Every man passes his life in the search after friendship. - Emerson
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 1, No. 161, Part I, 17 November 1997



A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe,
Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio
Free Europe/Radio Liberty.

This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia, Transcaucasia
and Central Asia. Part II covers Central, Eastern, and Southeastern
Europe and is distributed simultaneously as a second document.
Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online
at RFE/RL's Web site:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline

EUROPE: Has The West Embraced The East? -- a five-part series about
Europe's multilateral organizations and whether and how they've
aided the integration of Central and Eastern Europe with the West --
is online at the RFE/RL Web site.
http://www.rferl.org/nca/special/multilateral/index.html

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part I

* YELTSIN SACKS TWO MORE OFFICIALS IN BOOK SCANDAL

* DUMA REJECTS USE OF FORCE AGAINST IRAQ

* GEORGIAN, SOUTH OSSETIAN PRESIDENTS AGREE ON REPATRIATION

End Note
AZERBAIJAN'S ECONOMIC REVIVAL AHEAD OF OIL REVENUES

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx




RUSSIA

YELTSIN SACKS TWO MORE OFFICIALS IN BOOK SCANDAL. President
Boris Yeltsin on 15 November sacked State Property Minister
Maksim Boiko and Federal Bankruptcy Agency head Petr Mostovoi in
connection with a growing scandal over fees for an unpublished book
on privatization (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 13 and 14 November 1997).
Yeltsin refused to accept the resignation offered by First Deputy
Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais, who, like Boiko and Mostovoi, also
received some $90,000 for the book manuscript from a publisher
linked to Oneksimbank. However, the presidential press service said
Yeltsin rebuked Chubais in a telephone conversation. Meanwhile,
Russian news agencies reported on 14 November that Aleksandr
Kazakov, whom Yeltsin fired as first deputy head of the presidential
administration in connection with the book scandal, will continue to
serve as chairman of the board of directors of the gas monopoly
Gazprom. LB

CHERNOMYRDIN APPROVES OF DISMISSALS. Prime Minister Viktor
Chernomyrdin told journalists on 15 November that the dismissal of
Boiko and Mostovoi was an "appropriate reaction" by Yeltsin to the
book scandal. He said that "nobody has the right to compromise the
president, the government, and the reform program itself." He added
that while government officials have the right to write books and to
receive fees, "legal truth" does not always coincide with what is
considered acceptable behavior. The book scandal is expected to
strengthen Chernomyrdin's position in the cabinet, as it damages
Chubais's credibility. Meanwhile, government spokesman Igor
Shabdurasulov announced on 15 November that Chernomyrdin has
postponed a visit to Vietnam that was scheduled to begin on 18
November, leading to speculation that more cabinet changes may be
in the offing. LB

NEMTSOV SAYS YELTSIN WAS RIGHT TO KEEP CHUBAIS. In his first
public comments on the book scandal, First Deputy Prime Minister
Boris Nemtsov told NTV on 16 November that Yeltsin was "absolutely
right" to reject Chubais's resignation. Nemtsov argued that Russia
would lose billions in foreign investment if Chubais left the
government. Nemtsov and Chubais espouse similar views on many
policy questions and successfully lobbied for the recent ouster of
Boris Berezovskii from the Security Council. Also on 16 November,
Russia's Democratic Choice leader Yegor Gaidar told Russian
Television that Chubais's departure from the government would
prompt an exodus of foreign investors from Russian markets. Chubais
is a member of Russia's Democratic Choice, while Gaidar is the
chairman of the Foundation for the Protection of Private Property, to
which Chubais claims to have donated most of his book fees (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 13 November 1997). LB

ZYUGANOV SAYS CHUBAIS SHOULD HAVE BEEN FIRED. Communist
Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov told Interfax on 17 November that
Yeltsin made a mistake by not sacking Chubais, whom Zyuganov
called the "chief embezzler in the government." Zyuganov also
demanded an immediate meeting of the "council of four"--the
president, prime minister, and speakers of both houses of
parliament--as well as roundtable talks involving executive and
legislative officials. Those talks should discuss the formation of a
"government of national trust" that would have the support of a
majority in the parliament, Zyuganov said. An unnamed source in the
presidential administration told Russian news agencies on 15
November that Yeltsin rejected Chubais's resignation so as not to
"destabilize the executive branch" and "do serious damage to the
country's economy." LB

