|This is the true nature of home-- it is the place of Peace; the shelter, not only from injury, but from all terror, doubt and division. - John Ruskin|
RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol 1, No. 145, Part I, 23 October 1997
A daily report of developments in Eastern and Southeastern Europe, Russia, the Caucasus and Central Asia prepared by the staff of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. This is Part I, a compilation of news concerning Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Part II covers Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe and is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at RFE/RL's Web site: http://www.rferl.org/newsline CENTRAL ASIA IN TRANSITION: Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan. This six-part report on the RFE/RL Web site details how much has changed since the collapse of the USSR -- and how much has not. http://www.rferl.org/nca/special/asia/index.html xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Headlines, Part I *CIS SUMMIT OPENS IN CHISINAU *ZYUGANOV SLAMS ATTEMPTS TO PURSUE NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE *APPROACHES TO RESOLVING KARABKH CONFLICT CLARIFIED End Note DRAWING BORDERS GEOGRAPHIC AND POLITICAL xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx REGIONAL AFFAIRS CIS SUMMIT OPENS IN CHISINAU. Ten of the 12 CIS presidents arrived in Chisinau on 22 October to attend the 21st CIS heads of state summit. (Turkmenistan's Saparmurat Niyazov is sick, and Georgia's Eduard Shevardnadze arrived one day later) The CIS foreign ministers failed to reach agreement on the proposed creation of a committee to resolve conflicts within or between member states. Russian Foreign Minister Yevgenii Primakov said some states want that body to be purely consultative, while other unnamed countries share Russia's support for vesting it with the authority to take administrative measures and deploy peacekeepers, ITAR-TASS reported. The foreign ministers did, however, agree on a plan for resolving the Abkhaz conflict, which will be submitted to the heads of state on 23 October, Russian presidential spokesman Sergei Yastrzhembskii told ITAR-TASS. MOST PARTICIPANTS NOT OPTIMISTIC. On arriving in Chisinau, Russian President Boris Yeltsin noted that the CIS heads of state "have not met for a long time" and have drifted apart somewhat. He expressed the hope that the Chisinau gathering will serve to "glue" relations between member countries. (On the eve previous summit in March, a Russian blueprint for subverting several CIS member states was published, causing outrage among participants and contributing to the postponement of the current summit.) Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma expressed the hope that the gathering will give impetus to the CIS's further development. His Azerbaijani counterpart, Heidar Aliev, said he hopes the CIS will become "more effective" but as a "union of equal nations [that will not] be dominated by one country " Uzbek President Islam Karimov also stressed that CIS member countries must remain independent. He warned against attempts either to revive the USSR or to conclude alternative unions within the CIS. INTER-STATE COUNCIL PRESIDENTS MEET. The presidents of the four members of the CIS Inter-State Council (Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan) met in Moscow on 22 October before flying to Chisinau, Russian agencies reported. They adopted a 13-point document on increasing economic cooperation and strengthening integration. That document provides for transferring the chairmanship of the CIS Customs Union from Belarus to Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbaev, introducing unified customs duties by the end of 1997, strengthening the work of the CIS Inter-State Economic Committee, and drafting a coordinated policy to prepare CIS states for membership of the World Trade Organization. The presidents approved in principle a request by Tajik President Imomali Rakhmonov for his country to be admitted to the Customs Union. TOP-LEVEL MEETING ON TRANSDIESTER... Presidents Yeltsin (Russia), Leonid Kuchma (Ukraine), and Petru Lucinschi (Moldova) took part in a "special meeting" on 23 October convened to discuss the Transdniester conflict, BASA-press reported. Yeltsin later told journalists that he "accepts" the proposals submitted by Lucinschi, but the Russian leader did not specify what those proposals were. Infotag reported that a Moldovan draft prepared for the meeting was based on the agreement recently reached in Moscow at the tripartite negotiations with Tiraspol representatives (see "RFE/RL Newsletter," 10 October 1997). Yeltsin also said Russia's policy is clear: "We recognize Moldova's integrity and independence and all problems must be solved in Chisinau." He also