|I have learned that success is to be measured not so much by the position that one has reached in life as by the obstacles which he has overcome while trying to succeed. - Booker T. Washington|
No. 208, Part II, 25 October 1996
This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest. Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Note to readers: The OMRI Daily Digest will not appear on 28 October 1996, a Czech national holiday. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE BELARUSIAN CONSTITUTIONAL COURT TO RULE ON REFERENDUMS. The Chief Justice of the Constitutional Court, Valeryi Tsikhinya, told Belapan on 23 October that the court will examine both President Alyaksandr Lukashenka's proposed constitution and the parliament's. Under the current constitution, amendments may be put to a national referendum but not new constitutions. If the court finds the two drafts are equivalent to new constitutions, then a referendum would be illegal. The same day, Belarusian TV reported Justice Minister Valentin Sukala (a Lukashenka appointee who was also a member of the All Belarusian Congress) as saying it was not within the Constitutional Court's purview to judge whether the draft constitution proposed by the president was actually a new constitution or amendments to the basic law. -- Ustina Markus BELARUSIAN PRESIDENT'S APPOINTEE TAKES OVER PARLIAMENT'S NEWSPAPER. The conflict over two editors-in-chief of Narodnaya Hazeta--Leanid Yunchyk and Mikhail Shymanski, who were appointed by the parliament and president, respectively--has reached the boiling point, Belarusian Radio reported on 24 October. President Lukashenka has ordered that his decrees on the appointment of Shymanski be implemented, assuring the editorial staff of his support and confidence in their "ability to withstand...all provocations from political bankrupts." The Main Directorate of Sociopolitical Information of the presidential administration has put the blame for the conflict on political forces that are trying to play out a "scandalous farce" around Narodnaya Hazeta. -- Sergei Solodovnikov CANADA TO OFFER SOME $550 MILLION IN CREDITS TO UKRAINE. Canadian Foreign Minister Lloyd Axworthy concluded agreements worth almost $550 million with Ukraine, an RFE/RL correspondent reported on 25 October. Axworthy was in Kyiv on an official visit with some 40 Canadian businessmen who concluded investment deals amounting to around $425 million. In addition, the Canadian government has agreed to offer $100 million to Ukraine in credits and project grants. -- Ustina Markus GERMAN NAVAL ASSISTANCE TO ESTONIA. Nine German minesweepers and a supply ship carrying 20 tons of donated medical supplies arrived in Tallinn on 24 October, ETA reported. Commander Manfred Nielson said Germany will soon give Estonia two used minesweepers with special equipment worth some $26 million and provide training for ten officers and forty seamen. The ships would form the core of the Estonian navy and help clear mines remaining from World War II that are still found in gulfs along Estonia's coast. -- Saulius Girnius LATVIA, SOUTH KOREA SIGN INVESTMENT AGREEMENT. Latvian and South Korean Foreign Ministers Valdis Birkavs and Gong Ro Myung, meeting in Seoul on 23 October, signed an agreement on the protection and promotion of mutual investments, BNS reported. Latvia is hoping to receive South Korean investments in heavy industry, textiles, shipbuilding, forestry, and computer software. The two ministers also discussed increasing bilateral trade, which totaled almost $16 million in 1995. Birkavs and a delegation of businessmen will leave Seoul on 28 October to visit Vietnam, Indonesia, and Thailand. -- Saulius Girnius POLISH PRESIDENT IN GREAT BRITAIN. Aleksander Kwasniewski, during his two-day visit to London from 23-24 October, met with British Foreign Secretary Malcolm Rifkind to discuss issues such as NATO and EU enlargement as well as technical details related to achieving that foreign-policy goal. In an interview with the Financial Times, Kwasniewski said that for the Polish side it is unacceptable that NATO enlargement should be preceded by the reform of the organization and a special treaty between NATO and Russia. Kwasniewski also met with Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Minister John Major. -- Jakub Karpinski POLISH SEJM ON 1997 TAX RATES. In a surprise vote on the 1997 income tax rates, the Sejm has lowered the 21% rate to 20% and introduced an additional rate of 17% for those in the lowest income bracket, Polish dailies reported on 25 October. Both measures had been proposed by the opposition Labor Union (UP). The Sejm also decided that tax rates will range from 17% to 45%. The government's proposal to lower rates for all taxpayers was rejected. The co-ruling