In general, mankind, since the improvement of cookery, eats twice as much as nature requires. - Ben Franklin
RFE/RL NEWSLINE

RFE/RL NEWSLINE Vol. 1, No. 71, Part II, 11 July1997



This is Part II of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty's Newsline.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern,
and Southeastern Europe.  Part I, covering Russia,
Transcaucasia and Central Asia, is distributed simultaneously
as a second document.  Back issues of RFE/RL NewsLine are
available through RFE/RL's WWW pages:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/

Back  issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through
OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
Headlines, Part II

*EU COMMISSION WANTS TO START MEMBERSHIP TALKS
WITH FIVE EAST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES


*SFOR TAKES INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL TO HAGUE


*PLAVSIC FEARS SFOR ACTION HAS HURT HER

End Note
How Much Will NATO Enlargement Cost?

xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

EAST-CENTRAL EUROPE

EU COMMISSION WANTS TO START MEMBERSHIP TALKS
WITH FIVE EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. The
European Commission agreed in principle to recommend
that the EU open membership talks with Poland, the Czech
Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, Estonia, and Cyprus, an EU
spokesman told journalists in Brussels on 10 July. Some of
the 20 EU commissioners had opposed offering
membership to Slovenia and Estonia. The European
Commission decision is expected to be confirmed in
Strasbourg on 15 July, one day before the commission
unveils individual advice to EU governments on which of 10
applicants from Eastern Europe qualify economically and
politically for membership. Commissioners worked out a
system enabling those states left out of the first
enlargement wave--Latvia, Lithuania, Slovakia, Romania,
and Bulgaria--to be given a timetable for meeting the
conditions of EU membership.

REACTIONS TO EU COMMISSIONERS'
RECOMMENDATION. Estonian Prime Minister Mart Siiman
on 10 July welcomed the European Commission
recommendation. Siiman, who is attending the annual
Central and Eastern European Economic Summit in Salzburg,
Austria, told Reuters that Estonians know they must now
do everything possible to negotiate successfully through
the accession process. Polish Deputy Prime Minister Marek
Belka told journalists on 10 July he is "glad Poland is in."
Slovenian Prime Minister Janez Drnovsek told Reuters that
his country had expected the decision. But Romanian
President Emil Constantinescu told journalists that EU
commissioners' recommendation is "hasty" and does not
reflect the point of view of the heads of state and
governments of EU member countries.

CZECHS WANT SLOVAKIA TO JOIN NATO, EU. Czech
Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec told the Foreign Affairs
Committee of the Czech parliament on 10 July that Prague
has an interest in seeing Slovakia join the same security
and economic structures as the Czech Republic, Czech
Radio reported. Zieleniec said Slovakia's membership in
NATO is a long-term goal of Czech foreign policy and that
Slovakia's eventual entry into both the alliance and the EU
is a necessity for Central European security. He added he
believes Slovakia should be admitted into NATO during the
alliance's planned second wave of expansion.

KUCHMA URGES IMF TO EXTEND LOAN TO UKRAINE...
President Leonid Kuchma, who is in Salzburg attending the
Central and Eastern European economic summit , met with a
group of U.S. experts headed by Assistant Secretary of the
Treasury for International Affairs David Lipton, Interfax
reported. Kuchma's press secretary told journalists that
the president and U.S. experts discussed bilateral
cooperation and Ukraine' contacts with international
financial organizations. Kuchma stressed that Ukraine has
met IMF requirements but has received no foreign aid in
the first half of 1997. While he described certain economic
decisions as "miscalculated," Kuchma noted that Ukraine
has a "fair degree" of economic stability, pays its foreign
debts on schedule, and keeps inflation "surprisingly low."
Warning that economic reforms may trigger social
tensions, Kuchma urged the IMF to honor its commitments
to Ukraine by extending a loan worth up to $3 billion
agreed on in late 1996 but delayed because of the slow
pace of reform.