DUMA REJECTS USE OF FORCE AGAINST IRAQ. The State Duma on 14
November voted by 259 to 37 with two abstentions to adopt a
resolution calling on Yeltsin to pressure the UN Security Council to lift
its sanctions against Iraq and opposing the use of military force
against Iraq, Russian media reported. Duma International Affairs
Committee Chairman Vladimir Lukin, who had submitted a less
strongly-worded draft, termed the resolution counter-productive.
First Deputy Foreign Minister Igor Ivanov said it contained
inaccuracies, but he too rejected the use of force, arguing that a
"constructive way of implementing the [council's] decisions on Iraq's
disarmament must be found," Interfax reported. Speaking by
telephone on 16 November with U.S. President Clinton, Yeltsin said
Russia will take "all necessary measures" to facilitate a peaceful
settlement of the Iraqi crisis. LF

IRANIAN STUDENT ARRESTED IN MOSCOW. The Russian Federal
Security Service on 14 November arrested an Iranian student in
Moscow as he tried to purchase classified information on missile
technology from Russian experts, Russian media reported. Russian
Presidential Press spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembskii, speaking to
Interfax the next day, said the arrest demonstrates that U.S. and
Israeli claims that Russia is helping Iran develop its missile
technology are groundless. LF

RUSSIA, IRAN EXPAND OIL COOPERATION. Speaking after talks with
visiting Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Namdar Zanganeh in Moscow on 15
November, Gazprom Deputy Director Valerii Remizov said Gazprom
and the Iranian government have set up five working groups to
expand cooperation. IRNA the next day reported that Russia and Iran
also signed a memorandum of understanding on jointly developing
several Iranian gas fields, according to Reuters. LF

CHECHEN FIELD COMMANDERS CALL ON GOVERNMENT TO RESIGN.
Former Chechen field commanders aligned in the military-patriotic
Freedom Warriors movement have called for the resignation of the
Chechen government, Russian agencies reported. The several
hundred participants in the emergency congress convened in Grozny
on 16 November included Deputy Prime Minister Ruslan Gelayev and
Interior Minister Kazbek Makhashev. They denounced the Russian-
Chechen peace treaty signed in May by Chechen President Aslan
Maskhadov and Russian President Yeltsin and voted no confidence in
Maskhadov's foreign and domestic policies. The Freedom Warriors
movement was formed in early August by former acting President
Zelimkhan Yandarbiev and maverick field commander Salman
Raduev and has some 1,000 members. LF

YELTSIN, KUCHMA MEET IN MOSCOW. Yeltsin concluded informal
talks with his Ukrainian counterpart, Leonid Kuchma, on 17
November, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. The two leaders
endorsed quotas on duty-free imports of Ukrainian sugar, agreed on
by Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Chubais and Ukrainian Prime
Minister Valeriy Pustovoytenko in Kyiv (see Part II). They also
discussed holding regular talks between the presidents and prime
ministers of both countries. On 16 November, Yeltsin told journalists
that he and Kuchma agreed the two countries would stop charging
value-added tax on each other's products. Kyiv has objected to
Moscow's decision in 1996 to charge 20 percent VAT on most
Ukrainian goods, although Russian officials maintain that Kyiv
imposed VAT on Russian goods first. LB

FIRST LADIES MEET IN SIBERIA. Following her tour of Central Asia,
U.S. First Lady Hillary Clinton was in Yekaterinburg on 15 November
where she met with her Russian counterpart, Naina Yeltsin, Russian
media reported. At the Ural State Technical Institute, the two women
met with representatives from the Urals Women's Association and
other non-governmental institutions. Yeltsin waxed nostalgic as she
told representatives that the institute is where she first met her
husband in the 1950s. The next day, Clinton was in Novosibirsk,
where she delivered a speech on the role of education in promoting
democracy. BP