Polish Peasant Party's (PSL) motion to vote on UP's proposal was supported by all parliamentary parties except for the PSL's coalition partner, the Democratic Left Alliance. After the vote, Prime Minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz said the outcome of the vote is the "result of political game" before the 1997 parliamentary elections. He called it a "shame for the Sejm's majority." -- Beata Pasek CZECH PREMIER, PRESIDENT DISCUSS CZECH-GERMAN DECLARATION. Vaclav Klaus and Vaclav Havel met on 24 October to discuss how the Czech-German declaration should be adopted, Czech media reported. Preparations for the declaration, which is intended to promote reconciliation between the two nations, began almost two years ago. The Czech and German governments hope that their parliaments will approve the declaration by December. Some Czech opposition parties, however, have suggested that the parliament be given the right to either change the text of the declaration or pass an accompanying resolution. Both Klaus and Havel categorically reject such an option. Klaus has said any additional resolution would "depreciate the declaration," while Havel argues that "it is absurd that the parliament should adopt a resolution on its resolution." -- Jiri Pehe SLOVAKIA PLANS REFERENDUM ON EU, NATO. Pavol Kacic, secretary of the ruling Movement for a Democratic Slovakia (HZDS), has announced that Slovakia may hold a referendum next year on NATO and EU membership, Slovak media reported on 24 October. The HZDS's junior coalition partners--the Slovak National Party and the Association of Workers--have frequently questioned the need for Western integration. Following numerous signals that Slovakia has fallen from the first tier of candidates for NATO and EU membership, Prime Minister and HZDS Chairman Vladimir Meciar has recently begun questioning the benefits of joining such organizations. Kacic also denied recent reports in the Russian media that Meciar has a brain tumor and is preparing to undergo surgery in Germany. -- Sharon Fisher SLOVAK PARLIAMENT WITHDRAWS PENAL CODE AMENDMENT. The parliament has withdrawn from its current agenda the controversial amendment on the protection of the republic, Slovak media reported on 24 October. The legislation has drawn strong warnings from the West. But HZDS legal expert Jan Cuper told Reuters that there is no direct relationship between the withdrawal and recent U.S. and EU criticism. The parliament is expected to approve the amendment in a future session after toning down controversial points (see OMRI Daily Digest, 22 October 1996). Also on 24 October, the parliament approved the law on parliamentary procedures, which had been vetoed by President Michal Kovac. A provision preventing the president and other constitutional officials from participating in closed parliamentary sessions was dropped. Meanwhile, the Council of Europe is waiting for the Slovak government's response to a confidential report criticizing its human rights record, Narodna obroda reported on 25 October. -- Sharon Fisher UPDATE ON HUNGARIAN PRIVATIZATION SCANDAL. The supervisory board of the state privatization agency APV on 24 October submitted an investigative report on the Marta Tocsik case (see OMRI Daily Digest, 24 October 1994), Hungarian media reported. The board blames a number of top privatization officials for the scandal and questions whether Tocsik, a lawyer who received an 804 million forint ($5.1 million) consulting fee for negotiating with municipalities on the APV's behalf, did any work of substance. It also says that APV officials committed numerous irregularities in swapping shares for land with local governments. The board plans to send the report to the prime minister, the parliamentary constitutional and economic committees, the special investigative commission, and the State Auditing Office. Also on 24 October, the government appointed eight out of eleven new members of the APV board of directors. -- Sharon Fisher and Petronella Gaal HUNGARIAN POLICE INTERROGATE NEO-NAZI. Budapest police are interrogating Albert Szabo after establishing that statements made during a 23 October rally could be interpreted as an incitement against a community, Hungarian media reported. Szabo, head of the Hungarian People's Welfare Federation, had called for the resettling of Hungarian Jews to Israel. The presidium of the far-right Hungarian Justice and Life Party on 24 October dissociated itself from Szabo's rally and asked police to keep both him and his associates away from their gathering outside the parliament scheduled for 27 October. -- Sharon Fisher SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE U.S. ARMS FOR BOSNIAN FEDERATION ARRIVE. A U.S. arms shipment for the Bosnian Federation army arrived on 24 October in