area's tourist infrastructure. PM

SLOVENIAN FOOD AID FOR BOSNIAN SERBS. Slovenian authorities said in
Ljubljana on 9 February that the Alpine republic has donated 49,562 liters
of vegetable oil and 14,009 cans of beans to the Republika Srpska under the
auspices of the World Food Program. Most of the food will to go the Banja
Luka area. PM

SERBIA'S BULGARIAN MINORITY LODGES PROTEST. Representatives of the newly
formed ethnic Bulgarian cultural society Caribrod said in Dimitrovgrad on 9
February that recent criticism of Caribrod by Serbian state-run television
indicates how intolerant the Serbian authorities are of ethnic minorities.
The broadcast claimed that Caribrod is a vehicle for disseminating greater
Bulgarian nationalism, BETA news agency reported. Caribrod officials said
that the Serbian government finances or otherwise supports Serbian cultural
clubs in many countries but that it will not allow the Bulgarians in
Dimitrovgrad to enjoy the same free cultural development that Belgrade
seeks for Serbs abroad. PM

ALBANIAN HUNGER STRIKE ENDS. Daan Everts, the chief representative of the
Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe in Tirana, has mediated
an end to a 25 day-old hunger strike by nine former political prisoners.
The men were protesting a recent amendment to the lustration law that will
enable former secret police employees  and informers to hold state jobs
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 2 February 1998). The strikers and government
representatives accepted Everts's suggestion that foreign and Albanian
experts review and discuss the legislation.  PM

ROMANIAN COALITION STILL ON SHAKY GROUND. Despite a provision in the new
government protocol stipulating that coalition partners must refrain from
criticizing one another, the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic
(PNTCD) and the Democratic Party have accused each other of breaching that
protocol. PNTCD chairman Ion Diaconescu said the Democrats must stop
declaring that the cabinet is a "transition solution." The Democrats
objected to a PNTCD  Deputy Chairman Vasile Lupu's accusation the previous
day of corruption within their ranks. They also said they had not been
consulted about the nominations for the new ministers and "did not know"
whether they would support the new incumbents when the parliament debates
those nominations on 11 February. Meanwhile, the influential Civic Alliance
Movement, a member of the Democratic Convention of Romania, said the new
protocol is "undemocratic" and gives unacceptable veto-power to the
Democrats, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported (see also "End Note" below).
MS

ROMANIA'S DEMOCRATS CHANGE POSITION ON EDUCATION LAW.  Alexandru Sassu, the
chairman of the Democratic Party faction in the Chamber of Deputies, told
Mediafax on 9 February that his party wants the Hungarian Democratic
Federation of Romania to "make a political declaration" pledging it will
"insist that all ethnic Hungarian children learn Romanian." Sassu said this
would contribute to "lowering the expected tension" of the debates about to
begin in the chamber on the amended version of the 1995 education law. The
Democrats are signatories to a December 1997 protocol in which all
coalition parties pledged to support amendments that are more liberal than
those passed by the Senate the same month. Observers say the Democrats'
latest shifts toward more nationalist positions suggest they are
contemplating early elections (see also "RFE/RL Newsline," 9 February
1998). MS

ROMANIAN ECONOMY DECLINES. Data released by the National Statistical
Commission on 9 February shows  inflation in 1997 was 151.7 percent, almost
double the level the previous year. GDP decreased by 6.6 percent and
industrial production by 5.9 percent, while investments were down some 19
percent. Also on 9 February, members of the  Sanitas trade union federation
of nurses and other medical staff staged a two-hour warning strike to
demand a 100 percent wage increase, instead of the 25 percent approved by
the government. Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea , meanwhile, met with members
of two other unions to discuss means of covering higher living costs. Radu
Colceag, the leader of the Democratic Confederation of Syndicates, said
after the meeting that his union will give the government a  grace period
of two or three months to improve the economy. MS

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT CALLS FOR ASSISTING ELDERLY. In his weekly radio address
to the nation, Petru Lucinschi on 9 February called on the population to
render every possible assistance to the elderly. Lucinschi said that of
Moldova's 750,000 pensioners, 80 percent receive pensions totaling 60-100
lei ( $13-21) a month. He said the Pension Fund was expected to have
revenues of 3 million lei a month to pay out pensions but that it receives
less than half that amount. Lucinschi said that the situation can be
changed only after an improvement in the economy. He called on all those
able to help to do so and said it was necessary to set up charity funds
that would accept donations from both Moldova and abroad. MS

END NOTE

ROMANIAN CRISIS ON HOLD

by Michael Shafir

        With the 5 February signing of the new government protocol and with
the appointment the following day of five ministers to replace Democratic
Party cabinet members withdrawn from the executive by the Democrats'
leadership, the coalition crisis in Romania appears to have come to an end.
But on closer examination, that crisis may  have simply been put on hold.
        It is not easy to make sense of what caused the crisis in the first
place. The resignation of former Transportation Minister Traian Basescu on
29 January, which was apparently the main cause,  at first seemed to have
been a deliberate provocation by the Democrats aimed at facilitating former
Foreign Minister Adrian Severin's return to the government. Thus, the
Democrats' criticism of the cabinet's unsatisfactory performance in
implementing reform was not taken very seriously--with good reason.
        But on 6 January, Severin told journalists that the party
leadership had not done enough to defend its own ministers in the
government. He pointed out that it was "not normal" that the party with the
"best members of the cabinet" should have been forced to agree to the
dismissal of three of its ministers and should have put up no resistance.
That criticism was clearly directed at party chairman Petre Roman, as
became even more obvious on 30 January, when Severin blamed Roman for not
having done enough to ensure the continuation of the coalition. Roman
should have "sacrificed himself" and should have accepted the status quo in
coalition relations, Severin argued.
        Inherent in those two statements was an obvious contradiction:
according to Severin,  the party leadership should have both defended its
ministers (which, in fact,  it did when withdrawing the remaining cabinet
members from the government) and it should have swallowed its pride and let
the coalition continue.  But  how could it do both? While Severin
eventually had to pay the price for his attacks on Roman (he was assigned
no responsibilities when the party's Standing Bureau redistributed the
duties of its vice chairmen last week), he had unwittingly triggered a
chain of reactions that neither he, nor Roman, had expected. That made it
difficult for observers to "put two and two together."  For example, how to
explain why Roman, who was obviously reluctant to leave the coalition and
on several occasions had made conciliatory statements to his coalition
partners, contradicted himself and adopted a bellicose posture? The answer
seems to rest in a "democratic revolt from below," that is, among the
Democrats' lower echelons.
         When the party's Standing National Council on 14 January virtually
gave an ultimatum to replace Victor Ciorbea as premier by 31 March, that
decision reflected, above all, frustration among that body's members. The
decision was all but imposed on Roman in the knowledge that the ultimatum
would be viewed by  the National Peasant Party Christian Democratic (PNTCD)
as an unacceptable act of  "political blackmail."
        There were several reasons for the frustration among the lower
echelons of the Democratic Party. Those Democrats were often treated with
disdain by their coalition associates at county level. All too often the
PNTCD--both at central and local government level--made clear (and publicly
so) that  it intensely disliked, and hoped soon to end, the "marriage of
convenience" with the Democrats. Also, opinion polls showed the Democrats
were losing much of their popularity. They had garnered 13 percent in the
November 1996 elections but were backed by only 8 percent some two years
later, in December 1997. The Democratic Convention's (CDR) support, on the
other hand, had grown from 30 percent to 42 percent within the same period,
although the popularity of Ciorbea's cabinet had decreased.
        In other words, the Democrats' electorate was deserting the party
and its regional leaders, who have  the largest number of seats on the
National Council, believed the desertion was of a  mainly ideological
nature. The Democrats' electorate is largely  middle-aged, well-educated,
and opposed to the full restitution of property,  which is backed by
leading elements within the CDR.
        The  PNTCD's adamant rejections of the Democrats' demands to
replace Ciorbea should fool no one. When they signed the new government
protocol, the Democrats refused to pledge they would refrain from either
initiating or backing a no confidence motion in the cabinet. The PNTCD had
to  save face and keep Ciorbea as premier, but it is highly unlikely that
the cabinet will survive beyond the end of March, when the Democrats'
Standing National Council will convene again.
        Moreover, the further "belt-tightening" measures announced by
Ciorbea on 6 February may provoke social unrest and provide the Democrats
with an early opportunity to get rid of the prime minister. Unless the
Democrats contemplate a realignment of political forces and joining an
alliance with Iliescu's party and the extreme nationalists (an unlikely
scenario), they would merely have lost precious time for what  they
continue to claim to be their main objective--the promotion of reforms.


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