ROUNDTABLE TALKS ON LAND CODE POSTPONED. Mikhail Komissar,
the deputy head of the presidential administration, announced on 15
November that a roundtable discussion on the land code, scheduled
for 22 November, has been postponed until 11 December, Russian
news agencies reported. Komissar said Federation Council Speaker
Yegor Stroev suggested postponing the roundtable, which is to
include government, presidential, and parliamentary representatives.
Yeltsin, Chernomyrdin, and State Duma Speaker Gennadii Seleznev
approved the delay, according to Komissar. The 11 December talks
may cover proposals on indexing savings accounts opened in
Sberbank before 1992 as well as the land code. Communist Party
leader Zyuganov spoke out against delaying the roundtable's first
meeting in a 15 November interview with ITAR-TASS. LB

DUMA CALLS FOR HALT TO PRIVATIZATION. The Duma on 14
November passed a non-binding resolution calling on the
government to suspend all privatization sales "until a federal law on
the state program for privatization is adopted," Russian news
agencies reported. The resolution says such a law should include a
list of enterprises to be privatized, along with information about
those companies and the reason for selling government stakes in
them. The State Property Ministry issued a statement confirming
that privatization sales will continue, despite the Duma's action,
Interfax reported. The ministry charged that the Duma exceeded its
authority by passing the resolution. Although the Duma passed a
resolution condemning current privatization policy in June (see
"RFE/RL Newsline," 12 June 1997), the government has accelerated
privatization sales this year in order to boost budget revenues. LB

YELTSIN ALLOWS MORE REGIONS TO ISSUE EUROBONDS. Yeltsin has
issued a decree permitting Leningrad, Orel, and Samara Oblasts, along
with the Komi Republic, to issue Eurobonds, ITAR-TASS reported on
14 November. Previous decrees have entitled the cities of Moscow
and St. Petersburg, Krasnoyarsk Krai, and the oblasts of Moscow,
Sverdlovsk, and Nizhnii Novgorod to float Eurobonds. Several other
regions want to issue such bonds; the oil-rich Khanty-Mansi
Autonomous Okrug is planning to float a $100 million bond in
December. However, regions must gain the president's permission in
order to borrow on international markets. LB

MINERS CONTINUE PROTEST IN VORKUTA. Nine trade union leaders
in Vorkuta, Komi Republic, have stayed underground for the sixth
straight day to protest some 560 billion rubles ($95 million) in wage
arrears to the area's coal miners, Interfax reported on 16 November.
During a visit to Komi on 11 November, Prime Minister
Chernomyrdin said the federal government has allocated 250 billion
rubles to pay the Vorkuta miners. However, Yurii Vishnevskii, the
leader of the Vorkuta coal miners' trade union, said Yurii Malyshev,
the head of the state coal company Rosugol, told him on 15
November that there is no money to pay the miners. The same day,
ITAR-TASS reported that none of the 250 billion rubles in promised
government aid has arrived in Vorkuta. LB

COURT RULES ALCOHOL TAX ILLEGAL IN CHELYABINSK. The
Chelyabinsk Oblast Court has struck down an oblast law on taxing
alcohol "imported" from other Russian regions or abroad,
"Kommersant-Daily" reported on 14 November. The law was
designed both to increase oblast budget revenues and to protect the
local vodka producer Kazak, which has had trouble competing against
higher-quality brands. The court ruling is retroactive to March 1997,
when Russia's Constitutional Court declared that regional authorities
may introduce only taxes that are mentioned in federal laws. In
addition, "Kommersant-Daily" noted, Article 8 of the constitution
guarantees economic competition and prohibits restrictions on the
distribution of goods within Russia. Local businessmen may now
demand that the Chelyabinsk authorities return hundreds of billions
of rubles in alcohol taxes collected since the law went into effect. LB

ALLEGED LEFT-WING TERRORISTS ARRESTED. Federal Security
Service spokesman Aleksandr Zdanovich announced on 14 November
that two men arrested the previous day are suspected of
involvement in several explosions and the murder of a St. Petersburg
official, Interfax reported. Zdanovich said authorities arrested Valerii
Sklyar and Sergei Maksimenko, members of the little-known
Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR, on suspicion of blowing
up a monument to Tsar Nicholas II in April and attempting to bomb
a statue of Peter the Great in July. The Revolutionary Military Council
allegedly claimed responsibility for other explosions, including a 7
November blast at a naval arms depot in Primorskii Krai. Zdanovich
said Sklyar and Maksimenko also say they were involved in the
August assassination of St. Petersburg privatization chief Mikhail
Manevich. Many observers believe organized criminals seeking to
influence privatization policy arranged Manevich's murder. LB