stressed the position of State Duma deputies on the Transdniester conflict does not represent the official Russian stance. ...WHILE TRANSDNIESTRIAN LEADER FAILS TO SHOW UP. Meanwhile, Igor Smirnov has failed to arrive at the CIS summit now under way in Chisinau, BASA-press reported on 23 October. Vladimir Atamanyuk, the deputy chairman of the breakaway region's Supreme Soviet, said Moldovan Premier Ion Ciubuc's invitation to Smirnov to attend both the summit and the "special meeting" at presidential level had arrived "only yesterday," despite the fact that preparations for the summit have been "on-going for two months." RUSSIA ZYUGANOV SLAMS ATTEMPTS TO PURSUE NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE. Communist Party leader Gennadii Zyuganov on 22 October slammed continued attempts by State Duma Deputy Speaker Sergei Baburin to seek a vote of no confidence in the government, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. Baburin has accused Zyuganov of making a "strategic error" by withdrawing the no-confidence vote (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 October 1997). Zyuganov denounced Baburin's efforts as a "farce." He argued that the opposition has already forced the authorities to "listen to the voice of the people," who, Zyuganov said, are not ordinarily heard. In contrast, Communist Duma deputy Vladimir Semago told RFE/RL that the government "has not made any genuine concessions" to the opposition. Meanwhile, Duma Speaker Gennadii Seleznev told journalists on 23 October that Baburin has no chance of collecting the 90 signatures needed to put a no-confidence vote on the Duma's agenda, ITAR-TASS reported. OFFICIALS SAY TAX CODE TO GO TO TRILATERAL COMMISSION. Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin and First Deputy Prime Minister Anatolii Chubais announced on 22 October that the trilateral commission currently negotiating the 1998 budget has agreed unanimously on a procedure whereby it will revise the tax code, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. Earlier the same day, Chernomyrdin and Yabloko leader Grigorii Yavlinskii argued over whether the government or the Duma must take the first step toward withdrawing the tax code from the parliament, as Yeltsin has instructed (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 22 October 1997). First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov, considered the government minister closest to Yabloko, took Chernomyrdin's side. Nemtsov told RFE/RL that the tax code is currently "not the property of the government" and cannot be withdrawn without action by the Duma. But Duma Budget Committee Chairman Mikhail Zadornov of Yabloko told ITAR- TASS that the trilateral commission exceeded its authority by contradicting Yeltsin's instruction. CHECHEN PRESIDENT DEMANDS SPECIAL POWERS. Aslan Maskhadov has asked the Chechen parliament to grant his extra powers for a period of two years, including the right to impose a state of emergency, suspend existing legislation, and fire both cabinet ministers and civil servants, Interfax reported on 22 October, quoting parliamentary press secretary Lom-Ali Mirsibiev. Maskhadov argued that his request is justified given the appalling economic and social situation in Chechnya. The Chechen parliament will debate his request on 23 October. Mirsibiev also told Interfax that all Chechen civil servants, "from the minister to the cleaning lady," who kept their posts during the 1994-19966 war with Russia will be fired and banned from public office for five years. ROKHLIN DENIES CALLING FOR UNCONSTITUTIONAL ACTIONS. Duma Defense Committee Chairman Lev Rokhlin told journalists on 23 October that the media misinterpreted his speech four days earlier to members of his Movement to Support the Army (DPA), Russian news agencies reported. Rokhlin said the speech was "fully within the framework of the constitution and [Russian] law." Media quoted Rokhlin as vowing to remove Yeltsin and his "hated regime" by next spring and to hold a "rehearsal" in February to determine whether the movement is strong enough to "throw the government out." Rokhlin said he has a tape recording of his remarks and will distribute copies to prove he was misunderstood. He also read out a statement adopted by the DPA's executive committee saying the movement is not planning a military coup and accusing the authorities of holding up the DPA's official registration with the Justice Ministry. SELEZNEV CRITICIZES NEW PASSPORTS. Duma Speaker Seleznev on 23 October announced that the Communist opposition will call for changing the format of new Russian passports, which do not state the nationality of the holder, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. Seleznev said the opposition favors restoring the line identifying the holder's nationality and leaving