|Human life is but a series of footnotes to a vast obscure unfinished masterpiece. - Vladimir Nabokov|
No. 178, Part II, 13 September 1996
This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest. Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/Index.html CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE UKRAINE'S DRAFT 1997 BUDGET FORESEES ECONOMIC GROWTH. The Ukrainian government's 1997 draft state budget predicts economic growth (of 1.7%) for the first time since independence, Ukrainian agencies reported on 12 September. Deputy Prime Minister Viktor Pynzenyk said the budget foresees a record low deficit of 4% of GDP, or by IMF calculations 2.4% of GDP. Over half of the planned shortfall is to be financed by the sale of treasury bills with the rest to be covered by foreign loans. The government predicts an annual inflation rate of just under 25%. Pynzenyk said the satisfactory progress of monetary reform will result in no extension of the 16 September deadline to exchange karbovantsi for the new hryvni and the lifting of the nationwide price freeze on 11 September. He said 74% of all karbovantsi in circulation had already been exchanged with the rate of the new hryvya remaining steady at 1.76 to the US dollar. Pynzenyk said he expects September inflation to remain at its August level of 5.7%. -- Chrystyna Lapychak UKRAINE TO OPEN REPRESENTATIONS IN LATIN AMERICA. Ukraine's parliament decided to open a series of diplomatic consulates and representative offices in Central and South American countries, ITAR-TASS reported on 12 September. The countries include Uruguay, Venezuela, Peru, Bolivia, and Colombia. Deputy Foreign Minister Volodymyr Khandohy said the countries could become economic partners for Ukraine, and are potential markets for Ukrainian goods such as machinery, chemical products, military hardware, airplanes, equipment for port facilities, and energy storage and transport facilities. Ukrainian radio reported that parliament also ratified an agreement on friendship and cooperation with Brazil. -- Ustina Markus EU TO OFFER $700 MILLION TO UKRAINE. EU Commissioner in charge of relations with the former Soviet Union, Hans van den Broek, was in Ukraine on 12 September, Ukrainian radio and international agencies reported. Van den Broek and Head of Ukraine's National Agency for Reconstruction and Development Roman Shpek signed two agreements. Under the TACIS program, Ukraine is to receive some $700 million between 1996- 99 for various economic projects. A memorandum was also signed, under which Ukraine is to receive an additional $50 million for restructuring its energy sector and closing the Chornobyl nuclear power station. Van den Broek said there were currently no obstacles for ratifying a partnership and cooperation agreement between the EU and Ukraine. Although he called the long and complicated process of individual ratification by each of the 15 EU countries the biggest problem he told President Leonid Kuchma that it would not hinder developing ties between Ukraine and the EU. -- Ustina Markus U.S. DIPLOMATS PRESENT BALTIC ACTION PLAN. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Marshall Adair and National Security Council's department head Dan Fried began a tour of the Baltic states in Tallinn on 10 September by talking with President Lennart Meri. Their visits are intended to acquaint with and get reaction from Baltic leaders on the Baltic Action Plan, drafted in August by U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Strobe Talbott. After meetings with Prime Minister Tiit Vahi and Foreign Minister Siim Kallas, the officials traveled to Riga where they met with President Guntis Ulmanis on 12 September. Foreign Minister Valdis Birkavs presented them with 11 proposals to be worked into the plan, but stressed that it will not be accepted as a substitute for NATO membership, BNS reported. The U.S. officials are scheduled to hold talks in Vilnius on 14 September with Foreign Minister Povilas Gylys. -- Saulius Girnius LATVIAN COMMUNIST LEADER'S SENTENCE NOT EXTENDED. The Riga Latgale District Court on 11 September found former Latvian Communist Party First Secretary Alfreds Rubiks guilty of not informing the Central Election Commission that he had been a member of Communist Party after 13 January 1991, BNS reported. The court, however, did not impose the six month sentence asked by the prosecution saying that his crime was no longer publicly dangerous. Rubiks, who has already completed half of his eight year prison sentence for attempting to overthrow the government in 1991, plans to appeal the ruling to the Supreme Court since it might influence his possible pre-term release. -- Saulius Girnius CZECH POLITICIANS ON CZECH-GERMAN DECLARATION. Czech Foreign Minister Josef Zieleniec told reporters on 12 September that the Czech-German declaration the two countries' parliaments are planning to adopt will not change any of the laws under which some three million Sudeten Germans were expelled from Czechoslovakia after World War II, Czech media reported. For more than a year, the two countries