|Science and art have that in common that everyday things seem to them new and attractive. - Friedrich Nietzsche|
No. 224, Part II, 19 November 1996
This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest. Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BELARUSIAN PRIME MINISTER RESIGNS. President Alyaksandr Lukashenka on 18 November accepted the resignation of Mikhail Chyhir and appointed his deputy, Syarhei Linh, as acting premier, Reuters reported. Chyhir's resignation was in protest over Lukashenka's proposed referendum aimed at increasing the powers of the president. Labor Minister Alyaksandr Sasnou also resigned the same day, while the parliament collected 75 signatures--five more than necessary--to start impeachment procedures against the president. In order to oust Lukashenka, the Constitutional Court will have to approve his impeachment and 132 deputies will have to vote in favor of his dismissal. Meanwhile, Lukashenka's top aide, Uladzimir Zametalin, has said the president could prevent his impeachment even if the Constitutional Court approved it. He did not rule out the possibility of dissolving the parliament and the Constitutional Court. -- Sergei Solodovnikov INTERNATIONAL REACTION TO BELARUSIAN POLITICAL CRISIS. While the Russian government has not taken a firm position on the crisis, Minister for CIS Affairs Aman Tuleev, the only opposition cabinet member, insinuated that Western opposition to Lukashenka's staunch support for integration with Russia has triggered the crisis, Russian media reported. Georgii Tikhonov, chairman of the State Duma Committee on CIS Affairs, charged that the crisis "is being staged from abroad." Kommersant-Daily adopted a more moderate stance, urging the Russian government to use its influence to force a negotiated settlement. U.S. State Department spokesperson Glyn Davies said Lukanshenka's illegal firing of the Central Electoral Commission chairman had caused the crisis. Members of the North Atlantic Assembly came out in support of the Belarusian parliament, with assembly President Karsten Voigt calling Lukashenka's behavior "illegal, non-democratic, and sometimes even crazy." -- Scott Parrish and Sergei Solodovnikov CLASH BETWEEN BELARUSIAN AUTHORITIES, RUSSIAN MEDIA. A statement issued by the Belarusian Security Council has accused Russian journalists, in particular correspondents for the network NTV, of "disinformation" in their coverage of the unsanctioned 17 November demonstration in Minsk (see OMRI Daily Digest, 18 November 1996), NTV reported on 18 November. The network countered by re-broadcasting footage of the demonstration, and a reporter charged that Belarusian officials loyal to Lukashenka were themselves perpetrating disinformation by denying anyone was wounded in the street clashes. On 14 November, Lukashenka had accused some Russian journalists of carrying out an "information war" against his government. He also threatened to deport correspondents from NTV and state-controlled Russian Public TV from Belarus. -- Laura Belin MOONLIGHTING LAWMAKERS STRIPPED OF PARLIAMENTARY SEATS. A Kyiv city court has ruled that 38 deputies who still hold posts in the government cannot retain their parliamentary seats, Ukrainian TV reported on 17 November. Parliamentary Speaker Oleksander Moroz had asked the court to make a ruling after the deputies--including Environment Minister Yurii Kostenko and Deputy Foreign Minister Anton Buteyko--refused to choose between serving in the legislature or keeping their government offices. It said that they were violating the new constitution. The deputies, meanwhile, have asked the prosecutor-general to punish Moroz for abusing his authority, claiming that he alone does not possess the authority to appeal directly to any court on such matters. They also claim that his action was politically-motivated and that he is turning a blind eye to leftist lawmakers who still hold top posts in the private sector. Moroz says the dispute should be handled by the new Constitutional Court. -- Chrystyna Lapychak REMAINS OF MISSING UKRAINIAN MIG-29 FOUND. A search team has found fragments of the MiG-29 that disappeared from radar on 31 October after taking off from Kirovsk airfield in east-central Crimea, international agencies reported on 18 November. Some parts of the fighter jet were found on the coast near Yevpatoria. According to the