citizens free to decide whether to fill it out. Top officials in Tatarstan and several other republics in the Russian Federation have objected to the new passports, which the government began issuing in early October (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 21 and 22 October 1997). Opposition politicians in the Duma are seeking support from the Federation Council, which is made up of regional leaders, in negotiations with the government over key economic policies. In the Soviet era, the infamous "line 5" on passports was blamed for facilitating discrimination against persons belonging to certain ethnic groups. CHERNOMYRDIN ORDERS POSTPONEMENT OF CABINET MEETING. Prime Minister Chernomyrdin on 22 October instructed the government to delay a cabinet meeting the next day "in connection with [Chernomyrdin's] need to be present for consideration of questions concerning pension reform and fulfilling the 1997 budget," ITAR-TASS reported. First Deputy Prime Minister Chubais had been scheduled to chair the meeting while Chernomyrdin attended the CIS summit in Chisinau. Earlier on 22 October, Deputy Prime Minister Oleg Sysuev told ITAR-TASS that the "reduction of unwarranted pension benefits" and the indexation of pensions would be discussed at the cabinet meeting. When Chernomyrdin addressed the Duma on 8 October, he was asked whether the pension age will be raised, RFE/RL's Moscow bureau reported. He replied that the government will not undertake any "stupidities" and added that he does not know "what Oleg Nikolaevich [Sysuev] told you, but [pension reform] will be done as I say, and as the president says." NEMTSOV STILL AT ODDS WITH BEREZOVSKII. First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov described his "ideological" differences with Security Council Deputy Secretary Berezovskii in an interview published in the latest edition of the weekly "Interfax-AiF." Nemtsov charged that Berezovskii "thinks that first, all state property should be divided among people selected by God, which he of course considers himself, and afterward everyone should start to live honestly. While I think we must start to live honestly here and now." Nemtsov argued that the "overwhelming majority" in Russia's business community support the government's policies, while a small minority, who have "enormous influence in the press and on television," are afraid of losing their privileges and facing fair competition. Since August, Berezovskii and Nemtsov have exchanged harsh public statements (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 15 and 21 August 1997). Nemtsov accuses Berezovskii of inappropriately influencing Russian Public Television and using his post for personal gain. RUSSIA TO HELP OVERHAUL LIBYAN NUCLEAR CENTER. Russian Minister for Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu announced in Moscow on 22 October that Russia is ready to start talks with Libya on overhauling the Gazhura nuclear research center, Interfax reported. The Russian news agency quoted unidentified Russian government sources as saying Moscow's cooperation with Libya has been "slowed down" by the international embargo against Libya. Those sources added that "no firm ground exists for the sanctions since Libya has denounced terrorism and is taking steps in compliance with the demands of the international community." MOSCOW OPPOSES "DELEGITIMIZATION" OF EAST GERMANY. Russian Foreign Ministry spokesman Gennadii Tarasov said Moscow is closely monitoring trials of officials of the former German Democratic Republic, Interfax reported on 22 October. Although Tarasov said Moscow views those actions as "formally Germany's internal affair," he noted that defense attorneys for the accused regard them as an "attempt on the part of certain groups in Germany to delegitimize the GDR, once a sovereign and internationally recognized state." YABLOKO MEMBERS CRITICIZE MILITARY BUDGET AS INCONSISTENT. Aleksii Arbatov, the deputy chairman of the Duma Defense Committee, and Peter Romashkin, his fellow Yabloko party member, argued in the 23 October "Nezavisimaya gazeta" that the defense budget proposed by the government is "internally inconsistent." The two suggested that the budget, which calls for significant reforms but fails to provide the funds for them, creates the impression that "there are at least two governments in Russia." According to them, one is headed by President Yeltsin and calls for military reform and fulfillment of international obligations. The other, whose leaders they do not name, is pursuing a policy of "macroeconomic stabilization," regardless of its consequences for Yeltsin's policies and Russia's needs. Until this situation of "dual power" in the executive branch ends, it will be almost impossible to find a compromise between the government and the Duma, they argued. NO