have been engaged in difficult negotiations on the declaration, which they hope will settle controversial historical issues and improve bilateral relations. German Chancellor Helmut Kohl told the German parliament on 11 September that he wanted the declaration to be adopted by the end of this year. Czech Prime Minister Vaclav Klaus, however, announced that no talks between him and Kohl on the declaration are scheduled in the foreseeable future. Bavarian Prime Minister Edmund Stoiber, who has been so far critical of the declaration, on 12 September expressed satisfaction with the declaration, saying it will describe the expulsion of Germans as "injustice." -- Jiri Pehe SLOVAK FOREIGN MINISTER IN PRAGUE. Pavol Hamzik told Czech officials on 12 September that he sees no reason why Slovakia should be excluded from [the European] integration processes, Czech media reported. "We should not be viewed only through the prism of the Slovak opposition," argued Hamzik. After meetings with his Czech counterpart, Josef Zieleniec, as well as President Vaclav Havel and Parliament Chairman Milos Zeman, Zieleniec told reporters that "it is our vital interest that Slovakia become a member of the same organizations, that is NATO and the European Union." Hamzik expressed objections when Zeman repeated his recent criticism of some political developments in Slovakia. -- Jiri Pehe SLOVAKIA SETS UP COMMITTEE ON EUROPEAN INTEGRATION. The Slovak parliament on 12 September approved the creation of a 17-member parliamentary committee that will deal with issues of European integration, Slovak media reported. Parliament deputy chairman Marian Huska proposed the creation of the committee, which will tackle a broad range of questions related to European integration, including studying documents drafted by the European Commission and evaluating the feasibility of incorporating various laws into Slovakia's legislation. Huska was elected chairman of the committee, in which all the coalition and opposition parties are represented. -- Jiri Pehe POLISH-FRENCH-GERMAN RELATIONS. French President Jacques Chirac during a visit to Poland on 11-12 September gave the year 2000 as the date of Poland's possible EU entry. He also proposed that a conference of NATO nations, those seeking to join, and potential NATO partners (suggesting that Russia should be included) be held. Poland's President Aleksander Kwasniewski, after a telephone conversation with German Chancellor Helmut Kohl, announced on 12 September that he will host a Franco- German-Polish summit early next year in Poland, Polish media reported. Kohl told Kwasniewski that the final decision on NATO expansion will be made in June or July 1997. -- Jakub Karpinski HUNGARIAN ECONOMIC NEWS ROUNDUP. According to the Central Statistical Office, consumer prices in Hungary increased by 0.3% in July, the lowest monthly figure in three years, Hungarian dailies reported on 13 September. Hungary's inflation rate since July 1995 is now 22% which, while down from last year's 28%, is still more than twice the rates in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Slovenia. The good news about the declining inflation seems to have been lost on the American credit rating agency Moody's, whose recent study decided not to upgrade Hungary's Ba1 international credit rating. Hungarian officials had been hoping for a better rating, since this would both serve as a recommendation to investors and allow the government to borrow abroad at lower interest rates. Moody's cited Hungary's trade and budget deficits as key concerns, while exports and foreign investment were seen as the country's strong points. -- Ben Slay POLL SHOWS ETHNIC HUNGARIANS IN ROMANIA SUPPORT BASIC TREATY. Some 74% of ethnic Hungarians in Romania recently polled by the Romanian Public Opinion Research Institute believe that the Hungarian-Romanian basic treaty to be signed in Timisoara on Monday is equally beneficial for ethnic Hungarians and Romanians, Magyar Hirlap reported on 12 September. These sentiments, if correctly gauged, would seem to take the wind out of the nationalist opposition in Hungary, which claims that the treaty will worsen conditions for Hungarians living in Romania. The poll was jointly commissioned by the Bucharest-based daily Curierul National and the Budapest-based Magyar Hirlap, and was based on interviews conducted during 4-9 September with 1,300 adults. In other treaty-related news, the Hungarian cabinet on 12 September unanimously authorized Prime Minister Gyula Horn to sign the treaty in Timisoara on Monday. -- Ben Slay SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE CROATIAN OFFICIAL ON REFUGEE ISSUES. Ivica Vrkic, the head of the Croatian government's office for the UN administered area of Eastern Slavonia was quoted by Hina on 11 September as saying that all citizens had legal and constitutional rights to return to their homes. In what appeared to be a direct observation relating to ethnic Serb refugees from western Slavonia now in Eastern Slavonia, Vrkic said that any mass return of displaced persons and refugees was "not possible" and that the issue had to be resolved "gradually." Vrkic added that "What [is]...needed first is the establishment of an open dialogue, regardless of differences in views, so that we can solve problems of all people affected by war." Vrkic, along with UN officials, visited with local authorities the Serb-held town of Bilje, in eastern Croatia. -- Stan Markotich SERBIA ON THE DOMESTIC, MONTENEGRO ON THE INTERNATIONAL FRONT. Strikers at the Kragujevac arms plant continue their job action, Nasa Borba reported on 13 September. The previous day, the daily noted strikers were being joined by their children in this latest round, quoting one participant that "we are [including] our children not because we have anything to fear [or] want them to shield us, but because they should learn how to struggle." Montena-fax reported that Montene-grin President Momir Bula-tovic met with UN Secretary-general Boutros Boutros-Ghali on 11 September. He urged that sanctions against Serbia-Montenegro be fully lifted and that Belgrade move towards integration into international organizations. "It's high time that [rump] Yugoslavia be able to continue its work in international organizations, and particularly the United Nations," said Bulatovic. -- Stan Markotich POLLING STATIONS OPEN FOR BOSNIA'S MILITARY VOTING. The OSCE ruled that the soldiers in the mainly Muslim Bosnian army, the Bosnian Serb army, and the Bosnian Croat forces, the HVO, will vote on 13 September, a day ahead of the Bosnia's general elections, AFP reported. The decision will keep the armies in their barracks on the day of the voting. The Bosnian Serb army has also protested plans to hand over its command and assets to the Bosnian Serb political leadership, AFP reported the previous day quoteng Tanjug. The Bosnian Serb parliament is due to discuss a defense law that would transfer total control of the army and the armament industry to the civilian authorities. The protests reflect the long standoff between the Bosnian Serb military and political hierarchies, which started with a conflict between Gen. Ratko Mladic and civilian leader Radovan Karadzic in summer 1995. -- Daria Sito Sucic BOSNIA'S NATIONALIST PARTIES END CAMPAIGN WITH GIANT RALLIES. The ruling Muslim Party of Democratic Action (SDA) held a rally with some 60,000 supporters in Sarajevo on 12 September, AFP reported. Bosnian President and the SDA President Alija Izetbegovic appealed to the crowd for calm elections, asking voters to avoid any sort of incidents. That same day, Momcilo Krajisnik, a Bosnian Serb candidate for Bosnia's new-style rotating presidency, at the rally in Pale told Serbs to let Muslims who would come over to the Republika Srpska to vote to "do so with dignity," promising that "they will leave as they came," AFP reported. The previous day in Banja Luka, another Bosnian Serb leader, Biljana Plavsic, told a crowd of 20,000 that Bosnian Serbs were chosen by God to fulfill the centuries-long Serb dream of creation of a united Serb state. Plavsic repeated the statement at a Pale rally the next day, neglecting for a second time the OSCE's warning to avoid secessionist rhetoric. -- Daria Sito Sucic MULTIETHNIC OPPOSITION COALITION SPOKE TO 20,000 PEOPLE IN TUZLA. Joint List, the opposition coalition consisting of five parties --the Socialist Democratic Party of Bosnia-Herzegovina (SDP), the Muslim Bosniak Organization (MBO), the Union of Bosnian Social-Democrats (UBSD), the Croatian Peasants' Party (HSS) and the Republican Party (RS)-- held a big rally on 12 September in Tuzla in support of a multiethnic and multicultural Bosnia-Herzegovina, AFP reported. "We have only one homeland and all its nations are part of it," Tatjana Ljuic- Mijatovic, a Serb member of the Bosnian presidency, was quoted as saying. That same day, the two main Serb opposition parties, the left- leaning Alliance for Peace and Progress, led by Zivko Radisic, and the Democratic Patriotic Bloc, led by former Banja Luka mayor Predrag Radic, announced they will form a coalition after elections in the Republika Srpska. -- Daria Sito Sucic ROMANIA CALLS EPIDEMIC ALERT. Health Minister Daniela Bartos declared an epidemic alert on 12 September after the death toll from viral meningitis reached 24 with 417 people infected, Radio Bucharest and Reuters reported. She admitted that the authorities have been "unable yet to say what kind of virus caused the disease," and added that samples were sent for analysis to the Paris-based Pasteur Institute. Meanwhile, the political row over the epidemic has continued. Bucharest's Prefect Grigore Simion, a member of the ruling Party of Social Democracy in Romania, expressed "surprise" over the announcement by mayor Victor Ciorbea from the opposition Democratic Convention postponing the start of the school year. Such a decision, Simion added, can only be taken in conjunction with the health and education ministries. -- Dan Ionescu SOME FORMER ROMANIANS MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS. The Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs has recently instructed consulates abroad to issue visas to former Romanian citizens without a fee. OMRI has, however, learned from first-hand sources that the tax-free visa is obtainable only when the applicant produces proof that his parents had held Romanian citizenship and were of "ethnic Romanian origin." In other words, the fee exemption does not apply to Germans, Hungarians, Jews, and people of other nationalities, even if they meet all other requirements. -- Michael Shafir COUNCIL OF EUROPE FACT-FINDING MISSION IN CHISINAU. A group of rapporteurs for the Parliamentary Assembly of the Strasbourg-based Council of Europe (CE) started a visit in the Republic of Moldova on 12 September, Infotag reported. The delegation, headed by Lord Finsberg, was received by Parliament Speaker Petru Lucinschi, one of the candidates in the presidential election scheduled for 14 November. Lucinschi assured his guests that the parliament would remain a factor of stability during the rather stormy presidential run-up. The CE delegation will report on the way Moldova complies with the commitment taken upon its admission to the Council in June 1995. -- Dan Ionescu BULGARIAN OPPOSITION CHAIRMAN ANNOUNCES NO-CONFIDENCE VOTE, SLAMS SOCIALISTS. Asserting that the ruling Bulgarian Socialist Party (BSP) was polarizing society ahead of the presidential elections, Union of Democratic Forces Chairman (SDS) Ivan Kostov on 11 September announced that the SDS will ask for a no-confidence vote against the government of Prime Minister Zhan Videnov after the elections, Pari reported. Kostov said that by instigating mistrust and inspiring nostalgia toward communist times, the Socialists want to politically polarize the elections. He said hardline BSP voters would not accept a defeat of the Socialist candidate, Culture Minister Ivan Marazov, and that they would be ready to provoke unrest and turmoil. Kostov said the SDS will not ask for a no-confidence vote before the elections because it would consolidate the BSP. But he announced that a vote of no-confidence in the entire government policy will be called immediately following the elections. -- Stefan Krause BULGARIAN UPDATE. Bulgaria, anticipating problems with energy supply throughout the upcoming winter, is planning to import by air nuclear fuel from Russia for the country's Soviet-made Kozloduy power plant, Reuters reported on 12 September. One Bulgarian official, declining to be named, remarked "We are in the process of negotiating consignments of nuclear fuel by land from Russia with Ukraine, Moldova, and Romania as we need their agreement." In other news, the US-based Human Rights Watch has criticized Bulgarian authorities for their treatment of street children. According to the report, police employ intimidation, harsh physical violence, and arbitrary arrest against the children, who are also, if deemed incorrigible, punished by being sent to workhouses. -- Stan Markotich [As of 12:00 CET] Compiled by Saulius Girnius ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Copyright (c) 1996 Open Media Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570 ------------------------------------------------------------------------ SUBSCRIBING/UNSUBSCRIBING 1) Compose a message to LISTSERV@UBVM.CC.BUFFALO.EDU 2) To subscribe, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI-L FirstName LastName (include your own name) To unsubscribe, write: UNSUBSCRIBE OMRI-L 3) Send the message REPRINT POLICY To receive a copy of OMRI's reprint policy, contact OMRIPUB@OMRI.CZ or see the Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Digests/DigestReprint.html OTHER OMRI PUBLICATIONS TRANSITION OMRI publishes the biweekly journal TRANSITION, which contains expanded analysis of many of the topics in the Daily Digest. For subscription information send an e-mail to TRANSITION@OMRI.CZ or visit the Transition Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Publications/Transition/TransitionInfo.html ECONOMIC DIGEST The OMRI Economic Digest is for those who need more detailed economic news from the region. There is a four-week free trial subscription available; for more information, write to ECON@OMRI.CZ or go to the Economic Digest Web page at http://www.omri.cz/Econ/Info.html OMRI RUSSIAN REGIONAL REPORT The OMRI Russian Regional Report is a weekly publication initially focusing on the local elections taking place throughout Russia during the Fall of 1996. After the election season is over, the Russian Regional Report will continue, turning to broader social, political and economic issues of Russia's regions. To subscribe, please follow these instructions: 1) Compose a message to: MAJORDOMO@OMRI.CZ 2) In the body of the message, write: SUBSCRIBE REGIONS YourName Fill in your own name where shown 3) Send the message RUSSIAN-LANGUAGE OMRI DAILY DIGEST The full text of the OMRI Daily Digest is translated into Russian and distributed the following day. 1) Compose a message to: MAJORDOMO@ISF.RU 2) In the body of the message, write: SUBSCRIBE OMRI YourName Fill in your own name where shown 3) Send the message
write to us
with your comments and suggestions.