the Croatian port of Ploce, AFP reported. In addition to tanks, helicopters, and armored personnel carriers, the $100 million "Train and Equip" program includes some 45,000 M16 assault rifles and ammunition, and 800 M60 machine-guns, 840 anti-tank weapons. The U.S. aid is aimed at creating a military balance between the Muslim-Croat federation and Bosnian Serbs. Meanwhile, James Pardew, U.S. envoy for military stabilization in the Balkans, told Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic that a last shipment of military supplies will be conditional on the resignation of Hasan Cengic, the Muslim deputy defense minister. Cengic, a Muslim hard-liner, is suspected of blocking the implementation of a defense law calling for a joint command for the Muslim-Croatian forces. -- Daria Sito Sucic BOSNIAN UPDATE. Bosnian Serb presidency member Momcilo Krajisnik has told Roberts Owen, international arbitrator for the disputed northern town of Brcko, that a wrong decision on Brcko would be catastrophic for peace, relations between the two entities, and the functioning of joint institutions, AFP reported. In other news, Bosnian Serb assembly speaker Dragan Kalinic said the Muslim and Croatian deputies must swear an oath of allegiance to the Republika Srpska before taking up their duties. Muslim and Croatian deputies, together with Serbian deputies of the opposition coalition Alliance for Peace and Progress, refused to take the oath at the 19 October inauguration of the Bosnian Serb Assembly. -- Daria Sito Sucic INTERNATIONAL TRIBUNAL SAYS MASS GRAVE BODIES ARE FROM VUKOVAR HOSPITAL. Clint Williamson of the International Criminal Tribunal for Former Yugoslavia confirmed on 24 October that bodies found in a mass grave in eastern Croatia were patients from the Vukovar hospital killed by Serbs in 1991, international and local media reported. Some 90 autopsies and 30 tentative identifications have been carried out on the 200 bodies exhumed. Almost all those identified appear on the list of names from the Vukovar hospital, according to Williamson. The Hague-based tribunal has indicted three former Yugoslav army officers for the Vukovar hospital killings. Meanwhile, Manfred Nowak, a member of the UN Human Rights Commission, said on 22 October that some people registered as missing in Croatia are being secretly held in concentration camps in Serbia, Hina reported. Nowak said that documentation on the 1,400 missing persons existed but Belgrade has not submitted it to international organizations. -- Daria Sito Sucic SERBIAN PARTY OFFICIAL ON SECRET SERVICE, CRIME FIGHTING. Radmilo Bogdanovic, a high ranking official of the governing Socialist Party of Serbia, told the daily Dnevni telegraf on 23 October that the government will redouble efforts to fight crime and even abolish the state security service. Bogdanovic added that the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia will adopt a legislative system ensuring that federal Yugoslavia "will be well rounded as a legal state." But when questioned about the activities of war criminals--in particular the internationally wanted Zeljko Raznatovic, alias Arkan--Bogdanovic replied that he took his hat off to "anyone who helped the Serbian people [in Bosnia and Croatia] and fought as a volunteer." -- Stan Markotich YUGOSLAV, AUSTRIAN OFFICIALS MEET. Milan Milutinovic, foreign minister of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, arrived in Vienna on 23 October for an official visit, the first by a high-ranking Belgrade official since 1991. According to Tanjug, the main purpose of Milutinovic's trip is to help restore bilateral ties and promote the normalization process. Milutinovic told Austria's ORF Television that the Austro-Hungarian empire had adopted "a more balanced approach" than Austria today, adding that "I cannot tell you that as foreign minister but only as a private person." Austrian Foreign Minister Wolfgang Schuessel said that Belgrade and Vienna were only a "few days" away from signing a bilateral economic accord, Reuters reported on 24 October. Meanwhile, Nasa Borba on 25 October reported that Milutinovic will travel to Zagreb next week. -- Stan Markotich CROATIAN DEFENSE MINISTRY TO SUE INDEPENDENT PAPER. Croatian Defense Minister Gojko Susak has said his ministry will sue the independent weekly Globus over a report that a Bosnian Croat war crimes suspect is living in the hotel in Split owned by the ministry, international agencies reported on 24 October. According to Globus, Gen. Ivica Rajic, who is accused by the Hague-based criminal tribunal of massacring Muslim civilians during the Muslim-Croatian war, is living in the state-owned hotel. Meanwhile, AFP on 24 October quoted a tribunal official as saying that the tribunal has been informed of the alleged presence