JAPANESE JOURNALISTS DETAINED IN FAR EAST. Nine Japanese
journalists were detained in the Khasan district of Primorskii Krai on
14 November, Russian sources reported. The journalists, who work
for Japan's NHK TV, allegedly violated Article 18 of the federation
law on the state border. However, Russian officials in the area could
not agree on the nature of the violation. One said the reporters had
the necessary visa but no permit to film, while another said they had
neither. The Japanese TV company, meanwhile, insisted they had
both visas and permission to film. The journalists are being allowed
to remain in their hotel while the authorities clarify the facts. BP

TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA

GEORGIAN, SOUTH OSSETIAN PRESIDENTS AGREE ON REPATRIATION.
Eduard Shevardnadze and Lyudvig Chibirov met for two hours in the
South Ossetian town of Djava on 14 November to assess progress in
dealing with the consequences of South Ossetia's drive to secede from
Georgia in 1990-1992. The two presidents signed an interim
document giving priority to the repatriation in 1998 of people forced
to flee their homes during the conflict, CAUCASUS PRESS reported.
Shevardnadze subsequently told journalists that he and Chibirov
have discussed South Ossetia's future political status vis-a-vis the
central Georgian government, but he declined to give details. The two
presidents also discussed the unresolved conflict with North Ossetian
President Akhsarbek Galazov, Russian presidential adviser on
nationalities Emil Pain, and the head of the Organization on Security
and Cooperation in Europe's mission in Georgia. LF

EX-PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATE ARRESTED. Lawyer Kartlos
Gharibashvili, who ran unsuccessfully against Eduard Shevardnadze
in the1995 Georgian presidential elections, was arrested on 13
November on charges of having assaulted a Tbilisi district judge and
falsely accused another of taking a $20,000 bribe, CAUCASUS PRESS
reported. Gharibashvili was defense lawyer at the trial of former
Georgian railways director Remi Vashakidze, who was sentenced
recently to 10 years in prison for bribery. LF

GEORGIAN PARAMILITARY MEMBERS SENTENCED. The Georgian
Supreme Court on 15 November sentenced 13 leading members of
the banned Mkhedrioni paramilitary movement to prison sentences
of between six and 12 years for "mass banditry." They had carried
out reprisals against villages in Mingrelia in November 1993.
Mkhedrioni leader Djaba Ioseliani is scheduled to stand trial shortly
on charges of involvement in the August 1995 failed attempt to
assassinate Shevardnadze. LF

ARMENIAN LEFTIST ALLIANCE HOLDS FOUNDING CONGRESS. The
Union of Socialist Forces (SUM) held its founding congress in Yerevan
on 15 November, RFE/RL's bureau in the Armenian capital reported.
The SUM comprises more than a dozen small leftist parties and other
organizations and is headed by former chief presidential adviser
Ashot Manucharian. Addressing the founding congress, Manucharian
said the alliance should develop a new "socialist model" adapted to
Armenia's national and cultural identities. The congress adopted a
statement on Nagorno-Karabakh affirming that under no
circumstances should the disputed region be returned to Azerbaijani
control. LF

ARMENIAN OPPOSITION AGAIN PROTESTS KARABAKH POLICY. Some
8,000 opposition supporters gathered in Yerevan on 14 November to
condemn the Armenian leadership's perceived readiness to sign a
Karabakh peace settlement that would formally uphold Azerbaijan's
sovereignty over the disputed region, RFE/RL's Yerevan bureau
reported. Soviet-era dissident and Self-Determination Union leader
Paruyr Hayrikian told participants that Ter-Petrossyan has no public
mandate to sign crucial treaties on behalf of the Armenian people
because he was not elected in free and fair elections. LF

AZERBAIJANI PARLIAMENT RATIFIES ANOTHER OIL CONTRACT.
Lawmakers on 14 November ratified a $2 billion production-sharing
contract between EXXON and the Azerbaijani state oil company
SOCAR, Russian agencies reported. The contract, signed in Washington
in August, is for exploration and exploitation of the Nakhchivan oil
and gas field, which lies 90 kilometers south of Baku. LF

