|Upon the education of the people of this country the fate of this country depends. - Benjamin Disraeli 1804-1881|
No. 200, Part II, 15 October 1996
This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest. Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html ************************************************************************ Do you need sharply focused economic news? OMRI's weekly Economic Digest provides thorough coverage of business and financial developments throughout the region. The latest issue includes stories on Bulgaria's budget woes, the latest on privatization bond trading in Slovakia, and how Russia's Central Bank recently averted a crisis. For subscription and rate information, please send a message to firstname.lastname@example.org *********************************************************************** CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UKRAINIAN MINERS' UNION LEADERS SENTENCED FOR JULY STRIKE. Petro Kyt and Mykhaylo Skrynsky, leaders of the Independent Miners' Union, were sentenced in Luhansk for organizing an illegal strike in July to protest unpaid back wages, UNIAN reported on 10 October. The labor leaders were given prison terms of two and a half and three years, respectively, for disturbing the public peace and disrupting traffic. Their attorneys plan to appeal to the Supreme Court. The miners' union has claimed the charges are part of a government campaign to suppress the independent labor movement. Another union activist awaiting trial for similar charges, Mykola Krylov, accused Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko of purposely withholding wages to provoke miners into striking, in order to clamp down on the unions and oust his political rival, Donetsk Governor Volodymyr Shcherban, Ukrainian TV reported on 11 October. -- Chrystyna Lapychak UKRAINE HOSTS FEDERAL YUGOSLAV DELEGATION. A parliamentary delegation from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia paid an official visit to Ukraine on 14 October, ITAR-TASS reported. Led by parliamentary speaker Radoman Bozovic, the delegation discussed cooperation and how Ukraine could help restore Serbia-Montenegro's economy with Ukrainian President Leonid Kuchma, parliamentary speaker Oleksandr Moroz, Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko, and Foreign Minister Hennadii Udovenko. Kuchma told the UN administrator of eastern Slavonia, Jacques Klein, who was in Kyiv the same day, that Ukraine had not stood on the sidelines during the Balkan war and will not do so during peace and reconstruction. Kuchma suggested that Ukraine could help supply specialists to aid Belgrade in its economic reconstruction, and said that Ukraine might send more troops to the UN contingent in eastern Slavonia. -- Ustina Markus BELARUSIAN, RUSSIAN DEPUTIES DISCUSS INTEGRATION. A round-table discussion between Russian and Belarusian parliamentary deputies in Moscow on 14 October focused on the issue of Russo-Belarusian integration, Russian Public Television reported. Because the meeting was organized by independent research centers from both countries, many Russian Duma deputies expected it to be an anti-Lukashenka and anti- integration meeting. However, of those attending -- including deputies from the Russian Communist and Yabloko factions and all five parliamentary factions in Belarus -- both sides agreed there was not a single solidly-backed political force in Belarus that opposed integration. -- Ustina Markus LITHUANIAN PREMIER ON SEA-BORDER DISPUTE WITH LATVIA. Mindaugas Stankevicius said on 14 October that he hopes Latvia's parliament will not ratify agreements on offshore oil exploration with the U.S. company Amoco and OPAB of Sweden, and instead draw up new trilateral agreements with Lithuania and the two companies, Radio Lithuania reported. Stankevicius said he had made that proposal to his counterpart Andris Skele in Palanga on 11 October. He called Latvian Foreign Minister Valdis Birkavs's proposal to take the countries' sea-border dispute to an international court an attempt to "avoid responsibility." He also denied Latvian media reports that Lithuania is trying to attract oil companies from the East, saying Lithuania wants to keep Amoco in the Baltic Sea. He said Lithuania's ambassador in Washington had already informed Amoco about the trilateral agreement proposal. -- Saulius Girnius ONE VICTORY, ONE DEFEAT FOR POLISH ENVIRONMENTALISTS. Reconstruction of the largest radio tower in Europe has been definitively halted by a decision of the Supreme Administrative Court in Lodz, Polish dailies reported on 12 October. Polish Telecom (the tower's owner) claims that if the tower is not rebuilt, Polish programming may no longer be transmitted to Poles living in the former Soviet Union. Polish environmentalists and local residents claimed the 646-meter-high structure posed health risks. Environmentalists