investigation commission, the plane is on the bottom of the sea. The cause of the crash--the third this year in Ukraine involving a Soviet-made MiG-29--is still unknown. Military officials say the pilot was a top-class professional. -- Oleg Varfolomeyev ESTONIAN REFORM PARTY GIVES ULTIMATUM TO COALITION PARTY. The Reform Party on 17 November issued an ultimatum to the Coalition Party to revoke its cooperation agreement with the Center Party by 2 p.m. local time on 20 November, BNS reported. It added that if the Coalition party fails to do so, it will propose quitting the ruling coalition. Coalition Party Chairman Tiit Vahi responded by saying his party will not give up its agreement with the Center Party. But he expressed the hope that the Reform Party will remain in the government since its ministers' work is not yet over. Center Party Chairman Edgar Savisaar described the ultimatum as "posturing," adding that he does not believe the Reform Party will actually quit the government. -- Saulius Girnius LITHUANIAN PRESIDENT, PARTY LEADERS CONFER ABOUT NEW GOVERNMENT. Algirdas Brazauskas on 18 November met with the leaders of the five leading political parties to discuss the formation of a new government, Radio Lithuania reported. The current parliament meets for the last time today, while the newly elected one will convene on 25 November. Brazauskas rejected the proposal by Conservative leader Vytautas Landsbergis that the nominee for prime minister be announced at the new parliament's first session. Landsbergis complained that the current government had made insufficient preparations for the winter and was provoking Gazprom to reduce or cut off gas supplies by failing to pay long overdue debts. -- Saulius Girnius POLISH OFFICIAL TO CLAMP DOWN ON SECT. The governor of Lublin province has set up a team of experts to ensure that members of the Niebo (Heaven) sect abide by the law, Polish media reported on 19 November. A spokesman said that sect members do not send their children to schools, refuse to perform military service, and have only recently begun using identification documents. The sect has been based near Lublin since the mid 1970s. For the last six years, it has been under strict leadership. In another development, the Gdansk University rector has canceled a series of cultural programs planned jointly by the Academic Cultural Center and an association with links to the Unification Church, established by Sun Myung Moon of South Korea. The Church was registered in Poland in 1990. -- Beata Pasek SLOVAK TV LOSES CASE AGAINST PRESIDENT'S SON. A Bratislava court on 18 November ordered Slovak TV to apologize and pay 250,000 crowns ($8,000) to Michal Kovac Jr. and his business partner Martin Syc-Mily for broadcasting false information late last year, Praca reported. STV had aired two interviews with Peter Krylov--who has been serving a jail sentence in Munich since 1993 in connection with a $2.3 million fraud surrounding the Slovak firm Technopol--in which Krylov accused Kovac Jr. and Syc-Mily of involvement in the affair. Three weeks ago, the state- run TV station lost a similar case against another of Kovac Jr.'s business partners, Marian Kocner. Also on 18 November, the pro- government Slovenska Republika lost a two-year-old case against Christian Democratic Movement Chairman Jan Carnogursky over a letter published by the daily, Pravda reported. Meanwhile, Ivo Nittmann, who was recently appointed chief editor of Narodna obroda, told Sme that he handed in his resignation on 18 November. -- Sharon Fisher RICHEST MAN IN SLOVAKIA FEARS "PHYSICAL LIQUIDATION." Jozef Majsky, president of the firm Sipox Holding and reportedly the richest man in Slovakia, told Radio Twist on 18 November that he has information about plans for his "physical liquidation," TASR reported. Majsky said he knows about those plans from two sources--one official, the other unofficial. He added that the reasons for killing him could not be linked to his business affairs, noting that it is more likely he is being targeted because he is "politically suspicious." A former supporter of Prime Minister Vladimir Meciar, Majsky is now allied with the opposition. -- Anna Siskova HUNGARIAN PREMIER REJECTS PROPOSAL TO STEP UP CONSULTATION WITH COALITION PARTY . . . Gyula Horn on 18 November rejected a proposal by the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ) that