COMPETITION IN OREL GOVERNOR'S RACE. Federation Council Speaker and Orel Oblast Governor Yegor Stroev is set to coast to victory in the 26 October gubernatorial election, "Izvestiya" reported on 23 October. Anatolii Trofimov, the chairman of the Orel electoral commission, predicts that Stroev will win 80 percent of the vote and that turnout will be 80 percent. Stroev's only opponent, collective farm head Vera Yenina, is hardly visible on the campaign trail. In a recent interview with the local paper "Orlovskii vestnik," Yenina remarked, "To be frank, I would prefer that the current head of administration win the election. Yegor Semenovich [Stroev] is a deserving, wise politician. The oblast is developing properly. Let everything stay as it is. I want only that." Two other candidates tried to run for governor, but the electoral commission refused them registration, and the Orel Oblast Court rejected their appeal (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 16 October 1997). CASH-STARVED CLINICS RELEASE PATIENTS IN PRIMORE. Psychiatric clinics in Vladivostok have been forced to release dozens of patients because of insufficient funds for food and medicine, RFE/RL's correspondent in the city reported on 22 October. One of those patients reportedly killed a neighbor with an ax, while another was seen walking naked several days in a row in front of the Primorskii Krai branch of the Federal Security Service. Health officials say the most dangerous psychiatric patients remain institutionalized but are deprived of sufficient food and medicine. Medical workers in several cities in Primore are on strike, demanding not just back wages but also funding for food and medical supplies. First Deputy Prime Minister Chubais has reportedly promised Viktor Kondratov, the presidential representative in Primore, that the federal government will transfer 10 billion rubles ($1.7 million) to help finance health institutions in the krai. PRIMORE LEGISLATURE ENDS DISPUTE OVER VLADIVOSTOK MAYOR. The Primorskii Krai Duma on 21 October reversed its decision to suspend Vladivostok Mayor Viktor Cherepkov, ending the confusion over who is the city's legitimate mayor, "Kommersant-Daily" reported on 23 October. The legislature appointed Yurii Kopylov acting mayor on 26 September, and Kopylov promptly set up an alternative city administration, despite protests by various officials and a ruling by a Vladivostok district court. The krai legislature stood by Kopylov for several weeks, and the Primorskii Krai Court recently validated Kopylov's appointment (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 16 October 1997). However, Governor Yevgenii Nazdratenko, a longtime political enemy of Cherepkov's who is almost invariably supported by the krai legislature, distanced himself from the controversy. Nazdratenko even visited Cherepkov in the hospital recently. ASSOCIATE OF FORMER TULA GOVERNOR KILLED. Magomed Saidov, a witness in a criminal investigation against former Tula Oblast Governor Nikolai Sevryugin, was shot dead on 22 October in an apparent contract killing, "Izvestiya" and "Kommersant-Daily" reported. Sevryugin, who lost his post in a March election, was arrested in June on charges that he accepted a $100,000 bribe from a Moscow-based bank (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 9 June 1997). Saidov was the director of the Tula agricultural enterprise Sazhenets, which Sevryugin had headed before becoming governor. While in office, Sevryugin reportedly allocated substantial budget funds to the enterprise. TRANSCAUCASUS AND CENTRAL ASIA APPROACHES TO RESOLVING KARABKH CONFLICT CLARIFIED. Arkadii Ghukasyan, the president of the self-proclaimed Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, told an RFE/RL correspondent in Yerevan on 22 October that differences between Armenia and Nagorno-Karabakh on how to resolve the Karabakh conflict are "to a certain extent" hampering the peace process. Ghukasyan said the international community has given Armenia far too much importance in its peace efforts and has disregarded the unrecognized republic. Speaking to journalists in Yerevan on 22 October, First Deputy Foreign Minister Vartan Oskanian said such differences have been exacerbated by the need to choose between a "package" and a "phased" solution. Karabakh advocates the former, and Armenian President Levon Ter- Petrossyan the latter. Meeting with a German Foreign Ministry delegation, Armenian Prime Minister Robert Kocharyan said he personally prefers the "package solution, which he said would provide more reliable guarantees of Karabakh's security, according to Noyan Tapan. ABKHAZ REFUGEES THREATEN TO DEMAND SHEVARDNADZE'S RESIGNATION. Before leaving for the CIS summit in Chisinau, Shevardnadze met with representatives of the ethnic Georgians who fled Abkhazia