What you can become, you are already. - Friedrich Hebbel
OMRI DAILY DIGEST

No. 188, Part II, 27 September 1996

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of
the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available
through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

UPDATE ON CHORNOBYL NEUTRON LEAKS. A Ukrainian government commission has
concluded that the three recorded increases in neutron emissions at
Chornobyl's fourth nuclear reactor this month caused no rise in radiation
levels, ITAR-TASS reported on 26 September. Committee Chairman Viktor
Chebrov said the incidents have posed "neither a nuclear threat nor a
threat of sarcophagus destruction," as claimed recently by Ukrainian
Environment Minister Yurii Kostenko. Ukrainian and Western agencies
reported that President Leonid Kuchma has admonished Kostenko for trying to
"intimidate people" with his warnings of a possible steam explosion at the
reactor. But he added that the uncertainty over the condition of the
concrete-encased reactor will prompt him to press the G-7 powers at a
meeting next month in Paris to help construct a new covering. Meanwhile,
the Ukrainian press has published numerous articles skeptical of government
reassurances that there is no danger at Chornobyl. Russian media have
claimed Kyiv wanted to "blackmail" the West into providing more money with
unsubstantiated claims of an imminent nuclear threat. -- Chrystyna Lapychak

UKRAINE REASSURES CHINA OVER TAIWAN. Ukrainian Foreign Minister Hennadii
Udovenko, meeting with his Chinese counterpart, Qian Qichen, in New York,
has said Ukraine supports the "one China" policy and regards Taiwan as a
province of China, ITAR-TASS reported on 27 September. He added that
Ukraine attaches great importance to its relations with Beijing and will
not be establishing official contacts with Taipei. Qian responded that both
China and Ukraine have the same problems in safeguarding their territorial
integrity. Ukrainian-Chinese relations suffered a setback last month when
Taiwanese Prime Minister Lien Chan paid a private visit to Ukraine, which
was depicted as an official visit by the Taiwanese media. Beijing
retaliated by canceling an official visit to Kyiv by a high-ranking Chinese
delegation. The affair was smoothed over following assurances from Kyiv
that it upheld China's position on Taiwan. -- Ustina Markus

FINANCING BELARUSIAN PRESIDENTIAL REFERENDUM. President Alyaksandr
Lukashenka has refused to sign amendments to the law on elections and
referendums, Belapan reported on 24 September. He disagreed with the
deletion of a provision allowing donations from citizens, enterprises, and
organizations to be used for holding a referendum. Chairman of the Central
Electoral Commission Viktar Hanchar revealed that an account at the
National Bank of Belarus (NBB) for holding a referendum had been opened as
long ago as 1 January, before there was any mention of a referendum.
Hanchar said his information came from NBB chairwoman Tamara Vinnikau. He
also said funds from state budget revenues have been transferred to the
account. Lukashenka had promised he would not use money from the state
budget for the referendum and that it would be funded by voluntary
contributions. Hanchar said the account was a disgrace, adding that only
the Central Electoral Commission had the right to open accounts to finance
referendums. -- Ustina Markus

OTHER REFERENDUM NEWS FROM BELARUS. The president's administration has
refused the 'zero option" whereby the presidential referendum will be
canceled if parliament refrains from holding its proposed ballot. The
option was proposed as a compromise to avert conflict, ITAR-TASS reported.
Deputy head of the administration Alyaksandr Abramovich said it was not a
constructive solution. Meanwhile, in Moscow, Belarusian deputy
parliamentary speaker Hendz Karpenka said Belarus will not be able to
improve its economy without integration with Russia. Moscow Mayor Yurii
Luzhkov said he foresaw more interference from the West in Belarus's
political affairs. He also said the right road for Belarus was to be a
presidential republic like Russia, not a parliamentary one. -- Ustina
Markus

ESTONIAN PRESIDENT'S OATH OF CONSCIENCE QUESTIONED. Juri Estam, editor of
Kultuur ja Elu, has filed an appeal to the Tallinn Regional Court
protesting the Tallinn City Court's 19 September ruling on President
Lennart Meri's oath of conscience, BNS reported on 26 September. Estam,
together with parliamentary deputies Villu Muuripeal and Eldur Parder, had
asked the regional court to rule on whether Meri violated the oath of
conscience he took in 1992. Estam alleges that Meri actively cooperated
with the Society for Cultural Relations with Estonians Abroad (VEKSA),
which was subordinated to the KGB, and thus falsely claimed not to have
collaborated with organizations involved in persecuting people. Tallinn
City Court judge Tiiu Hiuvain threw out the case, arguing that it did not
fall under the city court's jurisdiction. Under the 1992 oath of conscience
law, any individual can file a court case alleging the validity of the oath
taken. The burden of proof, however, lies with the contestant. -- Saulius
Girnius

LATVIA DISMISSES PARLIAMENTARY CHAIRMAN. The Saeima on 26 September
dismissed Ilga Kreituse as its head, BNS reported. The vote had been
expected since Kreituse quit the Democratic Party Saimnieks on learning she
was about to be expelled (see OMRI Daily Digest, 18 September 1996). Saeima
Deputy Chairman Alfreds Cepanis of Saimnieks, the only candidate proposed
as her replacement, was elected in a secret ballot. Aigars Jirgens, a
deputy of For the Fatherland and Freedom, was elected deputy chairman. --
Saulius Girnius

POLISH RULING COALITION AGREES ON GOVERNMENT REFORM. Leaders of the co-
ruling Democratic Left Alliance (SLD) and the Polish Peasant Party (PSL),
meeting on 25-26 September after a weeks-long controversy, have settled a
dispute over proposed government reform. The PSL wanted the current
government to be dismissed and a new one formed, while the SLD wanted
ministers to be gradually replaced by the president on the premier's
initiative. The PSL argued that such an approach would introduce a
presidential system through the back door. Both parties are close to
agreement on the division of portfolios in the restructured government.
Tensions between the SLD and the PSL have recently been exacerbated over
the dismissal of Foreign Trade Minister Jacek Buchacz (PSL) on the
initiative of Prime Minister Wlodzimierz Cimoszewicz of the SLD (OMRI Daily
Digest, 5 September 1996). The Sejm on 26 September approved both
Cimoszewicz's explanation on government reform and Buchacz's dismissal. --
Jakub Karpinski

POLISH PRIVATIZATION MINISTRY ABOUT TO BE CLOSED. Wieslaw Kaczmarek,
privatization minister for almost the past three years, has assessed the
ministry's work prior to its closure on 1 October and it replacement by the
Treasury Ministry. Among the ministry's biggest successes, Kaczmarek said,
were launching the restructure of 1,322 companies, an increase in foreign
investment, and the introduction of new privatization schemes, such as the
National Investment Funds. He criticized the idea of nominating a
provisional head for the Treasury instead of a minister, which, he said,
may slow down privatization. Kaczmarek is a candidate for the Treasury
portfolio, but his candidacy is opposed by the PSL. -- Jakub Karpinski and
Beata Pasek

CZECH ELECTION COMMITTEE REJECTS CANDIDATES FOR SENATE BALLOT. The Central
Election Committee has rejected the applications of more than 80 candidates
(out of a total of 574) for the fall elections to the Senate, Czech media
reported. The reasons for the rejections are mostly mistakes or omissions
in filling out the application forms. Former Czech Prime Minister Petr
Pithart, Trade Union Leader Richard Falbr, Czech Ambassador to Germany Jiri
Grusa, and former Communist leader Jiri Svoboda are among those whose
applications have been turned down by the committee. Unsuccessful
applicants can appeal to the Supreme Court. Leading Czech politicians have
criticized the committee's decision, arguing that candidates could have
been asked to correct the mistakes rather than being disqualified. -- Jiri
Pehe

CZECH COALITION PARTIES AT ODDS OVER RESTITUTION OF CHURCH PROPERTY. Josef
Lux, chairman of the coalition People's Party-Christian and Democratic
Union, on 26 September said the government's decision to return some Church
property was "insufficient," Czech media reported. Lux criticized the
government for not including forests among those assets to be returned. He
added that although the government's decision is "a step in the right
direction," it fails to observe fully coalition agreements, concluded in
June, specifying that forests would be returned. Meanwhile, Jan Kalvoda,
chairman of the Civic Democratic Alliance, told journalists on 26 September
that "it is premature to talk about violating the coalition agreements." --
Jiri Pehe

ANOTHER PRIVATE NATIONWIDE TV STATION PLANNED IN SLOVAKIA. The Slovak
parliament on 26 September announced that Slovak TV's second channel will
begin broadcasting via satellite from 1 January 1997, Slovak media
reported. This step will free many terrestrial frequencies currently used
by Slovak TV. The Board for Television and Radio Broadcasting is expected
soon to grant a license to a new nationwide private TV station, TV Koliba,
which will use the frequencies freed by Slovak TV's second channel. TV
Koliba is reportedly backed by leaders of Vladimir Meciar's Movement for a
Democratic Slovakia. Another nationwide private TV station. Markiza, began
broadcasting in August. -- Jiri Pehe

SLOVAK PARLIAMENT RULES ON UNIVERSITIES. The Slovak parliament has approved
an amendment to the law on higher education increasing the Education
Ministry's competence in allotting subsidies, Slovak media reported. Almost
100 changes were proposed during the discussion of the bill. The most
controversial amendment gives the Education Ministry the right to veto
appointments of professors and assistant professors, which are to be left
to the university councils. The original version of the law empowered the
ministry to make those appointments, causing a stir within the academic
community. The Universities Council and Rectors' Conference described the
plan as the "liquidation of centuries-old academic rights and freedoms."
Education Minister Eva Slavkovska expressed satisfaction with the
"compromise" amendment. The opposition, however, reacted by proposing a
vote of no-confidence in Slavkovska, which will be taken during the
parliament's October session. -- Jiri Pehe

EX-JUDGE: TOP HUNGARIAN SOCIALIST LEADERS WERE FORMER "AGENTS." Jozsef
Eigner, in a recent interview with the daily Uj Magyarorszag, has accused
Prime Minister Gyula Horn, Speaker of Parliament Zoltan Gal, and deputy
Matyas Szuros of working as secret service agents under the communist
regime. All three rejected his allegations, Hungarian dailies reported on
27 September. Eigner formerly served on a committee established by the
previous government to check the backgrounds of key public figures and root
out those who had been secret agents. He was eventually removed from the
committee after it was alleged that while serving as a judge in the 1950s,
he had passed some sentences of a political nature. The committee was
subsequently abolished, and its successor set up only recently following
amendments to its mandate. According to a statement issued by the Prime
Minister's Office, the allegation is "groundless" and is clearly aimed at
trouble-making, slander, and discrediting the prime minister. -- Zsofia
Szilagyi

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

BOSNIAN PRESIDENCY TO MEET? President Alija Izetbegovic has said that the
new three-man presidency will meet in Sarajevo on 30 September, AFP
reported on 26 September. He noted that failure to hold the session will
signal "the division of Bosnia" and that he is sure the Serbian
representative, Momcilo Krajisnik, will attend. Krajisnik, who has said he
does not feel safe in Sarajevo, argued that the meeting should be held on
the border between the Croatian-Muslim Federation and the Republika Srpska.
Izetbegovic accused the Serbs of "coming up with reasons" to prevent the
meeting taking place, such as insisting that the Muslims release some 30
remaining Serbian prisoners. Meanwhile in Pale, Bosnian Serb Foreign
Minister Aleksa Buha slammed Izetbegovic, who had spoken at the UN. Buha
said that Izetbegovic's remarks revealed his "Islamic fundamentalism" and
that he is consequently incapable of leading a Bosnia that includes Serbs
and Croats as well.  Patrick Moore

BOSNIAN JAILS "WORSE THAN UGANDA." Federal ombudsmen have accused the
police of violating human rights in every canton, Onasa reported on 26
September. The ombudsmen said the police hold prisoners for longer than the
legal limit without telling their families. The police also drag out
investigations for up to three years, and still make charges against people
who served in the Serbian or Croatian armies despite the amnesty, the
ombudsmen added. People have been denied passports and have been
intimidated from visiting the ombudsmen's office in Mostar. -- Patrick
Moore

CALL FOR LOYALIST BOSNIAN SERBS TO ORGANIZE. Gen. Jovan Divjak has appealed
to Serbs living on federal territory to form their own political party and
seek their own voice in Bosnian politics. Divjak is a Bosnian Serb who
remained loyal to the Bosnian government and held a command throughout the
war. But he was cashiered when the Muslim Party of Democratic Action
consolidated its control over the military. He pointed out that the Serbs
make up "10% to 15% of the population on the territory controlled by the
government but on the list of candidates [there] they were not even 1%."
Divjak said that the existing Serbian Civic Council is not enough and that
the loyalist Serbs need a real political party, Oslobodjenje reported on 27
September. -- Patrick Moore

MAJOR POWERS AGREE TO LIFT SANCTIONS AGAINST BELGRADE. Foreign ministers of
the International Contact Group on 26 September said that UN sanctions
against rump Yugoslavia will shortly be lifted, Reuters reported. A
statement on the meeting said the ministers "looked forward to early
certification of the [14 September] Bosnian elections and to the lifting of
sanctions by the UN Security Council soon thereafter." British Foreign
Secretary Malcolm Rifkind commented that "it's days we're talking about,
not weeks." Robert Frowick, head of the OSCE mission in Bosnia, told the
meeting he expected to announce final election results within 48 hours. The
ministers were meeting to discuss how to shore up peace following the
ballot and get the joint presidency of Bosnia-Herzegovina to start working.
That body is scheduled to meet next week. -- Fabian Schmidt

AVRAMOVIC ADDRESSES MORE THAN 10,000 PROTESTERS IN KRAGUJEVAC. Former
Yugoslav Central Bank Governor Dragoslav Avramovic on 26 September
addressed a demonstration of more than 10,000 in Kragujevac, where workers
at the local arms and automobile plants have been on strike for 30 days,
Nasa Borba reported. Avramovic--who was sacked on 15 May after publicly
falling out of favor with Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic over his
economic reform program--attacked the Serbian authorities. He is quoted as
saying that "one should make those cadres who do not leave the [comfort of]
their cars use tram No. 2 so that they see in what miserable conditions
[the rest of] the world lives. They have no clue how it is to live with a
salary of 300 to 400 dinar. I was thunderstruck when I learned that you are
fighting for 230 dinars." He also criticized the "old bureaucratic
leadership of the trade unions." -- Fabian Schmidt

ROMANIAN SENATE RATIFIES TREATY WITH HUNGARY. The Romanian Senate on 26
September ratified the basic bilateral treaty with Hungary, Radio Bucharest
and Western media reported. The treaty was signed 10 days ago in Timisoara
by the prime ministers of the two countries. Senators representing the
ultra-nationalist Party of Romanian National Unity voted against
ratification of the treaty. They were joined by several senators from the
Socialist Labor Party, the Greater Romanian Party, and the Hungarian
Democratic Federation of Romania, the main political organization
representing Romania's Hungarian minority. Prime Minister Nicolae Vacaroiu
attended the session. The treaty, which is expected to end the long-
standing rivalry over Transylvania and help improve the situation of the
1.5 million-strong Hungarian minority in Romania, is considered vital for
the two countries' aspirations to join the EU and NATO. -- Dan Ionescu

CEAUSESCU'S YOUNGEST SON DIES IN VIENNA. Nicu Ceausescu, the youngest son
of late Romanian dictator Nicolae Ceausescu, died on 26 September in a
Vienna hospital from the effects of cirrhosis of the liver, Western
agencies reported. Nicu (45), who had the reputation of a hard-drinking
playboy, was generally seen in the 1980s as his father's heir apparent. A
communist party boss in Sibiu County, Nicu was sentenced in 1990 to five
years in jail for his alleged role in the slaying of 91 persons during the
December 1989 revolt, which toppled his father. His parents were executed
on Christmas Day 1989. Nicu was freed in November 1992 for medical reasons.
Earlier this month, he was flown to Vienna, where he was on the waiting
list for a liver transplant. -- Dan Ionescu

DNIESTER REGION TO ELECT PRESIDENT IN DECEMBER. The Supreme Soviet
(parliament) of the self-declared Dniester Moldovan Republic has scheduled
the presidential elections for 22 December, Infotag reported on 26
September. At the same time, it adopted the law on presidential elections
following stormy debates in which demands were made to postpone the
elections because of the dire economic and social situation in the region.
Some deputies said the existing rivalry between the self-styled president
of the region, Igor Smirnov, and parliamentary chairman Grigorii Marakutsa
may lead to further de-stabilization. With a population of some 720,000,
the Dniester region broke away from Moldova in 1990. The Republic of
Moldova, which has not recognized Dniester independence, sees elections
there as illegal. -- Dan Ionescu

BULGARIA FACING HYPERINFLATION? Leading Bulgarian economist Georgi Petrov
on 26 September said that hyperinflation is inevitable unless money-losing
enterprises are rapidly privatized, international media reported. Even
though the Central Bank hiked the base interest to 300% this week (see OMRI
Daily Digest, 25 September 1996), people continue to cash their leva for
dollars in non-stop exchange offices in Sofia, Reuters reported. In an
effort to rescue their money, more than 150 Sofia citizens stood in line on
26 September outside the National bank to obtain treasury bonds, which
could yield an annual interest rate of about 450%. -- Maria Koinova

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Jan Cleave

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