|The road uphill and the road downhill are one and the same. - Heraclitus|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 1, No. 173, Part II, 5 December 1997
A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part II, a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I covers Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part II * HAVEL SEEKS SOLUTIONS TO GOVERNMENT CRISIS * EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EXCLUDES SLOVAKIA FROM MEMBERSHIP TALKS * KOSOVO GUERRILLAS CLAIM PLANE DOWNED * End Note: "SVABODA" EDITOR REFUSES TO BOW TO LUKASHENKA xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE BELARUSIAN PARLIAMENT RESTRICTS PUBLIC ASSEMBLY. According to a new law passed unanimously by the Belarusian parliament on 4 December, organizers of public meetings and demonstrations will have to obtain official permission for such events, Belarusian media reported. Those who ignore the law will face criminal penalties. The new legislation codifies a 1996 decree issued by President Alyaksandr Lukashenka. PG UKRAINIAN PARLIAMENT BACKS DRAFT BUDGET. Lawmakers have given initial approval to the government's draft budget for 1998, Interfax reported on 4 December. By a vote of 264 to 42, the parliament approved a budget that would cut the deficit from 5.2 percent of GDP to 4.3 percent. Parliamentary deputies also passed a resolution calling on the government to increase revenue and expenditure plans before a second vote. In addition, they urged greater spending in the regions and on social problems. PG UKRAINE CRACKS DOWN ON CORRUPTION, FRAUD. Police on 4 December arrested Vasily Koval, the chief of the Foreign Ministry's consular department, on charges of abuse of office and involvement in illegal currency operations, ITAR-TASS reported. The same day, acting Prosecutor-General Oleh Lytvak asked lawmakers to lift the parliamentary immunity of Yulia Timoshenko so that the opposition legislator can be tried for illegal financial dealings, Interfax reported. And Ukraine's emergencies ministry released a statement saying that some 3,819 people who falsely claimed to have been clean-up workers at Chornobyl had been stripped of their special benefits. PG ESTONIA'S MERI REFUSES TO PROMULGATE AMENDED LANGUAGE LAW. President Lennart Meri on 4 December refused to promulgate amendments to the language law adopted by the parliament in mid-November, RFE/RL's Estonian service reported, citing the Office of the President. Meri argued that under the amendments, the executive branch is given too much power to decide whether deputies have sufficient knowledge of the Estonian language. He also commented that the amendments allow the government to define the obligations of the individual, which, he argued, only the constitution can do. JC END TO ESTONIAN BUDGET ROW IN SIGHT? The United Opposition on 4 November accepted the government's offer of an additional 133 million kroons ($8.9 million) to fund a wage hike for teachers next year, BNS and ETA reported. The opposition recently voted a 200 million kroon allocation into the 1998 budget, resulting in a budgetary imbalance. Both the government and the opposition believe the compromise will increase the chances of passing the budget in mid-December. JC TALLINN, RIGA INCLUDED ON WORLD HERITAGE LIST. The World Heritage Committee of the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization has included the historical centers of Tallinn and Riga on its World Heritage List, BNS reported on 4 December. The committee praised the Estonian capital as an outstanding example of a medieval, north European trading center, while it noted that Riga's art nouveau architecture is "unparalleled anywhere in the world." JC LONGER TERMS FOR LATVIA'S FUTURE PRESIDENT, PARLIAMENT. Lawmakers on 4 December voted to extend the terms in office of the president and parliament from three to four years, BNS reported. The constitutional amendment does not apply to the incumbent head of state and legislature. Voting on the amendment had to be postponed seven times because opposition deputies refused to register for the ballot. JC LITHUANIA TO REPATRIATE MORE REFUGEES. Vilnius will return some 300 illegal immigrants to their native countries in mid-December, BNS and Reuters reported on 4 December. Citizens of Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh will be sent home on charter flights sponsored by the Helsinki- based International Migration Organization. Since late October, Lithuania has repatriated some 100 illegal immigrants. JC KOHL SUPPORTS EARLY EU MEMBERSHIP FOR POLAND. At a 4 December meeting on the German-Polish border, German Chancellor Helmut Kohl told Polish Prime Minister Jerzy Buzek that he wants the EU to include Poland as a member "as quickly as you become a member of NATO," PAP reported. That would mean Poland would become a member of both Western organizations in 1999. The two leaders met to open a bridge linking the two countries. PG HAVEL SEEKS SOLUTIONS TO GOVERNMENT CRISIS... Czech President Vaclav Havel on 4 December said that he may soon "encourage some individual to lead the talks on the formation of a future government" but that, for the time being, "I shall not name a new premier," CTK and Reuters reported. Havel spoke after meeting with the leaders of the junior partners in the outgoing coalition, the Christian Democratic Union and the Civic Democratic Alliance. He said his decision on whom to ask to lead the talks would depend on his discussions with outgoing premier Vaclav Klaus and on talks between the three coalition partners scheduled for 5 December. Havel said a government formed without Klaus's Civic Democratic Party (ODS) would need support in the parliament from the main opposition Social Democrats, whose leader, Milos Zeman, Havel is to meet on 5 December. MS ...AS KLAUS URGES ODS TO FORM 'CONSTRUCTIVE OPPOSITION.' Meanwhile, Klaus has sent a letter to ODS members saying he is in favor of the party's going into "constructive opposition." He said the party can overcome its current crisis only by disclosing full details of its funding and by explaining the activities of its leadership and structures. Zeman said on 4 December that he cannot imagine a stable government consisting only of the two junior members of the outgoing coalition. In related news, NATO Secretary-General Javier Solana has said that the current crisis in the Czech Republic should not influence the process of its admission into the alliance, as "such developments are part of normal political life in a democracy," CTK reported on 4 December. MS EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT EXCLUDES SLOVAKIA FROM MEMBERSHIP TALKS. The European Parliament on 4 December called for all qualified countries seeking EU membership, with the exception of Slovakia, to begin membership talks next year, AFP reported. The parliament said the Slovak government is "not yet sufficiently democratic" for it to be considered for membership. EU leaders are meeting in Luxembourg on 12-13 December to wrap up discussions on whom to invite to start membership talks. However, they remain split over the European Commission's recommendation earlier this year that only six countries--the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Poland, Slovenia, and Cyprus--begin negotiations. MS MECIAR DECLINES TO ANSWER LAWMAKERS' QUESTIONS. Slovak Premier Vladimir Meciar on 4 December refused to answer questions in the parliament about his decision to cancel government news conferences (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 4 December 1997), Reuters reported. Opposition deputy Roman Kovac said the decision was illegal because it violated the constitutional right of citizens to gain access to information. Meciar declined to answer questions on his recent appointment of Blazena Martinkova as personal adviser. He also refused to tell the parliament whether he recently made a trip to Russia accompanied by the head of the Slovak Intelligence Service, Ivan Lexa. The premier said lawmakers have no right to ask those questions and should "answer them yourselves." MS HUNGARY'S SOCIALISTS TO RUN ON THEIR OWN IN NEXT ELECTIONS. Prime Minister Gyula Horn, who is also chairman of the Socialist Party (MSZP), said on 4 December that his party will not conclude an electoral cooperation agreement with its current coalition partner, the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), Hungarian media reported. He said that the MSZP-SZDSZ coalition is likely to retain power after the spring 1998 parliamentary elections. MSZ HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT OUTLINES FUTURE MONETARY POLICY. Government spokesman Elemer Kiss told reporters on 4 December that the main goal of the cabinet's monetary policy is to reduce inflation from its current level of 18-19 percent to 12-13 percent next year. The current account deficit is likely to drop to $1.5-1.8 billion in 1998 from $4 billion in 1994, while investments are expected to increase by more than 10 percent next year, he said. The government will increase the minimum monthly wage to 19,500 forints ($100) in 1998. MSZ SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE KOSOVO GUERRILLAS CLAIM PLANE DOWNED. The clandestine Kosovo Liberation Army (UCK) issued a press statement in Pristina on 4 December claiming responsibility for a recent series of violent incidents in Serbia's mainly ethnic Albanian province (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 1 December 1997). The statement added that the UCK shot down a Yugoslav Airlines trainer on 26 November near Pristina airport. Police had earlier said that a technical problem caused the crash, in which five people died. Elsewhere in Pristina, Kosovar shadow- state President Ibrahim Rugova called on the U.S. to take the lead in solving the Kosovo problem. PM ARRESTS FOLLOW EXPLOSION AT SERBIAN FACTORY. Police arrested the director and five employees of an explosives factory in Lucani, near Cacak, on 4 December. An explosion at the plant the previous day killed four workers and left six more seriously injured. PM SERBIA'S CROATS BACK MILOSEVIC'S CANDIDATE. Bela Tonkovic, the chairman of the Democratic League of Croats of Vojvodina (DSHV), told an RFE/RL correspondent in Subotica on 4 December that his organization endorses Milan Milutinovic in the 7 December Serbian presidential vote. Tonkovic added that Milutinovic is one of only two candidates who answered a recent appeal by the DSHV calling for the normalization of ties between Zagreb and Belgrade. The Kosovo Albanian leadership, for its part, has announced a boycott of the election on the grounds that none of the Serbian candidates has addressed Albanian concerns about Kosovo. The latest polls give ultranationalist Vojislav Seselj a comfortable lead to over Milutinovic, who is allied with Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic. Seselj won more votes that Milosevic's candidate, Zoran Lilic, in the 5 October ballot, but that election was declared invalid because of low turnout. PM MONTENEGRIN ALBANIANS DEMAND OPEN BORDER. The town council of Ulcinj, near the Albanian frontier, appealed to the Montenegrin authorities on 5 December to open four border crossings. The council of the mainly ethnic Albanian town said the move is necessary to end the region's and Yugoslavia's isolation, BETA news agency reported. The officials also asked the federal authorities to end visa requirements for foreigners in order to attract tourists. Montenegrin President-elect Milo Djukanovic, who was supported by the ethnic Albanians in the 5 October vote, wants to end Montenegro's isolation in order to revive tourism and shipping. PM MONTENEGRIN MEDIA CHIEFS RESIGN. Zoran Jocovic, the director-general of Montenegrin Radio and Television, and Predrag Bulatovic, the chairman of the board, resigned in Podgorica on 4 December. The two are supporters of outgoing President Momir Bulatovic, an RFE/RL corresponedent reported from Podgorica. PM PLAVSIC IN SARAJEVO. Republika Srpska President Biljana Plavsic on 4 December paid her first visit to the Bosnian capital since the war began in 1992. She appealed to German Foreign Minister Klaus Kinkel and his French counterpart, Hubert Vedrine, for patience in the implementation of the Dayton agreement. The two ministers, however, urged Plavsic and the three members of the Bosnian joint presidency to quickly remove obstacles to implementing the treaty. They warned that the international community will punish any side deemed to be obstructing implementation, an RFE/RL correspondent reported from Sarajevo. PM BOSNIAN POLICE ARREST 40 ALLEGED TERRORISTS. A spokesman for the UN police force confirmed in Sarajevo on 4 December that Bosnian police recently arrested some 40 persons in central Bosnian in an apparent crackdown on Islamic extremists (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 3 December 1997). Most of the arrests were made in the Zenica area, where a number of foreign Islamic fighters settled after the war with Bosnian wives. The Bosnian government has been under strong pressure from the international community and from Croatia to arrest the alleged terrorists, who are blamed for the deaths of returning Croatian refugees and the destruction of Roman Catholic religious sites. PM UN TO LEAVE MACEDONIA IN AUGUST. The UN Security Council voted in New York on 4 December to extend the mandate of the 750 UNPREDEP peacekeepers through August 1998 and to end the mission at that point. UNPREDEP is the first force in UN history aimed at preventing conflict from spreading rather than at separating warring factions. The Macedonian government wants the mainly Scandinavian and U.S. force kept on indefinitely to help ensure peace in a region plagued by ethnic tensions and political instability. Russia argues that the military component of the UN presence in Macedonia should be phased out quickly. PM MACEDONIA, ALBANIA SIGN BORDER PACT. Albanian Foreign Minister Paskal Milo and his Macedonian counterpart, Blagoj Handziski, signed six agreements in Tirana on 4 December. Four of the texts are aimed at strengthening security along their common border, near which more than 100 incidents have been reported since the beginning of the year. PM UNESCO DECLARES ALBANIAN SITE ENDANGERED. The United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization announced in Naples on 4 December that it has added the ancient Greek site at Butrint, near the Albanian-Greek border, to its World Heritage in Danger list. Butrint was looted during the unrest that swept Albania during the spring. Many archeological sites and museums throughout the country were looted or vandalized during the anarchy. PM ROMANIA'S NEW FINANCE MINISTER WAS SECURITATE MEMBER. Prime Minister Victor Ciorbea told journalists on 4 December that Daniel Daianu was a member of the former Securitate but had nothing to do with the "political arm" of the communist secret police since he worked for its foreign intelligence department. Ciorbea said once the parliament passes the law on access to Securitate files, Daianu's dossier will be re-examined. Ciorbea praised Daianu for having publicly acknowledged in 1990 that he worked for the Securitate. Ciorbea was speaking to journalists on 4 December, shortly after the parliament approved the reshuffled government, RFE/RL's Bucharest bureau reported. MS MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT IN ROMANIA. Petru Lucinschi and his Romanian counterpart, Emil Constantinescu, attended a ceremony in Iasi on 4 December marking the opening of a fiber optics telecommunications line linking their two countries, an RFE/RL correspondent reported. Lucinschi told reporters that it is "more logical" for Moldova to press for EU membership than to pursue reunification with Romania, Reuters reported. According to Mediafax, Lucinschi also said Moldova is "unhappy" that the basic treaty with Romania has not yet been concluded. He hinted that former President Ion Iliescu was to blame but said there are still "problems" at the level of foreign minister. He added that he and Constantinescu have agreed to "demand that the [foreign ministers] present us with a report" on how the talks are progressing by January. MS MOLDOVAN PARLIAMENTARY CHAIRMAN CRITICIZES RUSSIAN DUMA. Dumitru Motpan on 4 December criticized the Russian State Duma for not inviting a Moldovan parliamentary delegation to its 9 December debates on the ratification of the Moldovan-Russian treaty (initialed in 1990) and on the conflict with Tiraspol. The Duma sent invitations only to a deputy from the Socialist Unity-Edinstvo faction and to the Supreme Soviet of the breakaway region. Motpan said he will ask Duma Chairman Gennadii Seleznev to postpone the debates because the date coincides with the opening in Chisinau of a session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation organization. But he added that even if the request is turned down, a Moldovan parliamentary delegation will nonetheless attend the debates in Moscow. Meanwhile, separatist leader Igor Smirnov appealed to the Duma not to ratify the treaty with Moldova, RFE/RL's Chisinau bureau reported. TURKISH PREMIER IN BULGARIA. Mesut Yilmaz and his Bulgarian counterpart, Ivan Kostov, on 4 December signed several agreements, including one settling a 50-year-old dispute over the border along the Rezovska River, which runs into the Black Sea. That agreement may facilitate an accord delimiting the territorial waters of the two countries. Yilmaz described bilateral relations as "perhaps in the healthiest period in their history." He said Turkey will ask the Organization of Islamic Conference to take Bulgaria off its "black list." Sofia was included on that list because of communist violations of the rights of its ethnic Turkish population. The two leaders also signed agreements on cooperation in law enforcement, customs, and culture and agreed to work toward setting up a free trade zone. MS "SVABODA" EDITOR REFUSES TO BOW TO LUKASHENKA by Jeremy Bransten The editor-in-chief of Belarus's independent "Svaboda" newspaper, which was recently shut down by the government, says he will not bow to the authorities. On the contrary, he intends to resume publication in the near future. Speaking to RFE/RL in Prague on 4 December, Ihar Hermianchuk said the staff of "Svaboda" had expected President Alyaksandr Lukashenka to try to silence them. Anticipating the closure, Hermianchuk and his colleagues had registered themselves under several new publication names to enable their newspaper to quickly reappear under a different masthead. "Svaboda" was closed by the authorities on November 24 after two of its articles were deemed to "incite discord in society as well as between the citizens and the government." One of the pieces in question portrayed opposition politicians in a favorable light, while the other quoted a speaker at an anti-government rally who compared current government crackdowns to the Stalinist repressions of 1937. Hermianchuk said "Svaboda" will reappear in January under the name "Noviny." He said that if publication proves impossible in Belarus, the newspaper will be printed in neighboring Lithuania and then brought across the border to Belarus for distribution. That option remains legal and is how the five other non-government Belarusian newspapers are forced to operate, even though their content is largely apolitical and focuses on economic issues. Hermianchuk noted that in the past year, Lukashenka has succeeded in crushing the country's opposition political structures and driving most of their leaders underground or into exile. Now, he continued, Lukashenka has turned his attention to the media in a final drive to silence all opposition to his regime, As a short-term solution, the strategy appears to be working. Hermianchuk said that soon after Lukashenka came to power, when there were still several opposition publications giving the public uncensored information, his approval rating began to fall sharply. But since his campaign to suppress all dissent, Lukashenka's popularity, especially among rural and older residents, has actually risen. Hermianchuk estimated that of the 40 percent of the population who support Lukashenka, the vast majority has no independent access to information. But he predicted the situation will not last. Young people, he said, are fed up with the country's increasing isolation from the rest of Europe and its economic stagnation. "They are a completely new generation who grew up without the Soviet value system," he said. "They will not tolerate a return to that dark age. And their parents, who are increasingly unable to subsist on their salaries and have to till their land allotments to feed their families, are growing tired of the Lukashenka administration." As for Hermianchuk and his colleagues, they will continue their mission to spread the truth. Hermianchuk recalled how he began publishing his first newspaper while still at university. "I used to work as a typesetter in a state- run printing house. Little by little, day by day, I would steal a few of the lead type letters and bring them home. Eventually, I had gathered all the letters in the alphabet, and that's how I started printing my own newspaper." Hermianchuk smiled, but his expression quickly refocused. "In 1937, some of Stalin's policemen came to seize my grandfather's property, and he called them 'bandits' to their face. He got 10 years in a labor camp for that. Today, if you call Lukashenka's police 'bandits,' you'll get 10 days in prison." "It's not yet the same with Lukashenka, but the trend is clear," Hermianchuk said. "It's our job to try to reverse it." The author is an RFE/RL news editor. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1997 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx SUBSCRIBING: 1) To subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org 2) In the text of your message, type subscribe RFERL-L YourFirstName YourLastName UNSUBSCRIBING: 1) To un-subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to email@example.com 2) In the text of your message, type unsubscribe RFERL-L Current and Back Issues Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/ Listen to news for 13 countries RFE/RL programs for countries in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, Central Asia, Russia and the South Slavic region are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour LIVE Broadcast Studio. http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html Reprint Policy To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble, Publisher Email: GobleP@rferl.org Phone: 202-457-6947 Fax: 202-457-6992 Postal Address: RFE/RL, 1201 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20036 USA RFE/RL Newsline Staff: * Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org * Liz Fuller, Editor-in-Chief, CarlsonE@rferl.org * Patrick Moore, Team Leader, MooreP@rferl.org * Laurie Belin, BelinL@rferl.org * Bruce Pannier, PannierB@rferl.org * Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org * Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org Freelance And Occasional Contributors * Fabian Schmidt * Matyas Szabo * Jeremy Bransten * Jolyon Naegele * Anthony Wesolowsky * Julia Guechakov RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
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