RUSSIAN TV AIRS FOOTAGE OF KYRGYZ CHILDREN'S HOME... Three
Russian television channels on 13 November broadcast footage shot
by a Norwegian crew this summer at the Belovodsk orphanage home
in Kyrgyzstan. AFP on 15 November quoted Russia's NTV as claiming
the children are undernourished and some tied up. It also alleged
that while most of the children entered the home in good health, only
a third survived their time there. The broadcasts drew the attention
of Naina Yeltsin, the wife of the Russian president, who on 14
November appealed to the Russian Red Cross to help the children. BP

...DRAWS HARSH RESPONSE FROM KYRGYZ GOVERNMENT. Kyrgyz
leaders sharply criticized the three Russian television channels'
decision to air footage on the Kyrgyz children's home, Interfax and
ITAR-TASS reported. Deputy Prime Minister Mira Jangaracheva said
the broadcasts were a "fabricated sensation" that does not
"correspond to reality." President Askar Akayev said it "undermines
democratic reforms and Kyrgyzstan's authority on the international
scene." Meanwhile, Denmark's Save the Children charity organization,
which owns the copyright to the footage, released a statement
objecting to the Russian broadcasts. It said the footage was taken in
order to attract donors and sponsors and that both its and the
children's rights had been violated. BP

FIRST PHASE OF TAJIK REFUGEE REPATRIATION ENDS. The last group
of Tajik refugees have returned from Afghanistan in the first phase
of the repatriation program, ITAR-TASS reported on 15 November .
Between 180 and 250 refugees left Afghanistan on 15 November,
most of whom passed through the Termez crossing in Uzbekistan.
Others crossed at the Nizhni Pyanj and Ishkashim crossings on the
Tajik-Afghan border. More than 10,000 have returned since July,
according to ITAR-TASS reports. The majority of those remaining in
Afghanistan are fighters of the United Tajik Opposition (UTO). BP

UN EXTENDS OBSERVER MANDATE IN TAJIKISTAN. The UN Security
Council on 14 November voted unanimously to extend the mandate
of its observer mission in Tajikistan, RFE/RL correspondents
reported. The extension runs through 15 May. UN Secretary-General
Kofi Annan favored expanding the role of the 44-member mission to
help Tajikistan in its early stages of peacetime reform. In other news,
the leaders of Tajikistan's power ministries met with National
Reconciliation Commission Chairman Said Abdullo Nuri on 15
November. They discussed integration of opposition and government
armed forces and reaffirmed that 16 November was the last day for
armed groups to declare their loyalties to either the government or
the UTO. Groups not responding to that call will be disarmed by force.
BP

RUSSIAN GAS HEATS SOUTH KAZAKHSTAN. Kazakhstan's southern
regions have begun receiving gas from Russia, ITAR-TASS reported
on 15 November. The regions, which include the former capital
Almaty, were without gas for a week following Turkmenistan's
decision to cut gas shipments to Ukraine via the Bukhara-Ural
pipeline. Kazakhstan's southern regions had received gas transported
by that pipeline as compensation for the pipeline running through
that territory. BP