were less pleased by a decision to more than double the number of wolves targeted during the November-February hunting season, from last year's 30 to 72, Reuters reported on 13 October. Poland's 208 wolves are blamed for killing 500 deer, 80 wild boars, and 230 sheep in mountainous southeastern Poland. French film star Brigitte Bardot last year called on then President Lech Walesa to ban the "massacre" of Poland's wolves. -- Ben Slay PIRATE POETRY EDITION IN POLAND. A collection of Polish Nobel laureate Wislawa Szymborska's (see OMRI Daily Digest, 4 October 1996) poems have appeared in Warsaw in a pirate edition, Gazeta Wyborcza reported on 15 October. The collection, Great Number, was originally published in 1976 by the Czytelnik publishing house. The pirate publishers identified themselves only as the Poetry Lovers Society, giving no address for themselves or the printer. The book is being sold at street-side bookstands and distributed by wholesale book traders. Booksellers risk confiscation of books, and the publishers potentially up to two years of prison. Czytelnik recently re-released Szymborska's volume End and Beginning, published in 1993. A new selection of 101 of her poems will be published soon. -- Jakub Karpinski SLOVAK PRIME MINISTER ON NATO, EU. Speaking on Slovak Radio on 14 October, Vladimir Meciar reconfirmed that his country wants to join the European Union and NATO as soon as possible and again placed the blame for Slovakia's lack of progress in that regard on his critics. Meciar said Slovakia has some advantages in comparison with other countries, "but also has the huge disadvantage of questioning itself." The premier said "the level of political dialogue is low" and that "certain individuals, who are driven by their personal traumas," are sending signals abroad that damage Slovakia's image. Meciar said objections to developments in Slovakia "are being raised during every discussion I take part in," but when he analyzes the contents of such objections, "they prove to be insignificant." -- Jiri Pehe THREE SLOVAK PARTIES TO JOIN 'BLUE OPPOSITION.' An agreement on cooperation among the Democratic Party (DS), the Democratic Union (DU), and the Christian Democratic Movement (KDH) will be signed by the end of October, Slovak media reported on 15 October. "Voters are waiting for a real alternative to the current governmental power," said DU Chairman Jozef Moravcik. "Our objective is to form the next government, in which the KDH, the DU, and the DS will have a majority," Moravcik said. The so-called "blue opposition" coalition is likely to put forward a common list of candidates in the next general elections. -- Anna Siskova HUNGARY'S DISMISSED PRIVATIZATION MINISTER RESENTFUL IN OPEN LETTER. In an open letter to his Socialist Party, Tamas Suchman blamed his dismissal on the media and the Socialists' junior partner in the governing coalition, the Alliance of Free Democrats (SZDSZ), Hungarian media reported. He accused the media of bias, claiming "some of the press have not pardoned us for our 1994 electoral success." Interior Minister Gabor Kuncze of the SZDSZ described the letter as the statement of a hurt man, and said his party had always been against political interference in the privatization process. Meanwhile, the Socialist Party presidium issued a statement on 14 October refuting statements by opposition parties and the Free Democrats that left-wing policy is marked by corruption. The statement described the conduct of opposition parties in the scandal that led to Suchman's dismissal as irresponsible and accused the Free Democrats of trying to wriggle out of the responsibility of joint governance. -- Zsofia Szilagyi SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE BOSNIAN SERB LEADER SAYS SEPARATION STILL A PRIORITY. Independence from the Croat-Muslim federation and union with Serbia still top the governing Serbian Democratic Party's (SDS) agenda, Aleksa Buha, the foreign minister of the Republika Srpska and head of the SDS said on 14 October. He demanded that the U.S., United Kingdom, France, Germany, Russia, China, and the UN set up diplomatic offices in Pale. Buha added that the Republika Srpska's government and parliament will meet there on 19 October, news agencies and Nasa Borba reported. Buha said the Serbs might take until 28 October to return to the three-man Bosnian presidency, which he said will determine its own rules and procedures. -- Patrick Moore CROATS BLOCK SERB REFUGEES FROM RETURNING HOME. Bosnian Croats prevented 250 Serbs from visiting their homes in Drvar on 13 October, forcing the refugees to go back to Banja Luka, Nasa Borba reported. Tens of thousands of Croatian and Bosnian Serbs fled the Croatian advance roughly one year ago. They have since charged the Croats with conducting a policy of "ethnic cleansing" and using violence and intimidation against the mainly elderly or infirm Serbs who stayed behind. The Dayton agreement guarantees freedom of movement and the right to return to one's home. Onasa quoted a UNHCR spokesman on 14 October saying the incident was particularly "tragic" since the association of Serbs from Drvar is one of the few voices in the Republika Srpska calling for all people to return to their homes. -- Patrick Moore BOSNIAN MUSLIM REBEL'S BACKERS ARRESTED. Muslim authorities arrested 18 people in Bihac and Velika Kladusa on suspicion of war crimes over the weekend, AFP reported on 14 October. Critics charge that the 18 are being hounded because they support former local kingpin Fikret Abdic, a bitter enemy of the Sarajevo government who has left the country. A judge released 13 but ruled the remaining five could be held for a month. That violates the 1996 Rome agreement between all three sides in Bosnia not to hold any suspects who have not been indicted by the war crimes tribunal in The Hague. Meanwhile in Sarajevo, the first bus from Belgrade since April 1992 arrived on 14 October, Nasa Borba and Onasa reported. -- Patrick Moore MORE CALLS FOR DELAYING BOSNIA'S MUNICIPAL ELECTIONS. Echoing comments by OSCE chief monitor Ed van Thijn (see OMRI Daily Digest, 14 October 1996), UN human-rights rapporteur Elisabeth Rehn said on 14 October that municipal elections should be postponed until spring because of continuing human-rights violations as well as the winter weather, AFP reported. Former Bosnian Prime Minister Haris Silajdzic said the elections should wait until spring "because time is needed to remove evident irregularities and mistakes noticed during the September polls." A final decision on when the elections will be held will be taken this week, according to Robert Frowick, head of the OSCE mission in Bosnia. Meanwhile, the international community's High Representative, Carl Bildt, urged the OSCE to continue follow-up work after the elections. The agency recently decided it has neither the mandate "nor structures necessary for the installation of elected officials." Installing the candidates elected in Bosnia's September general elections has proved difficult, and more problems are expected as Muslims will presumably be elected to municipal councils in the Republika Srpska. -- Daria Sito Sucic OPPOSITION BOYCOTTS ZAGREB CITY COUNCIL. The Alliance of Opposition Parties began a 30-day boycott of Zagreb's city council to force President Franjo Tudjman to accept one of their own as the Croatian capital's mayor, international and local agencies reported. The six opposition parties warned last month they would boycott the council if Tudjman does not agree to an opposition mayor, but received no response. The statement warned of additional pressure if Tudjman failed to respond positively to their requests. In the past year, Tudjman has rejected four candidates for mayor nominated by the council's opposition majority, arguing that the capital cannot be run by opponents of state policy. -- Daria Sito Sucic CROATIAN PARLIAMENT APPROVES BILL ON PROPERTY OWNERSHIP. The lower house of the Croatian parliament approved a bill compensating people whose property was nationalized or confiscated under communist rule, Slobodna Dalmacija reported on 15 October. An estimated $57 billion worth of property is involved, including land, apartments, and business locations. Justice Minister Miroslav Separovic said the government strove for a balance between the state's means and legitimate requests for restitution. Critics said the bill does not return enough property. The Ministry of Justice has registered more than 67,000 applications for restitution, including several hundred applications by the Roman Catholic and Serbian Orthodox churches, as well as by the Croatian Jewish community. The latter criticized the legislation because it ignored assets seized by fascists during World War II. -- Daria Sito Sucic BELGRADE JOURNAL PUBLISHES VUKOVAR ACCOUNT. A member of the federal Yugoslav army has become the first official to give a statement to the Belgrade media confirming that Serbs committed atrocities after the fall of the Croatian city of Vukovar in 1991, Reuters reported on 14 October. According to an unnamed soldier cited in Dnevni Telegraf, drunken Serbian paramilitaries assaulted and robbed Croatian men before taking them to a location just outside Vukovar to be executed. The Yugoslav army has denied all charges that it was aware of such atrocities or that it was in any way connected to them. Reuters also quoted Dejan Anastasijevic, a journalist with the independent weekly Vreme, speculating that the soldier's remarks "may be a sign that [Serbian President Slobodan] Milosevic is preparing the ground for extraditing" Colonel Veselin Sljivancanin, indicted for participating in the Vukovar atrocities. -- Stan Markotich LJUBLJANA-BELGRADE RELATIONS AT A STALEMATE. Ivo Vajgl, a representative of Slovenia's foreign ministry said on 14 October that despite Belgrade media reports to the contrary, relations between Slovenia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia are not likely to advance or improve in the near future. The Ljubljana daily Delo quoted Vajgl saying that "except for the fact that we've both recognized each other, we have yet to get any official word from Belgrade that it intends to normalize bilateral ties." Vajgl said many "open" questions remain between Ljubljana and Belgrade, Onasa reported, notably regarding the former Yugoslavia's succession. -- Stan Markotich ROMANIAN POLITICIANS PAY RESPECT TO ORTHODOX RELICS. Politicians joined thousands of Romanian Orthodox worshippers visiting the northeastern city of Iasi on 14 October, on a pilgrimage to relics believed to be those of St. Andrew, Reuters reported. The faithful queued for hours at Iasi cathedral to touch a silver casket holding the relics, which were flown in from Greece by the Romanian Orthodox Church. Half of the Romanian presidential candidates took their turn at the casket, including incumbent President Ion Iliescu (a former communist) and his two main rivals, Democratic Convention leader Emil Constantinescu and the leader of the Social Democratic Union, Petre Roman. St. Andrew, one of the 12 Apostles, is believed to have brought Christianity to what are today the Romanian lands. -- Zsolt Mato NEW COALITION GOVERNMENT IN BULGARIA? A new coalition government of the opposition Union of Democratic Forces (SDS) and a splinter faction of the ruling Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) will be formed after the 27 October presidential elections, Kontinent predicted on 15 October. According to the daily, the BSP will split immediately after the elections. SDS Chairman Ivan Kostov was cited as saying that the time is ripe for his party to assist in the BSP's breakup. Dimitar Popov, prime minister of Bulgaria's first post-communist coalition cabinet in 1990- 1991, said the idea of a coalition had been ripening for some time in both the BSP and SDS. Popov said he was asked whether he would head such a government and said a coalition was necessary but difficult to achieve given the present confrontation between the two blocs. Sources within the BSP said there has been no consideration of starting talks with the opposition. -- Stefan Krause ALARMING STATISTICS IN BULGARIA. The cost of living in Bulgaria has tripled in 1996, Trud and Kontinent reported on 15 October, citing a survey of the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions. Due to rising prices and high inflation, a four-member family needs 991,522 leva ($4,593) annually to cover its basic needs. In September, one person's monthly living expenses were 20,658 leva, half of that for food. Prices of bread and cheese -- the most basic staple in Bulgaria -- nearly doubled over the last three months. Meanwhile, Duma reported that Bulgaria's population has decreased by 600,000 over the last seven years due to a declining birth rate. The survey also showed a high number of extramarital children and a changed ethnic structure. The surveyors also noted that children were putting greater value on material prosperity, and that they were increasingly victimized by violence, prostitution, drugs, and other criminality. -- Maria Koinova PRO-GOVERNMENT DAILY SUGGESTS ALBANIAN SOCIALISTS BEHIND MURDER. Police have arrested two men suspected of the 26 July murder of Bujar Kaloshi, general director of Albanian prisons, Albania reported on 15 October. The pro-government daily claims the two suspects, whose identities were not disclosed, were involved in a conspiracy involving a "terrorist organization of a political character." The order to kill Kaloshi, the paper claims, came from people who are currently imprisoned in Tepelena, adding that "the heads of the organization have proven links with some of the most well-known names of the old communist nomenclature." Socialist Party leader Fatos Nano is currently serving a prison term in Tepelena, but Albania -- known for its sensationalist and often careless reporting -- does not mention him explicitly. Police arrested another murder suspect in early August. -- Fabian Schmidt [As of 12:00 CET] Compiled by Tom Warner ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Copyright (c) 1996 Open Media Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUBSCRIBING/UNSUBSCRIBING 1) Compose a message to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU 2) To subscribe, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L FirstName LastName (include your own name) To unsubscribe, write: UNSUBSCRIBE OMRI-L 3) Send the message BACK ISSUES Back issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through the World Wide Web, by FTP and by E-mail. 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