Experience is in the fingers and head. The heart is inexperienced. - Henry David Thoreau
OMRI DAILY DIGEST

No. 194, Part II, 7 October 1996

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of
the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available
through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

UKRAINIAN TEACHERS HOLD RALLY TO PROTEST UNPAID WAGES. Between 10,000
and 15,000 teachers and university professors staged a rally in Kyiv on
6 October to protest against unpaid wages and deteriorating conditions
in the country's schools and universities, Western agencies reported on
the same day. The teachers are the latest among many categories of
public sector employees to hold public protests against the government's
wage arrears, which reportedly amount to $1.5 billion. The educators,
who have not been paid for months, said that the nation's students were
most effected by government cutbacks in education, which have created a
shortage of textbooks and left many schools unable to pay for badly-
needed repairs. -- Chrystyna Lapychak

ETHNIC RUSSIANS IN CRIMEA FORM DUMA TO DEFEND RIGHTS. Russian activists
in Crimea held a congress on 5 October and founded a Duma, or
legislature, to defend their rights and push for a new Slavic union
between Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, ITAR-TASS reported on the same day.
Some 80 delegates from various separatist parties and groups adopted a
declaration, claiming the right to use acts of civil disobedience in
cases of ethnic discrimination against them in the region. The document
also said the group reserved the right to use arms "in the event of
genocide or open terror against the Russian people or its
representatives, as well as attempts to colonize the native Russian
territories." -- Chrystyna Lapychak

UKRAINIAN DEFENSE MINISTER ON NATO. Oleksander Kuzmuk reaffirmed
Ukraine's position on NATO expansion, saying Kyiv recognized Poland's
right to join NATO, but stressed that Ukraine was opposed to the
deployment of nuclear weapons in Poland, ITAR-TASS reported on 5
October. Kuzmuk was speaking at the conclusion of Polish-Ukrainian
military maneuvers at Nowa Deba in eastern Poland. The same day Kuzmuk
met with his Kazakstani counterpart, Alibek Kazimov, in Kyiv for an
unofficial visit. The two discussed cooperation in the military
industrial complex (MIC), including Ukraine building ships for
Kazakstan's navy. Kazimov also met with Valerii Malev, Ukraine's
Minister for Machine Building, Conversion and the MIC. -- Ustina Markus

LUKASHENKA SENDS LETTER TO COUNCIL OF EUROPE. In line with President
Alyaksandr Lukashenka's contradictory policies, he sent a letter to the
Council of Europe (CE) at the end of August which would have shocked his
usual supporters--pensioners and orthodox communists, NTV and Russian
Public television (ORT) reported on 5 October. In the letter, Lukashenka
writes that "Belarus is actively seeking to cooperate with European
structures, including NATO," and hopes to be accepted into the CE as
soon as possible. Lukashenka also wrote that he was committed to
economic reforms and the protection of civil rights, and that these
goals were the reason behind holding the referendum on a new
constitution. Deputy parliamentary speaker Vasil Novikau said the letter
reflected the president's double standards, whereby Lukashenka upheld
one policy for domestic consumption and another for the West. In public
appearances in Belarus, Lukashenka has only advocated "market socialism"
and has accused NATO ambassadors of plotting against him. -- Ustina
Markus

BALTIC ASSEMBLY MEETS IN RIGA. The ninth session of the Baltic Assembly,
consisting of 20 parliament deputies from each of the Baltic states. met
in Riga on 5-6 October, BNS reported. Latvian President Guntis Ulmanis
noted that Baltic independence would be strengthened by membership in
the European Union and NATO. Assembly Chairman Ivars Kezbers, however,
said that it was unrealistic to believe that the Baltic states could
join either organization by the end of the century and urged them to
cooperate to bring their military forces up to NATO standards. He hoped
Latvia and Lithuania could reach a compromise on the sea-border question
and not have to resort to international courts or mediators. -- Saulius
Girnius

WORSENING PUBLIC IMAGE OF POLISH TV. After almost six months in office,
Polish TV (TVP) Director Ryszard Miazek had a positive rating of only
30%, according to a poll by the Public Opinion Research Center (CBOS).
Former TVP Director Wieslaw Walendziak, by contrast, had a 61% approval
rating as late as March, Polish media reported. The number of viewers
negatively evaluating TVP programs rose from 10% to 18%, while the
percentage of people considering TVP independent decreased from 51% to
40%. Miazek said he is not responsible for TVP's plummeting image since
his programming schedule has only been on the air for two weeks. --
Beata Pasek

CZECH PRESIDENT COMMENTS ON POLITICS, CELEBRATES BIRTHDAY. Vaclav Havel
said on 6 October, in his regular radio address, that "it would not be
good if there existed [in the Czech Republic] a dictatorship of the
parliament, and if the government were to be only an arm of the
parliament." Havel was reacting to recent statements by Prime Minister
Vaclav Klaus, who accused the opposition Social Democrats of trying to
"govern through the parliament" and turn his government into a "puppet
government." On 5 October, Havel celebrated his 60th birthday at a party
in Prague's Archa Theater. A number of celebrities and politicians,
including Klaus and parliament chairman Milos Zeman, attended the party.
-- Jiri Pehe

SLOVAK ACTORS' STRIKE INTERRUPTED. Slovak National Theater (SND)
employees ended their strike on 4 October after the reinstatement of
Stage Director Peter Mikulik by the new SND general director, Miroslav
Fischer, Slovak media reported. Mikulik's dismissal in July by Culture
Minister Ivan Hudec caused an outburst of criticism, and his replacement
-- actor Lubomir Paulovic -- quit after little more than one month on
the job. Fischer, who was a candidate of the ruling Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia in the last elections, reappointed Mikulik after
talks with the theater's trade union. Mikulik's reinstatement for the
1996-97 season was one of the actors' conditions for ending the strike.
Fischer also agreed with the actors' other conditions; the holding of a
public competition to replace Mikulik that will include SND drama
representatives on the selection committee. -- Sharon Fisher

SLOVAK HUNGARIANS COMPLAIN TO EU, NATO. More than 500 ethnic Hungarians
gathered on 5 October in Komarno, where they were acquainted with an
open letter to EU and NATO countries signed by their top political and
cultural representatives, Slovak media reported. Titled "Democracy is
Endangered," the protest focused not only on the situation of minorities
but also on more general trends. The letter pointed to what they
considered the Slovak government's moves to restrict democracy,
jeopardize regional security, centralize state power, and nationalize
culture. In particular, the statement criticized the language law, the
laws on foundations and universities, the situation of minority
education, the country's new administrative division, and the recently
approved law on parliamentary negotiation order that bars Hungarian
deputies from addressing the parliament in their mother tongue. --
Sharon Fisher

HUNGARIAN GOVERNMENT SACKS MINISTER AND PRIVATIZATION AGENCY MANAGEMENT.
The Hungarian government on 4 October sacked the entire board of the
State Privatization and Holding Co. (APV), after revelations that the
APV had made irregular payments to a consultant who negotiated with
municipalities on APV's behalf, Hungarian dailies reported on 7 October.
The cabinet ordered the consultant, Marta Tocsik, to repay the more than
800 million forint ($5.1 million) "success fee" to the treasury within
15 days. Prime Minister Gyula Horn wanted to spare Industry and Trade
Minister Tamas Suchman, but upon pressure from both the Socialists and
the junior coalition party Alliance of Free Democrats, he called upon
Suchman to resign on 7 October. Suchman has been in charge of
privatization since January 1995 and was named industry and trade
minister only last month. Parallel with his nomination, supervision of
the privatization process was put under the Industry and Trade Ministry.
-- Zsofia Szilagyi

THOUSANDS DEMONSTRATE AGAINST GOVERNMENT AUSTERITY MEASURES IN BUDAPEST.
Concurrent with the increasing privatization scandal, the opposition
Hungarian Democratic Forum on 5 October staged a demonstration outside
parliament, protesting the government's austerity program, Hungarian
media reported on 7 October. Vice President and former Prime Minister
Peter Boross sharply criticized government policies, especially those on
health care and pension reform. The estimated 15,000 strong crowd called
for the re-establishment of social welfare payments, a return to three-
year maternity leaves, and the elimination of a 2,000 forint ($20)
monthly fee for university education. -- Zsofia Szilagyi

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN SERBS BOYCOTT PRESIDENCY, PARLIAMENT. Representatives from Pale
failed to attend the opening of the new all-Bosnian legislature and a
session of the three-man presidency in Sarajevo on 5 October,
Oslobodjenje reported. Serbian presidency member Momcilo Krajisnik said
that he feared for the Serbs' safety, but it also appears that he was
unwilling to take the loyalty oath to Bosnia-Herzegovina that was
administered at the session. The Bosnian Serb leadership was also
probably still angry that the Muslim presidency member and current
presidency chair, Alija Izetbegovic, agreed to establish diplomatic
relations with Belgrade last week without consulting Pale. Krajisnik
denied that he and the others had staged a boycott but instead stressed
the safety issue and added that the Serbs are ready to participate in
joint institutions. International officials have protested to Pale, but
it is not clear who has the next move in the ongoing chess game. --
Patrick Moore

BOSNIAN LOCAL ELECTIONS TO GO AHEAD IN NOVEMBER. The OSCE's supervisor
of the Bosnian elections, U.S. diplomat Robert Frowick, said on 4
October that the vote for local officials will go ahead on 22-24
November. It is not clear what he intends to do about the extensive
political engineering that had been involved in the voter registration
process and forced the postponement of the local ballot from the
original 14 September date. Frowick said that he wants the elections to
take place before the international military presence is reduced or
withdrawn, the BBC noted. But critics claim that he is under strong
political pressure from the Clinton administration to wind things up as
quickly as possible, so that the president can claim to the U.S.
electorate that things are proceeding on schedule. -- Patrick Moore

CROATS LEAVE INAUGURAL SESSION OF SARAJEVO CANTONAL ASSEMBLY. Members of
the ruling Croatian Democratic Community (HDZ) staged a walkout on 5
October at the first meeting of a lower-level parliament body to protest
their lack of power in the Muslim-dominated assembly, AFP reported.
Deputies of the assembly representing the HDZ arrived in the municipal
center building but then walked out before taking the oath. In the 14
September Bosnian vote for Sarajevo's cantonal assembly, the HDZ won
only 6%, while the Muslim Party of Democratic Action (SDA) won 59% of
the vote. But although Sarajevan Croats did not vote for it, the HDZ
wants one-third of the power in the Sarajevo canton, Oslobodjenje
reported on 7 October. -- Daria Sito Sucic

U.S. ENVOY DISCUSSES UN MANDATE IN EASTERN SLAVONIA. UN spokesman
Douglas Coffman said that John Kornblum arrived in eastern Slavonia on 4
October to meet Jacques Klein, head of the UN administration of the
region, to discuss the possibility of extending the mandate of UN troops
in the last Serb-held region of Croatia, AFP reported. Coffman said that
Kornblum came to show U.S. support for the reintegration process of
eastern Slavonia to Croatia -- which is due after the UN mandate in the
region expires -- but he also discussed the possibility of extending the
mandate. The Serbs in the area want that UN mandate extended, while
Croats want the troops to leave. According to the state-run Hina news
agency, Kornblum met with Croatian President Franjo Tudjman and
expressed hope that the UN mandate would end successfully. Tudjman
repeated that the reintegration should be completed by 15 January. --
Daria Sito Sucic

CROATIA CHARGES YUGOSLAV ARMY CHIEF WITH WAR CRIMES. Croatian
prosecutors have charged Momcilo Perisic, the current Yugoslav army
chief of staff, with war crimes when he was a colonel in the former
Yugoslav People's Army (JNA), AFP reported on 5 October, quoting a
Slobodna Dalmacija report. The prosecutor in the town of Zadar indicted
Perisic along with eight other former JNA officers for having ordered
and carried out attacks against civilian targets in Zadar and the
surrounding region in August and September 1991. They are charged with
war crimes, crimes against humanity, and for having violated
international war conventions. In other news, the UN International
Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia on 4 October announced that
the trial of Bosnian Croat General Tihomil Blaskic, charged of
massacring Bosnian Muslim civilians, has been set for 8 January, AFP
reported. -- Daria Sito Sucic

UN HUMAN RIGHTS ENVOY VISITS KOSOVO. Elisabeth Rehn met with the Serbian
prefect in Kosovo, Aleksa Jokic, and Kosovar shadow-state President
Ibrahim Rugova on 6 October, AFP reported. She urged the opening of UN
and EU offices in Pristina and discussed with Rugova the idea of an
international administration. Rehn, however, said it was only one of
many proposals. She also met human rights activist Adem Demaci. With
Jokic she discussed the education crisis in the region. Despite a
previous agreement between Rugova and Serbian President Slobodan
Milosevic, some 200 schools still operate in private homes. -- Fabian
Schmidt

BELGRADE-SKOPJE ELIMINATE TARIFFS ON MUTUAL TRADE. In accordance with an
agreement signed in Skopje on 4 September between the Macedonian and
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia's premiers, all tariffs on goods traded
between the two countries were eliminated on 7 October, Nova Makedonija
reported. A uniform 1% registration fee will replace variable customs
fees ranging up to 7.5%. However, quantitative restrictions on certain
exports and imports remain, although Skopje and Belgrade have agreed not
to introduce new ones. Macedonia continues to restrict importation of
pork, milk, cheese, tobacco, ferrous metals, refrigerators, buses, and
oil products, while federal Yugoslavia restricts exports of livestock,
sugar, oil seeds, and leather. The trade liberalization is expected to
increase bilateral trade turnover. The two sides intend to establish a
free-trade zone by 1999. -- Michael Wyzan

ROMANIAN ELECTIONS UPDATE. The Central Electoral Bureau announced on 3
October that sixteen candidates had registered for the presidential
elections due to be held on 3 November, Radio Bucharest announced on 4
October. The bureau did not specify how many parties will be competing
in the parliamentary elections, to be held concurrently with the
presidential election. Registration for running in the elections was
closed on 3 October. Among those running for the highest office are a
faith healer and two former court poets of executed dictator Nicolae
Ceausescu. The three top candidates are incumbent President Ion Iliescu,
the candidate of the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania; Emil
Constantinescu, the chairman of the Democratic Convention of Romania;
and Petre Roman, former prime minister between 1990 and 1991 and the
candidate of the Social Democratic Union. -- Zsolt Mato and Michael
Shafir

UPDATE ON TALKS BETWEEN BULGARIA, IMF, WORLD BANK. Bulgarian National
Bank Governor Lyubomir Filipov said on 5 October that Bulgaria will
receive the second installment of an IMF standby loan, the daily Duma
reported on 7 October. Filipov said the $116 million installment will be
disbursed in November at the earliest. At the end of October, an IMF
mission will visit Bulgaria for a review of implementation of economic
reforms. But Standart reported that the IMF on 4 October decided not to
disburse the installment until 15 big state firms are sold. It added
that Bulgaria will not receive a World Bank structural-reform loan until
progress is made in mass privatization. The same report notes that the
IMF only agreed to give Bulgaria a $35-50 million loan for urgent grain
purchases. Standart noted that the government did not meet its
obligations and that "in practice there is no structural reform." --
Stefan Krause

BULGARIAN PRESIDENTIAL CANDIDATES ON TV. The 13 presidential candidates
gave short addresses on state television on 5-6 October. Culture
Minister Ivan Marazov, candidate of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, said
voters on 27 October will determine what Bulgaria's future will look
like. Marazov blamed politicians for creating tension and said the
killing of former Prime Minister Andrey Lukanov should "unite the
nation." The united opposition's Petar Stoyanov said Bulgaria must chose
between "national irresponsibility and catastrophe and the change of
political and economic realities." He said he will strengthen the
president's position vis-a-vis the government. In other news, Standart
reported on 7 October that Lukanov had put together a new government
list, planning to oust Prime Minister Zhan Videnov after the
presidential elections. He reportedly named Interior Minister Nikolay
Dobrev as Videnov's successor. Former President and Communist Party
leader Petar Mladenov, however, dismissed the report. -- Stefan Krause

GENERAL STRIKE IN ALBANIA. The Union of Independent Trade Unions of
Albania (BSPSH) held a one-day general strike in Albania on 4 October,
Dita Informacion reported on October 5. The trade unions demanded
compensation for recent price hikes of bread and fuel. Dita Informacion
points out that the protest was directed mainly against Prime Minister
Aleksander Meksi's government, although "all of the relevant economic
measures ... had the blessing of President [Sali] Berisha." Dita
Informacion surmises that Berisha may sacrifice Meksi as a scapegoat to
decrease social tensions in the country, adding that Berisha is
interested in maintaining good relations with the trade unions and
recently sponsored and addressed the BSPSH congress. -- Dukagjin Gorani

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Pete Baumgartner

------------------------------------------------------------------------
            Copyright (c) 1996 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                      All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                              SUBSCRIBING/UNSUBSCRIBING
1) Compose a message to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU
2) To subscribe, write:
     SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L FirstName LastName (include your own name)
   To unsubscribe, write:
     UNSUBSCRIBE OMRI-L
3) Send the message

                                    BACK ISSUES
Back issues of the OMRI Daily Digest are available through the World
Wide Web, by FTP and by E-mail.
WWW
http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Digests/Index.html

FTP
ftp://194.108.1.176/Pub/DailyDigest/

E-Mail
Send the words "index daily-digest" to MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ


                                  REPRINT POLICY
To receive a copy of OMRI's reprint policy, contact OMRIPUB@OMRI.CZ
or see the Web page at
http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Digests/DigestReprint.html

                              OTHER OMRI PUBLICATIONS

TRANSITION
OMRI publishes the biweekly journal TRANSITION, which contains expanded
analysis of many of the topics in the Daily Digest. For subscription
information send an e-mail to TRANSITION@OMRI.CZ or visit the Transition
Web page at
http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Transition/TransitionInfo.html


ECONOMIC DIGEST
The OMRI Economic Digest is for those who need more detailed economic
news from the region. There is a four-week free trial subscription
available; for more information, write to ECON@OMRI.CZ or go to the
Economic Digest Web page at
http://www.omri.cz/Econ/Info.html


OMRI RUSSIAN REGIONAL REPORT
The OMRI Russian Regional Report is a weekly publication (published
every Wednesday) on initially focusing on the local elections taking
place throughout Russia during the Fall of 1996. After the election
season is over, the Russian Regional Report will continue, turning to
broader social, political and economic issues of Russia's regions. To
subscribe, please follow these instructions:
1) Compose a message to:
     MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ
2) In the body of the message, write:
     SUBSCRIBE REGIONS YourName
   Fill in your own first and last names where shown
3) Send the message


PURSUING BALKAN PEACE
Pursuing Balkan Peace focuses on the implementation of the Dayton
Accords in the former Yugoslavia.  This weekly publication, published
every Tuesday, contains both brief news summaries and longer essays on
specific events or issues facing the people of the region.  To
subscribe, please follow these instructions:
1) Compose a message to:
     MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ
2) In the body of the message, write:
     SUBSCRIBE BALKAN-PEACE YourName
   Fill in your own first and last names where shown
3) Send the message


RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE OMRI DAILY DIGEST
The full text of the OMRI Daily Digest is translated into Russian and
distributed the following day.
1) Compose a message to:
     MAJORDOMO@ISF.RU
2) In the body of the message, write:
     SUBSCRIBE OMRI YourName
   Fill in your own name where shown
3) Send the message

Ken Varnum
Internet Services Manager
Open Media Research Institute

tel:  (+42 2) 6114-2162
fax:  (+42 2) 6114-3184

[English] [Russian TRANS | KOI8 | ALT | WIN | MAC | ISO5]

F&P Home ° Comments ° Guestbook


1996 Friends and Partners
Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole
Please visit the Russian and American mirror sites of Friends and Partners.
Updated: 1998-11-

Please write to us with your comments and suggestions.

F&P Quick Search
Main Sections
Home
Bulletin Board
Chat Room
F&P Listserver

RFE/RL
1999
1998
1997
1996
1995
1994
1993
1992
1991
Search

News
News From Russia/NIS
News About Russia/NIS
Newspapers & Magazines
Global News
Weather

©1996 Friends and Partners
Please write to us with any comments, questions or suggestions -- Natasha Bulashova, Greg Cole