END NOTE

AZERBAIJAN'S ECONOMIC REVIVAL AHEAD OF OIL REVENUES

by Michael Wyzan

        Accompanied by high-ranking officials from around the world,
Azerbaijani President Heidar Aliev on 12 November opened a valve
on a platform in the Caspian Sea, allowing the first "early oil" to flow
into an underwater pipeline through which it will be transported to
an onshore terminal and then to Grozny and Novorosiisk.
        Baku has already signed oil deals worth $30 billion, while the
country's offshore fields are expected to produce oil worth $100
billion over the next 30 years. Neither of those figures takes into
account the revenues from the transit of Central Asian oil and gas
through its territory.
        Both the recent publicity surrounding oil agreements and the
renovations under way in Baku suggest Azerbaijan is already a
wealthy land. In fact, only Tajikistan has a lower gross domestic
product (GDP) per capita within the CIS. In the Soviet era, industry
specialized in machine-building for the oil sector. Some 87 percent of
such equipment was "exported" to other republics, a market that has
since disappeared.
        Further, the country lost 15 percent of its territory when ethnic
Armenian forces occupied six districts adjacent to Nagorno-Karabakh
and the surrounding areas in southwestern Azerbaijan. There are
now at least 800,000 Azerbaijani refugees from Armenia and
internally displaced people, who are unable to work and for whom
some provision must be made.
        Nonetheless, Azerbaijan, like Armenia and Georgia, had chalked
up a solid macroeconomic performance by late 1996, albeit from a
low base. GDP grew by 1.3 percent in 1996--the first positive figure
since independence--and rose by 5 percent during the first nine
months of this year. Industrial production, which fell through March
1997, is now growing slowly.
        Inflation has fallen dramatically since it peaked at 1,610
percent in 1994, reaching 6.7 percent in 1996 (both figures
December-to-December). It was only 4.3 percent in the first nine
months of 1997, compared with same period last year.
        According to official statistics, 98 percent of the population
lives below the poverty line, set at 350,000 manats ($89) per month.
But a study by Deputy Economy Minister Oktay Hagverdiev quoted a
figure of about 40 percent. He pointed out in an interview in Baku in
early November that there are many informal labor exchanges,
where people officially classified as poor can find short-term work
paying up to $20 a day. He added that official unemployment
statistics err in the opposite direction, showing an unemployment
rate of around 1 percent. Hagverdiev puts the true figure at around
17 percent.
        The government budget has also shown signs of improvement.
The deficit fell from 10.7 percent of GDP in 1994 to 3.1 percent in
1996. For the first nine months of 1997, it amounted to only 1.8
percent. That fiscal improvement results from having sharply cut
back expenditure. In fact, revenues as a share of GDP has fallen
steadily over the post-communist period.
        Foreign-sector indicators are also strengthening. In 1996, the
trade deficit totaled $330 million, but during the first eight months
of 1997, the country registered a $60 million surplus. Exports during
that period were more than 82 percent of the total amount in1996 as
a whole. The foreign reserves are currently about $500 million, a
healthy figure considering that imports were below $1 billion last
year.
        The improving balance of payments is reflected in the
strengthening of the manat from 4,440 per dollar at the end of 1995
to about 3,950. This appreciation reflects the impact of market forces
rather than of government decree. In September, the national bank
allowed the exchange rate to be determined freely on the interbank
market.
        While current figures on the external sector are impressive,
they are tiny for a country with 7.5 million people. But foreign direct
investment (FDI) statistics more accurately reflect the shape of
things to come, once the oil boom gets under way. Azerbaijan has
received $1.2 billion in FDI so far this year and expects $2 billion in
1998. It is also encouraging that the share of FDI outside the oil
sector has risen to about 25 percent.
        As in most impoverished countries that successfully stabilize
their economies, Azerbaijan's success owes much to international
financial institutions. The IMF approved loans worth $46 million in
April 1995, $132 million in November 1995, and $219 million in
December 1996. Nonetheless, both the IMF and other international
lenders will probably play a major role in Azerbaijan for only a short
period. Experts predict that within four or five years, private-sector
capital inflows will be so large that official lending will no longer be
necessary.
        Azerbaijan will soon be able to choose its own development
path. A key element will have to be economic diversification, since it
is unlikely that oil extraction alone will provide much employment
for the country's large educated population.

The author is an economist living in Austria.




xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1997 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

SUBSCRIBING:
1) To subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to
        listserv@listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu
2) In the text of your message, type
        subscribe RFERL-L YourFirstName YourLastName

UNSUBSCRIBING:
1) To un-subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to
        listserv@listserv.acsu.buffalo.edu
2) In the text of your message, type
        unsubscribe RFERL-L

Current and Back Issues
Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online
at:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/

Listen to news for 13 countries
RFE/RL programs for countries in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Russia
and the South Slavic region are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour
LIVE Broadcast
Studio.
http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html

Reprint Policy
To receive reprint permission, please contact
Paul Goble, Publisher
Email: GobleP@rferl.org
Phone: 202-457-6947
Fax: 202-457-6992
Postal Address:  RFE/RL,  1201 Connecticut Ave., NW
Washington, DC  20036  USA

RFE/RL Newsline Staff:
* Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org
* Liz Fuller, Acting Editor, CarlsonE@rferl.org
* Patrick Moore, Acting Deputy Editor, MooreP@rferl.org
* Laura Belin, BelinL@rferl.org
* Bruce Pannier, PannierB@rferl.org
* Michael Shafir, ShafirM@rferl.org
* Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org

Freelance Contributors
* Fabian Schmidt
* Matyas Szabo

RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole