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RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 17, Part I, 27 January 1998


___________________________________________________________
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 2, No. 17, Part I, 27 January 1998

A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia,
the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free
Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia, Transcaucasia and
Central Asia. Part II covers Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and
is distributed simultaneously as a second document.  Back issues of RFE/RL
NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline


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Headlines, Part I

* YELTSIN LAUNCHES 1998 GOVERNMENT PROGRAM

* YELTSIN SENDS DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER TO IRAQ

* ARMENIAN PAN-NATIONAL MOVEMENT LEADER BACKPEDALS

* End Note: WITHOUT REMORSE
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RUSSIA

YELTSIN LAUNCHES 1998 GOVERNMENT PROGRAM. President Boris Yeltsin announced
on 26 January that he has signed a list of 12 main tasks for the government
this year, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. The names of several cabinet
members and at least one official from the presidential administration are
listed after each of the 12 tasks. Yeltsin promised that the document will
allow for more "discipline, precision, and responsibility" in the
government's work, Interfax reported. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin's
signature is at the bottom of the government program, but his name is not
listed after any specific task. In an interview with RFE/RL, First Deputy
Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov explained that Chernomyrdin "answers for
everything" in the program. Some of the points, such as restructuring the
system of social benefits, were among the seven main tasks set for the
government last year (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 20 May 1997). LB

CHUBAIS, NEMTSOV GIVEN DIFFICULT TASKS. The government's plan for 1998
assigns responsibility for many of the most difficult tasks to First Deputy
Prime Ministers Anatolii Chubais and Nemtsov. Chubais and Nemtsov are among
those officials responsible for policies to alleviate the non-payments
problem and cut back on state expenditures. Both are also partly
responsible for implementing the government's military housing program.
Chubais must ensure that taxes are reduced and a new tax code  adopted by
the end of the year. He also is responsible for paying state debts to the
defense industry. Nemtsov must ensure that pensions and wages to state
employees are paid on time and that natural monopolies in the energy and
transportation sectors reduce their fees. He is also responsible for
reducing expenditures on subsidies to housing and municipal services and
for restructuring social benefits so that only the poor receive financial
support from the state. LB

PLAN SETS AMBITIOUS ECONOMIC TARGETS. Yeltsin's government plan calls for
an annual inflation rate of 5-7 percent in 1998, Russian news agencies
reported. Inflation in 1997 was estimated at 11 percent. The Central Bank
is expected to lower the refinancing rate, at which it lends to commercial
banks, to 16-18 percent. (The bank raised the refinancing rate from 21 to
28 percent last November.) In addition, the plan calls for stimulating
investment in domestic industry by lowering yields on treasury bills to
15-18 percent. Among those responsible for meeting those targets are
Chubais, Central Bank Chairman Sergei Dubinin, Finance Minister Mikhail
Zadornov, and Aleksandr Livshits, the deputy head of the presidential
administration. The plan calls for economic growth of 2-4 percent this
year. Cabinet officials have expressed different views about the likely
growth rate (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 January 1998). LB

NEMTSOV SAYS REGIONAL LEADERS MAY BE PUNISHED. In an interview with
RFE/RL's Moscow bureau, Nemtsov warned that "there are ways to punish"
governors who are found to have misused federal funds earmarked to pay wage
arrears. He cited unspecified "administrative measures," adding that
prosecutors or the Federal Security Service could also be used to deal with
governors who have broken the law. Yeltsin recently blamed regional
officials for the failure to promptly pay back wages to state employees and
vowed to punish those who "sabotaged" such efforts (see "RFE/RL Newsline,"
23 January 1998). The political survival of Primorskii Krai Governor
Yevgenii Nazdratenko, who has been accused of misallocating federal funds,
illustrates how difficult it is for Yeltsin to punish regional leaders.
Governors have been elected in every oblast, krai, and okrug, which means
the president no longer has the power to dismiss them. LB

NEMTSOV SAYS POOR PENSIONERS TO BENEFIT FROM INCREASE. Nemtsov told
journalists on 26 January that the country's poorest pensioners will
receive an additional 30-35 rubles ($5-6) a month when pensions are
recalculated as of 1 February, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. He said the
increase will affect some 15 million people or some 40 percent of all
pensioners. The government's estimate of 760 rubles as the average monthly
wage in calculating the new pensions has drawn fire from State Duma
deputies, who claim that average wages are much higher (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 22 January 1998). However, Nemtsov argued that the government
took  Pension Fund resources into account when making that estimate. He
added that if an average wage of 1,200 rubles were used as a basis for
calculating the new pensions, as the Duma has demanded, pension arrears
would mount this year, ITAR-TASS reported. LB

YELTSIN SENDS DEPUTY FOREIGN MINISTER TO IRAQ. Presidential press spokesman
Sergei Yastrzhembskii announced on 26 January that Yeltsin has sent Deputy
Foreign Minister Viktor Posuvalyuk to Baghdad in an attempt to resolve the
most recent standoff over UN inspections of weapons facilities.  Earlier
this month, the Iraqi government had barred a group of UN inspectors from
such facilities on the grounds that the group included too many U.S.
citizens. Also on 26 January, the Russian Foreign Ministry issued a
statement saying the use of military force against Iraq is "unacceptable,"
Interfax reported. LF

KOKOSHIN ENDS VISIT TO CHINA. A Russian delegation led by Defense Council
Secretary Andrei Kokoshin wrapped up a five-day visit to China on 26
January, Russian and Chinese media reported. Delegates visited several
military complexes and discussed with Chinese officials military
cooperation, state security, and the defense industry. "Segodnya" wrote on
23 January that Kokoshin's visit was in part aimed at persuading China to
buy more Russian military hardware. China is the biggest purchaser of
Russian military equipment. Since U.S. Defense Secretary William Cohen's
recent visit to China, there has been speculation that the U.S. will soon
lift embargoes on U.S. companies against selling military equipment to
China . BP

RUSSIA-JAPAN TO STRENGTHEN MILITARY TIES. Russian Defense Minister Igor
Sergeev met with Masahiro Akiyama, first deputy director-general of Japan's
National Defense Agency,  in Moscow on 26 January, Russian media reported.
Sergeev said later that Russia and Japan will develop closer military
contacts, including holding joint naval exercises. The Japanese delegation,
for its part, requested that China be included in any talks between Russia,
Japan, and the U.S. on security in the Asian-Pacific region. Akiyama also
met with Admiral Vladimir Kuroedov to discuss the May visit to Russia of
Japanese Admiral Kadzua Natsukawa. BP

CHECHEN PRESIDENT, PARLIAMENT DISAGREE.  In a 26 January statement, Chechen
President Aslan Maskhadov criticized the Chechen parliament for interfering
in the work of the executive branch and for revealing confidential
information about the activities of the National Security and Interior
Ministries, Interfax reported.  Maskhadov also accused the parliament of
obstructing work on a new constitution that would "allow the creation of an
Islamic state." The parliament has accused Maskhadov of violating the
existing constitution by dismissing the entire cabinet. It claimed that the
constitution empowers the president only to fire individual ministers,
"Segodnya" reported on 23 January. The parliament recently amended the
constitution to restrict freedom of religious belief to those "religions
that conform with the norms of Islam." LF

YELTSIN APPOINTS NEW BORDER SERVICE CHIEF. Yeltsin on 26 January appointed
Colonel-General Nikolai Bordyuzha as director of the Federal Border
Service, Russian news agencies reported. Until now, Bordyuzha has been
deputy director of the service. In an interview with NTV on 26 January,
Bordyuzha confirmed that Andrei Nikolaev resigned last month as head of the
border service because he disagreed with the way a Russian-Georgian dispute
was resolved (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 and 22 December 1997). Meanwhile,
Yeltsin is expected to issue a decree within a month subordinating the
Federal Border Service to the Federal Security Service (FSB), Interfax
reported on 23 January, citing an unnamed source in the Defense Ministry.
In an interview with RFE/RL's Moscow bureau on 27 January, Duma Security
Committee Chairman Viktor Ilyukhin, a Communist and vocal critic of the
president, said he would support subordinating the border service to the
FSB. LB

SHOKHIN ELECTED DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF COUNCIL OF EUROPE ASSEMBLY. The
Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 26 January elected State
Duma deputy Aleksandr Shokhin as the assembly's deputy chairman for Russia,
Russian news agencies reported. That post had been vacant since January
1997 because the Russian delegation could not agree on a nominee (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 27 June 1997). Shokhin, the leader of the Our Home Is
Russia Duma faction, recently replaced Aleksandr Dzasokhov as head of the
Russian delegation to the Council of Europe after Dzasokhov was elected
president of North Ossetia. Meanwhile, Chuvashian President Nikolai
Fedorov, who is also a member of the Russian delegation to the Council of
Europe, argued on 26 January that the council's Parliamentary Assembly
should disband its special commission on Chechnya, which was set up  in
1995. LB

GOVERNOR CALLS FOR CHANGING ELECTORAL SYSTEM. Saratov Governor Dmitrii
Ayatskov told ITAR-TASS on 25 January that he believes the proportional
representation system used to elect half of the State Duma deputies is
unconstitutional and should be abolished. Under the current electoral law,
225 out of the 450 Duma deputies are chosen from the "party lists" of
electoral blocs that receive at least 5 percent of the vote. The other 225
deputies are elected from single-member districts. If Duma elections were
held only in single-member districts, regional leaders would have more
influence over the results. "Kommersant-Daily" speculated on 27 January
that the Kremlin, which has called for abolishing proportional
representation, would likely settle for lowering or eliminating the 5
percent threshold for electoral blocs seeking Duma representation. However,
the regional leaders who make up the Federation Council would be unlikely
to support such a compromise, the newspaper noted. LB

PROTESTERS DEMAND ELECTION IN KARACHAEVO-CHERKESSIA. More than 5,000
protesters rallied in the city of Cherkessk on 23 January demanding that
Yeltsin fire Karachaevo-Cherkessian President Vladimir Khubiev and call
presidential elections the republic, an RFE/RL correspondent in the North
Caucasus reported. The demonstration was organized by workers of the local
firm Merkurii, which suspended operations last month. Merkurii's top
executives have been charged with tax evasion. Some observers believe that
the charges are politically motivated, since the firm's former head,
Stanislav Derev, was recently elected mayor of Cherkessk and is considered
a strong potential presidential candidate. Khubiev has been in power since
1980. He is the only regional leader in the Russian Federation who has not
had to face an election. The republican legislature has not complied with
an order from the local Supreme Court to set a date for presidential
elections (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 October 1997). LB

YELTSIN ANNULS DIRECTIVES IN NORTH CAUCASUS REPUBLIC. Yeltsin has signed a
decree annulling several directives issued by the government of the
Republic of Adygeya, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 January. The directives,
adopted by the Adygeyan authorities last June, list tasks to be carried out
by various collective farms and companies in the agrarian sector. They also
put raion officials and the Adygeyan Agriculture Ministry in charge of
monitoring how those tasks are carried out. Yeltsin's decree says the
directives limit the economic freedom of the enterprises affected and
thereby violate the Russian Constitution, the civil code and several
federal laws. Last month, Yeltsin issued a decree annulling several
directives issued by Kursk Oblast Governor Aleksandr Rutskoi on similar
grounds (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 19 December 1997). LB

TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

ARMENIAN PAN-NATIONAL MOVEMENT LEADER BACKPEDALS...  Vano Siradeghian,
mayor of Yerevan and chairman of the Armenian Pan-National Movement (the
senior partner within the ruling Hanrapetutyun coalition), said on 26
January that the media have exaggerated the degree of dissent within the
Armenian leadership over how to  resolve the Karabakh conflict. Siradeghian
told RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau that he believes the leaderships in Yerevan
and Stepanakert will reach a consensus within "a month or two." He refused
to comment on Defense Minister Vazgen Sarkisian's 23 January statement
suggesting that the Armenian Pan-National Movement had stage-managed the
recent shootings in order to create a pretext for demanding the
government's resignation. On 21 January, Siradeghian and other APNM leaders
criticized the government for what they called its passivity over the
attacks on senior officials. LF

...WHILE OPPOSITION CALLS FOR PRESIDENT'S RESIGNATION. Meanwhile, two
Armenian opposition parties have argued that only the resignation of
President Levon Ter-Petrossyan can resolve the domestic political crisis.
The National Democratic Union issued a statement on 26 January accusing the
president of resorting to violence because his power is "jeopardized" by
those within the leadership opposed to his insistence on concessions over
Karabakh, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau reported. Similarly, the board of the
National Progress Party called on Ter-Petrossyan to step down as a prelude
to free and fair elections, as did former National Security adviser David
Shahnazarian, Noyan Tapan reported. Dashnaktsutyun board member Hrayr
Karapetian suggested that the APNM's demands for the government's
resignation may have been prompted partly by the loss of its ministerial
posts. The Self-Determination Union predicts that the standoff may result
in the resignation of Prime Minister Robert Kocharyan. LF

SUSURLUK REVELATIONS STRAIN TURKISH-AZERBAIJANI RELATIONS.  Azerbaijan has
formally requested that the Turkish government deny allegations contained
in an official report on the  investigation into the so-called Susurluk
scandal, according  to Turan and "The Washington Post" on 26 January. Last
week, parts of the report were leaked to the press. The investigation,
which focused on links between Turkish politicians and organized crime,
confirmed rumors that the government of former Prime Minister Tansu Ciller
was involved in an unsuccessful coup attempt against Azerbaijani President
Heidar Aliev in March 1995. The report also claimed that Aliev handed over
to a Turkish citizen a casino built in Azerbaijan using Turkish Ex-Im Bank
credits as repayment for a $6 million gambling debt incurred by Aliev's son
Ilham. Heidar Aliev is reportedly so incensed by that charge that he has
threatened to cancel a visit to Turkey scheduled for February. LF

SELEZNEV PROMISES CONTINUED COOPERATION WITH TAJIKISTAN. At the end of his
three-day visit to Tajikistan, Gennadii Seleznev, the speaker of the
Russian State Duma, signed an agreement on cooperation between the two
countries' parliaments, ITAR-TASS and Interfax reported on 26 January.
Seleznev also met with members of the National Reconciliation Commission
and  separately with Said Abdullo Nuri, the commission chairman and leader
of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO). Commenting on Russian soldiers in
Tajikistan, Seleznev said their presence is still needed to guarantee the
continuation of the peace process, but he added that a gradual withdrawal
could begin. Seleznev also discussed Tajikistan's possible entry into the
CIS Customs Union. BP

CASES DROPPED AGAINST TAJIK OPPOSITION LEADERS. Prosecutor-General
Salomiddin Sharipov has announced an amnesty for leaders of some opposition
parties, RFE/RL correspondents in Dushanbe reported on 26 January. Charges
have been dropped against UTO leaders as well against Shodman Yusupov of
the Democratic Party of Tajikistan and Abdumassad Khimmatov of the Islamic
Renaissance Party. The amnesty paves the way for the return of Ali Akbar
Turajonzoda, the deputy leader of the UTO. But Turajonzoda has consistently
said he will not return until he is officially offered the post of deputy
prime minister. BP

AKAYEV ISSUES DECREE ON KYRGYZ LANGUAGE. Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev
signed a decree on 26 January aimed at boosting efforts to use Kyrgyz as
the state language, RFE/RL correspondents in Bishkek reported. A special
21-member council is to coordinate the use of Kyrgyz language in the
activities of government agencies and public organizations. BP

ALMATY RESIDENTS DEMAND GAS, ELECTRICITY. As the problem of gas and
electrical shortages worsens, hundreds of Almaty residents took to the
streets on 26 January to demand the full restoration of supplies, RFE/RL
correspondents reported. Marat Bulqairov, the deputy mayor of Almaty, met
with the demonstrators but blamed the Belgian Intergas Company, which
manages gas and electric supplies in southern Kazakhstan, for the
shortages. Bulqairov promised the problem will be solved soon. BP

END NOTE

WITHOUT REMORSE

by Paul Goble

        A statement by the new chief of the Russian air force that he has
no regrets about having given the order to shoot down a Korean civilian
airliner in 1983 and would do so again raises a series of disturbing
questions both about that individual and the military and political system
of which he is a part.
        Colonel-General Anatolii Kornukov told the Russian television
program "Hero of the Day" last week that he would "always be sure" that his
order to shoot down the KAL flight that had strayed into Soviet airspace
over Sakhalin Island was correct. Moreover, he added, "if something like
that would happen now, I would act the same way."
        The shooting down of that civilian plane and the killing of all 269
people aboard was one of the chilliest moments in the Cold War. Not only
was it criticized by many Western leaders, but it has been denounced by
Russian President Boris Yeltsin as one of the greatest tragedies of that
period.
        But if Yeltsin has denounced it, he has now appointed to command
the Russian air force the man who 15 years ago gave the order to shoot down
that plane and who continues to insist that he acted properly.
        This episode raises three serious questions: First, why did Yeltsin
act so inconsistently? Second, what are the real attitudes of the high
command of the Russian military today? And third, and most important, how
can Russia or any of the other post-communist states proceed to a
democratic future without a full acknowledgment of the crimes of the Soviet
past?
        Yeltsin's role is especially murky. More than any other Russian
leader, he has spoken out forcefully against the KAL shootdown.
Consequently, it is more than a little surprising that he has appointed the
man who ordered that move as commander of the Russian air force. Why then
did he take that step?
        There are several possible explanations. Yeltsin may have believed
that Kornukov had learned his lesson, although the general's statement last
week suggests otherwise. Or Yeltsin may have felt that he was the best
available candidate, especially given the president's push for a complete
revamp of the military establishment.
        Alternatively, Yeltsin may have had no choice in the matter. He may
have been pressured to accept the dictates of hard-liners in the military
and at the foreign ministry. Or the appointment may be a reflection of
Yeltsin's own current thinking, a desire on his part to stake out a tougher
line similar to the one adopted by his Soviet predecessors.
        But whatever Yeltsin's intentions, the rise of this Soviet-trained
general draws attention to how little has changed in the psychology and
views of the Russian military. While many Russian generals appear to have
accepted the new post-Soviet reality, Kornukov's comments show that not all
of them have escaped the suspiciousness and aggressiveness of the Soviet
military.
        Kornukov's promotion is likely simultaneously to encourage those
who have not changed their way of thinking since the end of the Soviet era
and to discourage those who have advocated a change in the way they conduct
themselves in the new environment.
        But Kornukov's elevation and his unapologetic stance about an
action almost universally condemned  inevitably raise a far broader and
more difficult question: how can Russia or indeed any post-Communist
country move forward without an honest assessment of what its current
leaders did in the past?
        Since the collapse of the Berlin wall and the disintegration of the
Soviet Union, many in both the West and the countries immediately involved
have argued that a thorough evaluation of the past actions of officials
would lead to chaos or even bloodshed.
        According to that view, the past actions of current officials
should be kept in the past both because so many current officials have
problematic backgrounds and because many of them have demonstrated a new
commitment to democracy and freedom, which in itself constitutes a kind of
atonement.
        But if this argument is not without weight, it is also not without
difficulties. Not only does it make it difficult for those who have been
victims of such past actions to feel that the new democratic political
system will give them justice, but it means that the ideas that animated
such officials in the past may continue to drive them in the future.
        And as the Kornukov declaration shows, that danger may be just as
great as would be the one caused by an honest evaluation of the Soviet past.


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