during the 1992-1993 hostilities, including deputies from the Abkhaz parliament in exile, CAUCASUS PRESS reported on 23 October. The fugitives' warned that they will demand Shevardnadze's resignation and launch a campaign of civil disobedience if the president refuses to demand at the summit that the mandate of the CIS peacekeeping force currently deployed along the border between Abkhazia and the rest of Georgia not be extended "under any conditions." Shevardnadze agreed to demand the peacekeepers' withdrawal but warned it cannot be implemented immediately. COUNTDOWN TO EARLY OIL IN AZERBAIJAN. Prime Minister Artur Rasi-Zade told Turan on 22 October that the first oil from Azerbaijan's Chirag Caspian field will begin to flow on 12 November. But a spokesman for the Azerbaijan International Operating Committee involved in extracting the oil said that production will begin as scheduled, in late October. Natik Aliev, the president of Azerbaijan's state oil company SOCAR, told Turan that Azerbaijan is ready to begin filling its section of the Baku-Grozny-Novorossiisk export pipeline and that advance payment for the first 40,000 metric tons to be exported has already been transferred to the Russian pipeline company Transneft. Russian First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov, who is also fuel and energy minister, will attend a formal ceremony in Baku on 7 November to mark the opening of the pipeline, according to Interfax on 22 October. KAZAKH OIL ROUNDUP. Kazakhstan has begun increasing the amount of oil that it exports via Azerbaijan and Georgia, ANS-PRESS reported on 22 October, quoting the president of Azerbaijan's Transchart company, Fuad Rasulov. The oil is transported by tanker to Baku and from there by rail to Batumi. But Kazakhstan has temporarily suspended the export of oil to Iran under a 1996 inter-governmental agreement, Interfax reported. Under that accord, Kazakhstan exports 2-6 million metric tons of crude to Iran annually and receives the equivalent quantity of Iranian oil for sale on world markets. But Baltabek Quandykov, Kazakhoil's new president, told journalists on 22 October that Iranian refineries are unable to process Kazakh crude because of its high mercaptan content. TALIBAN DELEGATION IN ASHGABAT. A Taliban delegation met in Ashgabat on 20-21 October to discuss possible solutions to the conflict in Afghanistan, Interfax reported. The talks took place within the framework of the UN program for resolving the conflict. The Taliban agreed to talks between all rival Afghan factions and expressed support for the Turkmen proposal to convene a conference of states bordering on Afghanistan. Russian President Yeltsin said in Moscow on 22 October that he supports a multilateral peace conference under the aegis of the UN. He mentioned specifically the initiative of Kyrgyz President Askar Akaev to convene a peace conference in Bishkek, ITAR-TASS reported. AGREEMENT REACHED ON REPATRIATION OF TAJIK REFUGEES. Tajik, Uzbek, and Afghan officials met with representatives of the UN High Commission on Refugees in the Uzbek town of Termez on 21 October to discuss the repatriation of some 7,000 Tajik refugees currently in Afghanistan, "Nezavisimaya gazeta" reported . Following lengthy talks, the participants reached agreement on opening the bridge linking Termez with neighboring Afghanistan three times a week to allow the Tajik refugees to cross into Uzbekistan on their way home to Tajikistan, RFE/RL's Tajik service reported. The UNHCR will pay the necessary travel expenses. END NOTE DRAWING BORDERS GEOGRAPHIC AND POLITICAL by Paul Goble Russian President Boris Yeltsin's willingness to sign a border demarcation agreement with Lithuania now reflects the convergence of three strands in Moscow's foreign policy in the Baltic region. But when Yeltsin signs the demarcation agreement with visiting Lithuanian President Algirdas Brazauskas during his visit to the Russian capital on 23-24 October, those strands may not be equally obvious, even though all three are likely to prove equally important. First, Yeltsin's decision reflects Moscow's increasing willingness to treat the three Baltic States in a differentiated fashion, rewarding Lithuania, which has been the most cooperative, while putting pressure on the other two. Second, it demonstrates an effort by the Russian government to show it can and will develop better relations with the Baltics if those countries are willing to cooperate. This is especially important in Russian calculations because many in Scandinavia and the West view progress in relations between Moscow and the Baltic States as the "litmus test" of Russia's readiness to be accepted into Europe, as former Swedish Premier Carl Bildt put it. Third, Yeltsin's decision appears to be part of a Russian effort to portray Estonia and Latvia in the most negative light, hoping thereby to reduce those states' attractiveness to Western partners and as potential candidates for membership in the EU and NATO. At one level, those three strands of Russian policy appear contradictory. Obviously, Moscow will have a difficult time in simultaneously presenting itself as a good neighbor and seeking to put pressure on two of the three Baltic States. But at another level, this combination of factors is consistent. Yeltsin and the Russian foreign policy establishment are behaving entirely rationally in treating the three Baltic countries differently. Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania are three very different countries with very different domestic and international positions. Some Western governments continue to treat them as a unit because of their history of Soviet occupation from 1940 to 1991, but their very individual situations both domestically and internationally justify a differentiated approach. By dealing with the Balts in such a way, Yeltsin and Moscow demonstrate that they recognize not only those countries' specific approaches to domestic issues, such as the treatment of ethnic Russians, but also the very different security problems of the three. In addition, Yeltsin is to be given credit for backing an improved relationship with the Baltic countries without any real danger of having to live up to promises. The leaders of a number of factions in the Russian parliament have already indicated they will not ratify any agreement Yeltsin may sign with Brazauskas. As a result, Yeltsin will have the best of both worlds: approbation from the West without a commitment to follow the strictures of the agreement he appears likely to sign. Moreover, Yeltsin's very positive approach toward Lithuania allows him to place enormous pressure on both Estonia and Latvia to change their positions on a variety of issues or face ostracism from at least some Western institutions. In particular, he may be forcing Estonia's hand to change its approach lest it lose the support of its West European partners, who have already indicated that they want Estonia to begin in December the process of becoming a member of the EU. That apparent calculation is unlikely to prove wrong, especially if Western governments argue that Estonia and Latvia should make the same concessions that the Lithuanians have in order to establish good relations with Moscow. It may also ultimately prove the most critical in the thinking of the Russian government. Both Russian nationalists and the government have continued their criticism of Estonia and Latvia for their attitudes toward their ethnic Russian populations. And thus signing an accord with Lithuania only highlights what Russian nationalists and Moscow see as the lack of progress on this issue in the other two Baltic States. Even if Russia's apparent calculation backfires because the West declines to follow its logic, Moscow has the choice of shifting gears and signing border accords with Estonia and Latvia, as Yeltsin has sometimes indicated he is willing to do. Thus, the Russian government's latest effort to demarcate a region politically as well as geographically appears to be a situation in which Moscow has much to gain and very little to lose. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx Copyright (c) 1997 RFE/RL, Inc. All rights reserved. xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx SUBSCRIBING: 1) To subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org 2) In the text of your message, type subscribe RFERL-L YourFirstName YourLastName UNSUBSCRIBING: 1) To un-subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to email@example.com 2) In the text of your message, type unsubscribe RFERL-L Current and Back Issues Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline and the OMRI Daily Digest are online at: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/ Listen to news for 13 countries RFE/RL programs for countries in the Caucasus, Central Asia, Russia and the South Slavic region are online daily at RFE/RL's 24-Hour LIVE Broadcast Studio. http://www.rferl.org/realaudio/index.html Reprint Policy To receive reprint permission, please contact Paul Goble, Publisher Email: GobleP@rferl.org Phone: 202-457-6947 Fax: 202-457-6992 Postal Address: RFE/RL, 1201 Connecticut Ave., NW Washington, DC 20036 USA RFE/RL Newsline Staff: * Paul Goble, Publisher, GobleP@rferl.org * Liz Fuller, Acting Editor (Transcaucasia) CarlsonE@rferl.org * Patrick Moore, Acting Deputy Editor (West Balkans) MooreP@rferl.org * Michael Shafir (East Balkans) ShafirM@rferl.org * Laura Belin (Russia) BelinL@rferl.org * Bruce Pannier (Central Asia) PannierB@rferl.org * Jan Cleave, CleaveJ@rferl.org * Mike Gallant, GallantM@rferl.org RFE/RL Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.