he consult with the junior coalition party before making major political decisions, Nepszabadsag reported. Horn described the proposal as an attempt to curtail his powers. The SZDSZ had suggested that both the Socialists and the Free Democrats make proposals in personnel issues and consult with each other before publicizing any important government-related decision. On several occasions, the SZDSZ has complained that Horn is not adhering to the spirit of the 1994 coalition pact. -- Zsofia Szilagyi . . . AND REFUTES CLAIMS THAT CABINET RESHUFFLE IS IMMINENT. Horn also denied media reports that he was planning a cabinet reshuffle early next year. Magyar Hirlap quotes him as saying that his only concern is the resignation earlier this month of Welfare Minister Gyorgy Szabo. Magda Kovacs Kosa, executive vice president of the Socialist party, denied that a "conspiracy" to bring about personnel changes is afoot. Senior party officials, meeting informally last week, had concluded that there was a need for a cabinet reshuffle. Among them were parliamentary Speaker Zoltan Gal, Foreign Minister Laszlo Kovacs, Finance Minister Peter Medgyessy, and former trade union head Sandor Nagy. -- Zsofia Szilagyi SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE ROW OVER PLAVSIC MEETING WITH MLADIC BACKERS. Republika Srpska President Biljana Plavsic on 18 November met with a general staff delegation for the first time since she cashiered the officers' former commander, Gen. Ratko Mladic. She was joined by Mladic's successor, Gen. Pero Colic, AFP reported. The group consisted of Gens. Manojlo Milovanovic, Zdravko Tolimir, Zivomir Ninkovic, Momir Talic, and Novica Simic. Plavsic had named Talic to command Banja Luka's First Corps and Simic to head the Third Corps in Brcko, but the other three men are Mladic loyalists. Her office later announced that the outcome of the meeting was that Mladic would go, but on 19 November his staff issued an angry denial saying all that was agreed on was that Plavsic would meet with Mladic on 20 November. -- Patrick Moore NATO AGREES TO SET UP SUCCESSOR TO IFOR. NATO ambassadors on 18 November voted to set up a Stabilization Force (SFOR) to replace IFOR when its mandate runs out on 20 December, the BBC reported. SFOR will have 31,000 members, which is just under half of what IFOR had at its peak. The ambassadors called for detailed contingency planning to provide for the new force, but they were unable to agree on the length of its mandate. The question of a clear and robust mandate is the key issue. The next step in establishing SFOR lies with the UN Security Council. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, Bosnian Defense Minister Vladimir Soljic, an ethnic Croat, resigned as part of an apparent face-saving maneuver to enable his Muslim deputy, Hasan Cengic, also to leave office, Oslobodjenje reported on 19 November. The U.S. insists that Cengic, who has close Iranian links, leave before Washington resumes its military aid program. -- Patrick Moore SECRECY SURROUNDS TUDJMAN ILLNESS. The Croatian authorities have aroused deep suspicions among the public as to how ill President Franjo Tudjman is by ignoring or playing down news of his hospitalization in Washington. Officials on 16 November blocked the publication of the weekly Nacional because the latest issue was devoted to Tudjman's health, Novi List reported on 18 November. The government also refused to provide any information to another independent weekly, Globus, when it sought to cover the story. The authorities first tried to deny that Tudjman was ill and then sought to depict his problems as routine (see OMRI Daily Digest, 18 November 1996). State-run dailies suggest today that Tudjman has already resumed work and are giving prominent coverage to the story of the anniversary of the fall of Vukovar. Opposition parties and independent media charged the state-controlled media and the authorities with behaving like their communist predecessors, Reuters noted. -- Patrick Moore OPPOSITION VICTORIES IN FEDERAL YUGOSLAV LOCAL ELECTIONS. Opposition parties have claimed victory in the local elections in Serbia's 12 largest cities, Nasa Borba reported on 19 November. Voters went to the polls on 17 November in a run-off ballot. Opposition parties won convincingly in Belgrade as well as in industrial centers such