...BUT IMF DECIDES AGAINST LOAN. The IMF, however,
says it will not be able to go ahead with that loan until
more reforms are in place but that it will consider a
regular one-year credit program, RFE/RL's Washington
correspondent reported on 10 July. Sources at IMF
headquarters in Washington said a delegation has just
completed a review of Ukraine's situation. The fund has
decided to give priority to a new one-year stand-by loan
for Ukraine, and the IMF delegation will return to Kyiv
within the next two weeks to work out details. IMF sources
said the delegation is pleased with progress made this
year, including low inflation and a stable exchange rate.
However, they say more structural changes are needed
before major loans can be approved.

BELARUSIAN FOREIGN MINISTER BLASTS RUSSIAN
REFORMERS. Ivan Antanovich on 10 July accused
reformers in Moscow of unleashing an "anti-Belarus
campaign" following the decision of officials in Minsk to
withdraw the accreditation of a Russian journalist. At a
press conference in Minsk, Antanovich refused to name any
officials, but observers say his comments were clearly
directed at First Deputy Prime Minister Boris Nemtsov. The
previous day, Nemtsov said in Moscow that the stripping of
the credentials of the Minsk bureau chief of Russian Public
Television (ORT) violated the union charter signed by the
two countries earlier this year. Nemtsov, who is critical of
President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's authoritarian policies,
pledged that Moscow would protect the rights of its
journalists abroad. Antanovich said that any pressure from
Moscow would meet with "the same" from Minsk.

ESTONIAN PRESIDENT ON BORDER AGREEMENT WITH
RUSSIA. Lennart Meri told journalists in Madrid on 9 July
that he hopes a border agreement between Estonia and
Russia will be signed this year, BNS reported. Meri said
recent talks with Russia over the border issue were
"constructive." Agreement was reached on the text of the
border agreement last fall, but Moscow has since refused
to sign a final document, citing technical problems and
alleged human rights abuses in Estonia. Meri also
commented that he could not understand "some
psychological difficulties which Russia is experiencing
over NATO expansion." He added that by 1999, when a
second round of NATO expansion may be announced,
Russia's stance has to change, just as its "current stance is
different from that of a few years ago."

LATVIAN PRESIDENT WARNS OF GROWING ETHNIC
TENSION. Guntis Ulmanis told the newspaper "Diena" on 10
July that signs of a growing split between the Latvian and
Russian communities may lead to "increasing strains in
relations rather than to integration" of society. He called
for granting Latvian citizenship to all those born in the
country, regardless of ethnicity. While saying that Latvia's
citizenship law meets European standards, he urged
"substantial and possibly rapid" changes to provisions that
prevent people without Latvian citizenship from holding
public office. Ulmanis also noted that provisions for
granting citizenship on the basis of age quotas are
"outdated" and preclude many older people from obtaining
citizenship. Any change to the law in the near future is
unlikely, however, since the major political parties have
reached agreement to leave it intact for the time being.
The Russian-speaking community makes up roughly one-
third of Latvia's population.

U.S. PRESIDENT IN POLAND. Bill Clinton told some 5,000
cheering Poles in Warsaw's Castle Square on 10 July that
Poland's destiny as a free nation at the heart of Europe is
finally being fulfilled by joining NATO. Clinton arrived in
Warsaw that day to congratulate Poland on being invited,
together with Hungary and the Czech Republic, to join
NATO. "Never again will your fate be decided by others --
Poland is coming home," Clinton said. Polish President
Aleksander Kwasniewski told the crowd "We have always
been friends, now we will be allies." In Kwasniewski's view
the decision to expand NATO "changes the history of
Europe and the world." Clinton arrives in Romania on 11
July.