of Rajic in Croatia. -- Daria Sito Sucic MACEDONIA REACHES AGREEMENT WITH LONDON CLUB. Following four days of negotiations in New York, Macedonia and the London Club of commercial banks have reached agreement on reducing and rescheduling the country's $644 million debt to the club, Nova Makedonija reported on 25 October. The deal reduces that debt by $364 million and stipulates Macedonia's acceptance of 4.99% of the former Yugoslavia's debt to the club ($280 million) and the rescheduling of payments on that sum over 15 years, with a four-year grace period. Macedonia is the third former Yugoslav republic to reach an agreement with the club. Slovenia accepted 18% of the debt and Croatia 29.5%. -- Michael Wyzan SLOVENIAN UPDATE. For two hours on 24 October, most factories in Slovenia shut down as part of a nation-wide general strike action, Reuters reported. According to some estimates, nearly 300,000 workers took part in the action, which is in protest of employers' plans to reduce benefits in 1997. In other news, the European parliament on 24 October approved a partnership accord between Slovenia and the EU--a move "which could pave the way for EU membership," AFP reported. Finally, a poll published recently by the daily Dnevnik shows the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDS) in the lead ahead of the 10 November elections. A recent telephone survey in Delo, however, suggests that the LDS is trailing in rural constituencies, behind the Slovenian People's Party. -- Stan Markotich ROMANIA, NATO WRAP UP LATEST ROUND OF TALKS. The third round of "enhanced dialogue" between NATO and Romania came to an end in Brussels on 23 October, Radio Bucharest reported. The talks ended the second phase of evaluating candidates for NATO membership. NATO Secretary- General Javier Solana is expected to submit a report on the talks with all prospective candidates at a NATO summit meeting in early December, which is to set the agenda for next year's NATO summit on the alliance's enlargement. RFE/RL reported on 24 October that while Romania and Slovakia are still under consideration to be among the "first group" of countries admitted to the alliance, they are unlikely to end up with an invitation to join. Slovenia has a good chance, however, alongside the Czech Republic, Poland, and Hungary. -- Zsolt Mato and Michael Shafir TWO CANDIDATES IN DNIESTER "PRESIDENTIAL" ELECTIONS. Only two contenders have registered as candidates in the December "presidential" elections in the breakaway Dniester region, BASA-Press reported on 24 October. They are the current leader of the region, Igor Smirnov, and Vladimir Malakhov, manager of the Tiraspol Mestprombyt Association. The deadline for submitting supporting signatures, as required by the electoral law, was 24 October. -- Michael Shafir MORE ON BULGARIAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS. A 24 October poll shows the united opposition presidential candidate Petar Stoyanov with an 11% lead over Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) candidate Ivan Marazov, Reuters reported. Bulgarian Business Bloc leader Georges Ganchev, a populist candidate offering an alternative to those disillusioned with both the BSP and the Union of Democratic Forces, is close behind Marazov. Sofia University political analyst Ognian Minchev said Ganchev could become the next president if he is backed by socialist supporters in a second round of voting, RFE/RL reported. Today is the last day of the election campaign. -- Maria Koinova ALBANIAN LOCAL ELECTION RESULTS. The Central Electoral Commission, announcing on 24 October the official results of the first round of the local elections, has confirmed that the Democratic Party scored an overwhelming victory in 88% of the county halls, Dita Informacion reported on 25 October. The Socialists gained only 10%. Democrats will govern in 37 municipalities and the Socialists in four. The Greek minority Human Rights Party--considered influential in the south of the country--gained less than 3%. According to the commission, run-offs will take place between Democratic and Socialist candidates in 22 municipalities. -- Dukagjin Gorani [As of 12:00 CET] Compiled by Jan Cleave ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Copyright (c) 1996 Open Media Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUBSCRIBING/UNSUBSCRIBING 1) Compose a message to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU 2) To subscribe, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L FirstName LastName (include your own name) To unsubscribe, write: UNSUBSCRIBE OMRI-L 3) Send the message BACK ISSUES Back issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through the World Wide Web, by FTP and by E-mail. 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