as Nis, Kragujevac, Kraljevo, Cacak, and Novi Sad, the capital of Vojvodina. Preliminary results show the opposition winning some 70 out of 110 seats in Belgrade. Ivica Dacic, speaking on behalf of the ruling Socialist Party of Serbia, said the leftist coalition dominated by the SPS won 134 of the 174 municipalities in Serbia, but Reuters added that "none of the big towns were on his list." -- Stan Markotich MONTENEGRO'S NEW LEGISLATURE CONVENES. At its first session since the 3 November elections, the Montenegrin parliament re-elected Svetozar Marovic, a member of the ruling Democratic Socialist Party, as parliamentary speaker, AFP reported. The governing party has an absolute majority of 45 of the 71 seats in the legislature. -- Stan Markotich KOSOVO'S PRIME MINISTER IN EXILE CRITICIZES PRESIDENT. In an interview published in Koha on 6 November, shadow-state Prime Minister Bujar Bukoshi sharply criticized President Ibrahim Rugova. He said Rugova's office could function only as long as the Serbian authorities tolerated it. Bukoshi claimed that the president was sidelining the shadow-state government, noting that Rugova had not consulted the shadow-state education minister during negotiations over an education agreement with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic. -- Fabian Schmidt MACEDONIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS UPDATE. Preliminary results of the 17 November local elections indicate that the ruling Social Democratic Union of Macedonia (SDSM) remains the strongest party, despite a strong showing by the opposition, Nova Makedonija and Western agencies reported. Of the municipal council seats allocated so far, the SDSM has 503, the nationalist Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization-- Democratic Party for Macedonian National Unity (VMRO--DPMNE) 339, the Socialist Party (the SDSM's coalition partner) 147, the Democratic Party 104, the Liberal Party 102, the ethnic Albanian Party of Democratic Prosperity (PPD) 92, and the Party of Democratic Prosperity of the Albanians (PPDSH) 80. Of the 40 mayoralties decided in the first round, the SDSM won 13, the coalition of VMRO--DPMNE, the Democrats, and the Movement for All-Macedonian Action--Conservative Party 11, the PPD 9, the Socialists 4, and the PPDSH 1. Run-off elections for unfilled seats will take place on 1 December. -- Stefan Krause WHO WILL BE ROMANIA'S NEW PRIME MINISTER? Romanian media report that the National Peasant Party-Christian Democratic (PNT-CD) will decide today who will be Romania's new premier. The main candidates are Mayor of Bucharest Victor Ciorbea and Senators Radu Vasile and Ulm Spineanu, both of whom were elected to Romania's upper house on the PNT-CD ticket earlier this month. Meanwhile, the opinion poll institute IRSOP says that only about half of those who backed Petre Roman in the first round of the 17 November presidential elections followed his advice to vote for Emil Constantinescu in the second round. Supporters of the Hungarian Democratic Federation of Romania, however, appear to have rallied behind Constantinescu, while 3% of the Party of Social Democracy of Romania's backers also voted for him. Final results of the 17 November ballot are due today. -- Michael Shafir FINAL RESULTS OF FIRST ROUND OF MOLDOVAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. According to the Central Electoral Commission on 18 November, incumbent President Mircea Snegur won 38.71% in the first round of the presidential elections the previous day. He was followed by parliamentary Chairman Petru Lucinshci with 27.69%, Chairman of the Communists' Party Vladimir Voronin (10.26%), Premier Andrei Sangheli (9.5%), and Valeriu Matei, leader of the pro-Western Party of Democratic Forces (8.88%). Four other candidates received between 0.43% and 2.13% of the vote. Snegur and Lucinschi will now take part in a run-off, scheduled for 1 December. -- Zsolt Mato BULGARIAN POLITICIANS DISCUSS CURRENCY BOARD. Outgoing President Zhelyu Zhelev on 18 November met representatives of all caucuses to discuss the possible introduction of a currency board, Duma reported. Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) representatives took part in the discussion, despite an earlier statement by Prime Minister Zhan Videnov saying they would not. Stefan Savov, joint leader of the People's Union, said his party would support a BSP draft law under certain circumstances that would "more or less amount to the resignation of this government." He added that the current opposition will take over only after early parliamentary elections. Ahmed Dogan, chairman of the mainly ethnic Turkish Movement for Rights and Freedom, supported this position. Union of Democratic Forces politicians said they are still consulting with foreign experts and have not yet made a final decision on their stance. -- Stefan Krause RUN ON BULGARIAN STATE SAVINGS BANK. Bulgarians on 18 November formed long lines outside the State Savings Bank (DSK) offices throughout the country, national media reported. Fearing hyperinflation and the unforeseen consequences of the possible introduction of the currency board, people withdrew their savings to convert them into hard currency. DSK Director Bistra Dimitrova told the parliament that the bank's reserves are sufficient to meet its obligations only until next March. The DSK had retained until recently its reputation as trustworthy. Finance Minister Dimitar Kostov told Pari that the lack of confidence in the DSK was "unfounded." -- Maria Koinova [As of 12:00 CET] Compiled by Jan Cleave ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Copyright (c) 1996 Open Media Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUBSCRIBING/UNSUBSCRIBING 1) Compose a message to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU 2) To subscribe, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L FirstName LastName (include your own name) To unsubscribe, write: UNSUBSCRIBE OMRI-L 3) Send the message BACK ISSUES Back issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through the World Wide Web, by FTP and by E-mail. WWW http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Digests/Index.html FTP ftp://22.214.171.124/Pub/DailyDigest/ E-Mail Send the words "index daily-digest" to MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ REPRINT POLICY To receive a copy of OMRI's reprint policy, contact OMRIPUB@OMRI.CZ or see the Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Digests/DigestReprint.html OTHER OMRI PUBLICATIONS TRANSITION OMRI publishes the biweekly journal TRANSITION, which contains expanded analysis of many of the topics in the Daily Digest. For subscription information send an e-mail to TRANSITION@OMRI.CZ or visit the Transition Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Transition/TransitionInfo.html ECONOMIC DIGEST The OMRI Economic Digest is for those who need more detailed economic news from the region. There is a four-week free trial subscription available; for more information, write to ECON@OMRI.CZ or go to the Economic Digest Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Econ/Info.html OMRI RUSSIAN REGIONAL REPORT The OMRI Russian Regional Report is a weekly publication (published every Wednesday) on initially focusing on the local elections taking place throughout Russia during the Fall of 1996. After the election season is over, the Russian Regional Report will continue, turning to broader social, political and economic issues of Russia's regions. To subscribe, please follow these instructions: 1) Compose a message to: MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ 2) In the body of the message, write: SUBSCRIBE REGIONS YourName Fill in your own first and last names where shown 3) Send the message PURSUING BALKAN PEACE Pursuing Balkan Peace focuses on the implementation of the Dayton Accords in the former Yugoslavia. This weekly publication, published every Tuesday, contains both brief news summaries and longer essays on specific events or issues facing the people of the region. To subscribe, please follow these instructions: 1) Compose a message to: MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ 2) In the body of the message, write: SUBSCRIBE BALKAN-PEACE YourName Fill in your own first and last names where shown 3) Send the message RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE OMRI DAILY DIGEST The full text of the OMRI Daily Digest is translated into Russian and distributed the following day. 1) Compose a message to: MAJORDOMO@ISF.RU 2) In the body of the message, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI YourName Fill in your own name where shown 3) Send the message
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.