FLOODS IN POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA
CONTINUE TO WORSEN. The death toll in the worst
flooding in more than a century in Poland and the Czech
Republic is reported to have risen to more than 30. Waters
receded in some northern Moravian districts but flooded
towns in southern Moravia. Czech President Vaclav Havel
visited the flood emergency center in Olomouc on 10 July
and told reporters he is personally contributing 1 million
crowns ($30,700) for flood relief. The Czech government
has sent 5,000 soldiers to back up police to prevent
looting in evacuated districts. In Slovakia, authorities
declared a state of emergency in the spa town of Piestany
and ordered the evacuation of some 10,000 inhabitants and
tourists. Half of the Polish town of Opole is under water
after the Odra River burst through a provisional dam.
Authorities in Klodzko say floodwaters from the Nysa
River are receding, leaving behind large quantities of mud
and damage that will take four to five years to repair fully.
Flooding is predicted for Wroclaw.

SLOVAK OPPOSITION PARTIES ASK MECIAR TO
RESIGN. Democratic Party leader Jan Langos and Christian
Democratic Movement leader Mikulas Dzurinda told
journalists in Bratislava on 10 July that Slovak Prime
Minister Vladimir Meciar should resign because he is
responsible for the failure of the country's foreign policy.
Slovakia has been left out of the first wave of NATO
expansion; and EU commissioners on 10 July declined to
include Slovakia on list of six countries recommended to
be invited to the first wave of EU accession talks. Meciar
also drew criticism from President Michal Kovac, who said
NATO's failure at the Madrid summit to even mention
Slovakia for consideration in upcoming expansion talks was
a "loss for the whole country."

HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT WANTS ELECTIONS IN MAY
1998. The cabinet proposed on 10 July that parliamentary
elections be held in May 1998, Hungarian media reported.
Government spokesman Elemer Kiss said parties could
allocate maximum 1 million forints ($5,400) per candidate
for the election campaign, while the campaign period would
be reduced from 90 to 72 days. Some 2 billion forints would
be allocated to the Interior Ministry this year for
preparing both the elections and a referendum on NATO
membership. The government also proposed that after
1998, elections take place every four years in April.

NATO EXPECTS MILITARY REFORMS IN HUNGARY. U.S.
Defense Secretary William Cohen said in Budapest on 10
July that Hungary must meet financial and military
obligations in order to join the alliance, Hungarian media
reported. He said the U.S. would pay only $150-200 million
of the estimated $27-35 billion needed in the next 13
years for the accession of Hungary, the Czech Republic, and
Poland. Hungary's defense budget must be raised to 2.1-
2.2% of GDP, Cohen concluded. Hungarian Defense Minister
Gyoergy Keleti said it could take 10 years until the country
upgrades its Soviet-armed military equipment and meets
NATO standards. He noted that the renewal of the air force,
air defense, and the radar system are the top priorities
(see also "End Note" below).

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

SFOR TAKES INDICTED WAR CRIMINAL TO HAGUE.
British SAS troops with U.S. logistical support captured
Milan Kovacevic, the former mayor of Prijedor and now
hospital director, in that northwest Bosnian town on 10 July
(see "RFE/RL Newsline," 10 July 1997). Former police chief
Simo Drljaca, another indicted war criminal, died in a
gunfight after he shot at a British soldier when the SAS
troops tried to arrest him. SFOR took Kovacevic that
evening to the war crimes tribunal in The Hague. The well-
planned action marks the first time that SFOR has hunted
down indicted war criminals and reflects the new tough
policy announced by U.S. Secretary of State Madeleine
Albright in May as well as the attitude of the new British
Labor government. Neither Kovacevic nor Drljaca knew that
they had been indicted, which complies with the court's new
policy of not giving advance warning to those whom it
intends to arrest.

WESTERN LEADERS BACK NEW POLICY IN BOSNIA. U.S.
President Bill Clinton and British Prime Minister Tony Blair
approved in advance what was code-named SFOR's
Operation Tango, according to "The New York Times" on 11
July. Clinton had announced in Madrid on 9 July that "our
mandate is to arrest people who have been accused of war
crimes and turn them over for trial." After Operation Tango
was completed, Albright said in Warsaw that it was a
"positive development." In London, Foreign Secretary
Robin Cook and both sides of the parliament praised the
courage of the British troops. Top U.S., British, and NATO
officials suggested in their respective headquarters that
further arrests of war criminals will follow. The spokesmen
added that no indicted person can now feel safe.

PLAVSIC FEARS SFOR ACTION HAS HURT HER.
Embattled Republika Srpska President Biljana Plavsic said
in Banja Luka on 10 July that Drljaca's death was "murder"
and called on NATO to release Kovacevic. She strongly
protested SFOR's actions, which, she added, will only make
a bad situation in the Republika Srpska worse. Plavsic told
NATO she cannot be held responsible for Bosnian Serbs'
reactions to the latest events. Opposition spokesmen
echoed Plavsic and said that NATO's actions could serve to
unite the population behind indicted war criminals such as
Radovan Karadzic and Gen. Ratko Mladic. Most Serbs regard
the Hague-based court as a political tool used primarily
against the Serbs. Momcilo Krajisnik, Plavsic's hard-line
opponent, blasted Operation Tango and suggested in Pale
that it was somehow linked to the internal political battles
in the Republika Srpska. Krajisnik and Plavsic's other
opponents have suggested that she is collaborating with
the West against her own people.

MACEDONIAN PRESIDENT APPEALS FOR CALM AFTER
RIOTS. Kiro Gligorov has urged calm after clashes between
ethnic Albanians and police in Gostivar (see "RFE/RL
Newsline," 10 July 1997). He said the riots were a blow to
good inter-ethnic relations in the republic, where official
figures say that the population is 22% Albanian. The clashes
left two dead and at least 38 injured, including some
seriously. Eight of the wounded are police. Police arrested
Rufi Osmani, the ethnic Albanian mayor of Gostivar, and
charged him with inciting the riots and promoting ethnic
hatred. An additional 19 people were arrested and charged
with disturbing the peace. In Skopje, the U.S. embassy
expressed regret at the incident and reaffirmed
Washington's support for Macedonia and its territorial
integrity.

NEWS FROM FORMER YUGOSLAVIA. In Podgorica,
opposition legislators said on 10 July that they cannot
accept President Momir Bulatovic's assertion that he
knows nothing about reports that Gen. Mladic is vacationing
on the Montenegrin coast, an RFE/RL correspondent
reported from the Montenegrin capital. In Pale, the
Constitutional Court of the Republika Srpska called
Plavsic's recent dissolution of the parliament illegal. In
Pristina, the Kosovo Committee for the Defense of Rights
and Freedoms said that Serbian police mistreated 146
ethnic Albanians in June. And in eastern Slavonia, the first
group of Croatian refugees to return home arrived in Bilje
on 9 July. The next day, the first group of Serbs left Klisa
for their old homes elsewhere in Croatia, an RFE/RL
correspondent reported from Osijek.

OFFICIAL ALBANIAN ELECTION RESULTS. The Central
Electoral Commission announced in Tirana on 10 July that
the new Socialist-led, left-of-center coalition has a larger
than two-thirds majority in the new 155-seat parliament.
The official tally gives the Socialists 99 seats, the Social
Democrats nine, and the rest of the coalition eight. The
opposition right-of-center coalition has a total of 37
seats, of which 27 belong to the Democrats, two to the
Monarchists, and the rest to smaller groupings. Some 115
seats were elected directly, while the remaining 40 were
assigned on the basis of proportional representation.
Voters in two constituencies will go to the polls again on
13 July because irregularities in the first two rounds there
rendered the vote invalid.

ITALY ANNOUNCES INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON
ALBANIA. Foreign Minister Lamberto Dini said in Rome on
10 July that representatives of countries and international
organizations dealing with Albania will meet in the Italian
capital before the end of the month. Participants will
include Franz Vranitzky, the OSCE's chief envoy to Albania,
as well as officials from Albania's new Socialist-led
government. The delegates will assess the post-election
situation in Albania and lay the groundwork for higher-
level conferences slated for September and October.
Meanwhile in Igoumenitsa, Greece, customs officials on 11
July stopped nine armed Albanians who had hijacked the
ferry from Vlora. The Greeks forced the Albanians to
return to that city on the same ship.

ALBANIANS EAGER FOR REPAYMENT OF LOST
INVESTMENTS. Popular pressure is building for the new
government to reimburse people for their losses in
collapsed pyramid schemes, "Koha Jone" reported from
Vlora on 10 July. During the election campaign, Socialist
leaders suggested they might reimburse investors for
their losses but would not commit themselves
unambiguously to do so (see "RFE/RL Newsline," 12 June
1997). Prime Minister-designate Fatos Nano said in June
that he would at least try to track down the money and
give it back if he could find it. The Democrats have already
indicated that they will try to score political points if the
Socialists do not implement what many Albanians feel was
a clear campaign promise to repay losses. Outrage over
the collapsed pyramid schemes at the end of 1996 and the
beginning of 1997 led to anarchy and, subsequently, the
recent elections.

ROMANIAN OPPOSITION LEADER AGAINST GRANTING
CLINTON "HONORARY ROWDY" TITLE. Former President
Ion Iliescu says it would be "insulting" to grant Bill Clinton
the title of "honorary rowdy" during the U.S. president's
visit to Bucharest on 11 July. The authorities' intention to
do so was announced by several newspapers but has not
been confirmed by the government, the independent AR-
Press agency reported. Clinton is to address Romanians in
Bucharest's University Square, where in 1990 Iliescu--who
had just been elected president--called demonstrators
opposed to his election "rowdies." That comment inspired
a popular song among demonstrators "better a rowdy than
a communist." Meanwhile, the Bucharest mayoralty
announced on 10 July that Presidents Clinton and Jacques
Chirac of France will be made honorary citizens of the city,
the latter in sign of praise for his support of Romania's
integration in NATO.

HUNGARIAN CONSULATE IN CLUJ TO OPEN SOON. The
Hungarian consulate in Cluj will be officially inaugurated on
23 July by the Romanian and Hungarian foreign ministers,
Radio Bucharest announced on 10 July. The consulate was
closed in the 1980s by Nicolae Ceausescu's regime; its re-
inauguration was agreed to in the basic treaty signed by
the two countries last year. Meanwhile, the extreme
nationalist mayor of the city, Gheorghe Funar, has
announced he will not implement a government decision on
bilingual street signs and the employment of translators
by local authorities in settlements with large minority
populations. Funar claims that some 400 translators would
have to be employed for this purpose, while the local
prefect, Alexandru Farcas, says one translator would
suffice, Romanian Television reported. Farcas said he might
start procedures to dismiss Funar.

MOLDOVAN PRESIDENT AT SALZBURG FORUM.
Addressing the economic summit of Eastern and Central
European States in Salzburg on 10 July, President Petru
Lucinschi said the EU should not be a "closed fortress" for
countries that are not members of the union. Lucinschi also
met with Austrian President Thomas Klestil and informed
him about the progress of economic reform in Moldova,
Infotag reported. In other news, Prime Minister Ion Ciubuc
on 10 July visited the areas affected by recent torrential
rains and floods. Damage is estimated at some 22 million
lei ($4 million). Two persons died in the Cantemir and Orhei
districts, and some 360 dwellings were damaged, BASA-
press and Infotag reported.

BULGARIAN PARLIAMENT REPLACES STATE RADIO, TV
CHIEFS. The parliament on 10 July replaced the chiefs of
state radio and television who had been appointed by the
previous Socialist government. Vyacheslav Tunev takes
over from Liljana Popovna, who was fired from the radio by
the previous management. Since then, she has worked as a
journalist for "Demokratsiya," which supported the
reformist United Democratic Forces (ODS). Stefan
Dimitrov, a composer who wrote music for the ODS's
election campaign, replaces Ivan Tokadzhiev as television
director. The Socialist Party and the Business Bloc
boycotted the vote, saying it violated the provisions of
the Law on State Media passed by the Socialist-dominated
parliament. The ODS said most of the law's articles had
been invalidated by the High Court of Justice and were
therefore no longer applicable, RFE/RL's Sofia bureau
reported.

BULGARIA'S POPULATION DROPS SHARPLY. The
population of Bulgaria is expected to fall by 1 million by
year 2020 owing to a low birth rate and widespread
emigration, both of which are consequences of the
country's economic crisis. Kiril Gatev, deputy director of
the National Statistics Institute, told a press conference in
Sofia that the trend "is exceeding even the most
pessimistic forecasts," Reuters reported on 10 July. Gatev
said Bulgaria's 8.3 million population is expected to fall to
some 8.1 million by the year 2000 and to between 6.9 and
7.4 million in 2020. He said the death rate far outstripped
the birth rate and that every fourth Bulgarian would be a
pensioner by 2020. According to Gatev, some 650,000
mostly young people left Bulgaria between 1989 and 1996.

END NOTE

How Much Will NATO Enlargement Cost?

by Michael Mihalka

A number of reports have appeared recently in the
Western media asserting that the cost of NATO
enlargement could exceed $100 billion. Such assertions are
based on several fallacies.

First, it is frequently claimed that new members must
replace their Soviet-era equipment with modern Western
weaponry. In fact, new members need only make their
current forces interoperable with NATO, meaning providing
English-language courses, changing air defense and
command-and-control procedures, and perhaps purchasing
communication equipment. German Defense Minister Volker
Ruehe has called claims that new members must buy
Western equipment "pure drivel." He noted that "it is
perverse to say that modern tanks and aircraft are
necessary in the new member states. We are not talking
about EU agriculture. The purchase of tanks can wait."

Second, it is often maintained that requirements drive
defense budgets. In fact, politics drive those budgets. Many
studies of the costs of NATO enlargement specify tasks
that would need to be performed by new members. Costs
are then associated with those tasks. The higher estimates
are based on a scenario of hedging against a large-scale
short-warning attack such as NATO was prepared for during
the Cold War. According to that scenario, NATO would
deploy forward, large air and ground combat forces in the
new member states. NATO has already decided that it does
not need to pursue that option.

A third fallacy is that NATO dictates the terms of
membership. In fact, while the alliance says what it expects
membership candidates to do, those countries can they can
do as they please once they become members. Some NATO
countries, such as Iceland and Luxembourg, have no or only
notional armed forces. Others, such as Norway, refuse to
have foreign troops or nuclear weapons stationed on their
territories. Still others, such as Spain, Greece, and France,
have sometimes refused to participate in the integrated
military structure.

Finally, it is frequently claimed that joining an alliance
increases military expenditures. But, in fact, countries are
more likely to spend less on defense in the long run if they
belong to an alliance rather than having to deal with
security concerns on their own.

Most policy-makers in Central and Eastern Europe believe
that the costs associated with NATO enlargement would be
small and manageable. They also realize that they needed
to modernize their forces regardless of whether they join.
Cost assessments by the Czech Republic, Hungary, and
Poland fall far short of those carried out in the West.

Peter Necas, the former Czech deputy defense minister,
said in an April 1997 interview (when he was chairman of
the parliamentary Defense and Security Committee) that
modernizing the army was essential unless troops were
simply to be used as a castle guard in handsome uniforms
for parades. He also pointed out the direct costs to ensure
interoperability with NATO were already being paid so that
Czech units could participate in exercises with NATO
members and in the Stabilization Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-
Herzegovina. He estimated that another part of the direct
costs--the contribution to NATO's budget--would total 300-
400 million crowns annually (about $10-12 million).

A Polish study group that included officials from the
Defense and Foreign Affairs Ministries estimated that the
essential costs of joining NATO--integrating the command
system with NATO, ensuring the compatibility of the
telecommunications and air defense systems, and
modernizing airfields--would total some $1.5 billion. The
group assumed that Poland would need to contribute $35-
40 million annually to the alliance's joint budget. According
to those estimates, the Polish defense budget would
increase by no more than 4 percent. Janusz Onyskiewicz,
former defense minister and currently chairman of the
parliamentary Defense Committee, noted that the cost of
NATO enlargement presents no major difficulty to either
new or current members.

Imre Mecs, the chairman of the Hungarian parliament's
Defense Committee, said in March 1997 that defense
expenditures might increase by 15-20 percent but that
most of the increase would be needed to modernize a
military that had not been upgraded in 15 years. Joining
NATO would not pose an economic burden for the Hungarian
people, he argued.

The May 1996 Congressional Budget Office study, which
contains the highest estimates of the costs of NATO
enlargement, defined the worst-case scenario so that U.S.
legislators would know the highest amount the U.S. might
have to contribute. Even that study concluded it would cost
only $21.2 billion for training and exercises and for
upgrading air defense and command as well as control and
communications equipment in the Czech Republic, Hungary,
Poland, and Slovakia. Of that amount, those four countries
would have paid 70 percent, while the U.S. would have
needed to contribute $1.9 billion and its European allies
$3.7 billion over several years. That amount does not differ
significantly from the one given in the February 1997 State
Department study of the costs of NATO enlargement.
According to that study, the U.S. would need to pay about
$150-200 million a year--or less than 0.1 percent of the
annual U.S. defense budget.

The author teaches at the George C. Marshall Center for
Security Studies in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany.





xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
               Copyright (c) 1997 RFE/RL, Inc.
                     All rights reserved.
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx

SUBSCRIBING:

1) To subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to
        listserv@listserv.buffalo.edu
2) In the text of your message, type
        subscribe RFERL-L YourFirstName YourLastName
3) Send the message

UNSUBSCRIBING:

1) To un-subscribe to RFERL-L, please send a message to
        listserv@listserv.buffalo.edu
2) In the text of your message, type
        unsubscribe RFERL-L
3) Send the message

ON-LINE ISSUES OF RFE/RL Newsline:

On-line issues of RFE/RL Newsline are available through the
World
Wide Web: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/

BACK ISSUES OF RFE/RL Newsline:

Back issues of RFE/RL Newsline are available through the
World
Wide Web: http://www.rferl.org/newsline/search/

BACK ISSUES OF OMRI Daily Digest:

Back issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through the
World
Wide Web, and by FTP.

WWW: http://www.omri.cz/Publications/DD/
FTP: ftp://FTP.OMRI.CZ/Pub/DailyDigest/

REPRINT POLICY:

To receive permission for reprinting, please direct
your inquires to Paul Goble, publisher.

Email: goblep@rferl.org
Phone (U.S.) : 202-457-6947
International: 001 202-457-6947
Postal Address: RFE/RL, Connecticut Ave. 1201, NW,
Washington D.C., USA

RFE/RL Newsline Staff:

Paul Goble (Publisher), goblep@rferl.org
Jiri Pehe ( Editor, Central and Eastern Europe),  pehej@rferl.org
Liz Fuller (Deputy Editor, Transcaucasia), carlsone@rferl.org
Patrick Moore (West Balkans),  moorep@rferl.org
Michael Shafir (East Balkans), shafirm@rferl.org
Laura Belin (Russia), belinl@rferl.org
Bruce Pannier (Central Asia), pannierb@rferl.org
Jan Cleave, cleavej@rferl.org.

Newsline Fax: (420-2) 2112-3630.

Current and back issues are available online at:
http://www.rferl.org/newsline/

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole