There is one thing more exasperating than a wife who can cook and won't, and that is the wife who can't cook and will. - Robert Frost
OMRI DAILY DIGEST

No. 228, Part II, 22 November 1995

NOTE TO READERS: DUE TO THE OBSERVANCE OF A U.S. HOLIDAY, THE OMRI
DAILY DIGEST WILL NOT APPEAR ON 23 OR 24 NOVEMBER 1995.

This is Part II of the Open Media Research Institute's Daily Digest.
Part II is a compilation of news concerning Central, Eastern, and
Southeastern Europe. Part I, covering Russia, Transcaucasia and Central
Asia, is distributed simultaneously as a second document. Back issues of
the Daily Digest, and other information about OMRI, are available
through OMRI's WWW pages: http://www.omri.cz/OMRI.html

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^TODAY'S TOP STORY^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
CLINTON ANNOUNCES "HISTORIC AND HEROIC" BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. The
presidents of Bosnia-Herzergovina, Croatia, and Serbia on 21 November
initialed a text in Dayton consisting of 10 articles, 11 annexes, and
102 maps. It will come into force after the formal signing, which is
expected to take place soon in Paris. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
wrote that it provides for "one state with one capital" and a central
government. The latter will include a presidency, parliament, and
constitutional court, with familiar Tito-era legal mechanisms, such as
rotating chairmanships and the assignment of posts according to
nationality. The Bosnian state will consist of the Croat-Muslim
Federation and the Serbian Republic and will remain internationally
recognized within its present borders. Free, democratic, and
internationally supervised elections will take place; refugees can go
home; human rights will be independently monitored; war criminals will
be banned from public life and there will be "full cooperation" with the
international war crimes tribunal; and some 60,000 NATO troops are
expected to separate the hostile forces. The status of Brcko along the
Serbian supply corridor will be decided by international arbitration.
--  Patrick Moore
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

UKRAINIAN DEBTS TO RUSSIA. Ukraine has run up a debt with Russia of $186
million in 1995, of which $60 million is for gas supplies, Radio Rossii
reported on 21 November. In talks with Russian Gazprom officials the
previous day, Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Pavlo Lazarenko
agreed that Ukraine will pay off the debt by the end of the year. Among
other things, it will transfer nine fishing trawlers--worth $60 million-
-to Russia. From 15 December on, Russia will insist on payment for gas
deliveries in advance. -- Peter Rutland

LUKASHENKA CALLS BELARUS BULWARK AGAINST WESTERN INFLUENCE. President
Alyaksandr Lukashenka, in a four-hour speech to local officials on 21
November, said that "Belarus has become a stumbling block against
Western influence permeating the Commonwealth of Independent States,"
Reuters reported. He pledged to continue the country's cautious move to
a market economy rather than subjecting the republic to "shock therapy."
He said that Belarus did not need the military cooperation envisaged by
NATO's Partnership for Peace program. He also rejected offers of free
military education because "our military has enough experience, which we
are willing to share." -- Saulius Girnius

RISE IN CRIME IN ESTONIA. The Estonian Police Department announced that
the number of registered crimes in the first ten months of 1995
increased by 11.6% (from 29,444 to 32,852) compared with the same period
in 1994, ETA reported on 21 November. More than 90% of the increase was
due to a 15.1% increase in burglaries, even though automobile thefts
decreased from 920 to 672. The number of murders and attempted murders
declined from 296 to 269, as did cases of serious bodily injury from 221
to 201. The percentage of crime committed by juveniles increased from
19.3% to 20.7% and by groups from 32.4% to 35.3%. -- Saulius Girnius

U.S.-LITHUANIAN AGREEMENT ON SECURITY OF MILITARY INFORMATION. U.S.
Defense Secretary William Perry and Lithuanian Defense Minister Linas
Linkevicius on 21 November signed an agreement on exchanging classified
military information, Radio Lithuania reported. This is the only
agreement that Perry will sign during his six-day trip to the Baltic
states, Denmark, Macedonia, and Austria. Perry told a press conference
in Vilnius that US military aid to Lithuania would be doubled next year,
with the number of students training at U.S. military academies
increasing from 10 to 30. He also noted that the U.S. Congress is
debating a law that would provide for sending surplus military
technology and armaments to Lithuania. -- Saulius Girnius

WORLD LEADERS CONGRATULATE NEW POLISH PRESIDENT. Polish President-Elect
Aleksander Kwasniewski has received a letter of congratulation from U.S.
President Bill Clinton welcoming Kwasniewski's promises to support
"Poland's historic transformation since regaining democracy in 1989."
French President Jacques Chirac assured Kwasniewski that Poland could
count on continued French support for its bid for EU membership. Russian
President Boris Yeltsin expressed hope that Poland's new president would
deepen bilateral trust. In an interview with CNN, Kwasniewski on 21
November said he was sure that for NATO politicians, it was most
important "to have a democratically elected president of Poland."
Meanwhile, supporters of incumbent President Lech Walesa on 21 November
said they would contest the election results, alleging that the ballot
had been rigged, Polish and international media reported. The Supreme
Court is required to decide whether the election was legal by 9
December. -- Jakub Karpinski

POLAND SENDS BATTALION TO BOSNIA. A 600-strong Polish battalion is to
leave for Bosnia, Chief of the Polish General Staff Tadeusz Wilecki said
on 21 November, after talks with Commander of NATO Forces in Europe
George Joulwan, Gazeta Wyborcza reported the next day. The battalion is
to join the multinational Nordic Brigade, which will operate alongside
American forces. Poland is financing the operation but will have access
to NATO's logistics, communications, and transportation facilities. --
Dagmar Mroziewicz

CZECH PARTIES ON ROMANI, MINORITY CANDIDATES. Jan Vik, secretary of the
extreme-right Assembly for the Republic-Czechoslovak Republican Party,
has told the press that his party's platform demands a law stating that
"no one in the Czech Republic has the right to be a parasite to the
detriment of decent and honest people." He went on to specify Roma as
"black racists who are acting as parasites." CTK reported his comments
on 21 November in the context of reactions to German minority
candidates' request to be included on the election lists of Czech
parties. Vik classified the Germans as "anti-Czech" and the Roma as
"gangs" and "various mafias." The Czech Social Democratic Party said it
would not exclude Germans but did not mention Roma. -- Alaina Lemon

SLOVAK COALITION RESPONDS TO EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT'S RESOLUTION. Slovak
National Party deputy Jozef Prokes on 21 November proposed that the
Slovak parliament approve a response to the European parliament's recent
resolution (see OMRI Daily Digest, 17 November 1995). However, the
opposition refused to cooperate and walked out of the parliament, Sme
reported. Because less than half of all deputies remained, the vote
could not take place. Nevertheless, the coalition deputies approved a
common declaration criticizing the European parliament for not using all
possible means of dialogue available between the EU and associated
countries. The coalition also complained that the European Parliament
addressed the Slovak government while ignoring the democratically
elected parliament. In other news, deputies from Slovakia's ethnic
Hungarian coalition on 21 November asked President Michal Kovac not to
sign the controversial language bill. -- Sharon Fisher

HUNGARY TO PROVIDE NATO SUPPLY BASE FOR BOSNIA. Hungarian Defense
Ministry and NATO officials are considering establishing a supply base
for NATO peacekeeping forces on Hungarian territory, international and
Hungarian media reported on 20 November. Hungarian Defense Minister
Gyorgy Keleti said "Hungary is ready to help implement what is to be
agreed on at peace talks." He added, however, that the UN Security
Council must first grant a mandate for peacekeeping in Bosnia. Forty
U.S. experts have visited Hungary this week to examine facilities and
sites in the south of the country where troops could be stationed
initially before moving into Bosnia. They are considering establishing a
military logistics base for peacekeeping troops in Bosnia and arranging
the passage of U.S. troops through Hungary. Foreign Ministry Political
State Secretary Istvan Szent-Ivanyi said Hungary could have NATO forces
on its territory in the second half of December. -- Zsofia Szilagyi

SOUTHEASTERN EUROPE

CLINTON ANNOUNCES "HISTORIC AND HEROIC" BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. The
presidents of Bosnia-Herzergovina, Croatia, and Serbia on 21 November
initialed a text in Dayton consisting of 10 articles, 11 annexes, and
102 maps. It will come into force after the formal signing, which is
expected to take place soon in Paris. The Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung
wrote that it provides for "one state with one capital" and a central
government. The latter will include a presidency, parliament, and
constitutional court, with familiar Tito-era legal mechanisms, such as
rotating chairmanships and the assignment of posts according to
nationality. The Bosnian state will consist of the Croat-Muslim
Federation and the Serbian Republic and will remain internationally
recognized within its present borders. Free, democratic, and
internationally supervised elections will take place; refugees can go
home; human rights will be independently monitored; war criminals will
be banned from public life and there will be "full cooperation" with the
international war crimes tribunal; and some 60,000 NATO troops are
expected to separate the hostile forces. The status of Brcko along the
Serbian supply corridor will be decided by international arbitration. --
Patrick Moore

QUESTIONS ABOUND OVER BOSNIAN PEACE AGREEMENT. While the agreement has
been widely hailed in the "international community," there are ample
grounds for skepticism as well. The three sides signed the document only
after an exhausting three-week marathon under intense American pressure.
What everyone does when they go home may be another matter,
international media noted on 22 November. Croatia can be satisfied
because it has achieved most of its aims and could try to distance
itself from any future conflict, as Slovenia did after July 1991. Serbia
can expect to have most sanctions lifted and will then be free to go its
way and claim it has no control over the Bosnian Serbs. The Muslim-
dominated government can look forward to the lifting of the arms
embargo, albeit in stages. It might not be too far-fetched to imagine a
future Serbian-Muslim conflict breaking out once Belgrade has
successfully distanced itself from Pale and once Sarajevo has acquired
more heavy weapons. -- Patrick Moore

ANGRY MEN OF PALE. It remains to be seen whether the pact will come into
force, since controlling local warlords has been a problem for all
sides. Slobodna Dalmacija on 22 November, moreover, foresaw political
difficulties involving the Croats and their role in the unified state.
Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic told his domestic media that an
unjust peace was at least better than war. But the big hurdle seems to
be the Bosnian Serbs, whom U.S. negotiator Richard Holbrooke on CNN
called the "big losers." Their parliamentary speaker, Momcilo Krajisnik,
told international media that "the agreement that has been reached does
not satisfy even a minimum of our interests." The BBC reported that
Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic frequently overruled Bosnian Serb
members of his delegation during the talks, and the Bosnian Serbs
claimed that Milosevic showed them the final maps only 10minutes before
the pact was initialed. Krajisnik called the maps "blackmail" and denied
that Milosevic could speak for the Bosnian Serbs. It may be that
Belgrade is ready to abandon Pale to its fate (as it did in the case of
Knin) or that, having just refurbished the Bosnian Serb military
infrastructure, it is simply performing a ruse to get the sanctions
lifted. -- Patrick Moore

PEACE IN OUR TIME? The agreement also contains a number of weak or
unclear points. Not everyone agrees with the Americans that there has
been a "fair division of territory," in which the Federation took 51.4%.
It is doubtful that most "ethnically cleansed" refugees will go home,
particularly Muslims who lived in Serb-controlled eastern Bosnia. The
pact calls for a unitary state, but it still sounds very much like a
partition along ethnic lines. There is no guarantee that the complex
Tito-era constitutional mechanisms will work any better than they did
when the Serbs sabotaged them in 1992. It is not evident what the future
armed forces and police units will look like or whether the region will
be demilitarized. Germany has recognized this problem and called for a
Bosnian disarmament conference. Nor is it clear what "full cooperation"
with the Hague-based tribunal will mean. Implementation talks are to be
held soon in London, and moves are under way to put together a NATO
force as soon as possible. Vecernji List quoted a Russian general as
effectively saying that Russia would control the Brcko corridor. --
Patrick Moore

SERBIAN PRESIDENT SAYS DAYTON DEAL IS "JUST." Slobodan Milosevic
described the peace deal negotiated at Dayton as "a just solution."
Speaking in an interview broadcast by rump Yugoslav state television,
Milosevic added "the war is now definitely over." He observed that the
Bosnian Serbs were the big winners, noting that they have been
apportioned "a far better" share of Bosnian territory than under
previous peace proposals. Land and strategic towns previously slated for
the Muslim-Croat confederation were now to come under Bosnian Serb
control, he added. Milosevic also observed that accompanying peace would
be a lifting of the international sanctions against the rump Yugoslavia.
The UN Security Council is "already moving to put an end to all
sanctions," he said. Meanwhile, the Serbian media hailed Milosevic as
the catalyst behind the achievement of peace. -- Stan Markotich

"WHAT WE ACCOMPLISHED HERE IS A REAL PEACE." This is how Croatian
President Franjo Tudjman described the outcome of the Dayton talks, Hina
reported on 22 November. He said that the results confirmed Croatia's
international position and that all media agreed that Croatia has
defended its national interests and emerged a winner at the conference.
Various opposition parties, however, issued critical statements,
charging Tudjman with giving away too much in the dispute over the
northern Bosnian Posavina region (the justice minister recently resigned
over the issue). Tudjman explained that Croatia had to give up
territories it recently took in western Bosnia in order to get what it
wanted in the Posavina. He denied there had been discussion in Dayton of
exchanging Croatia's Prevlaka peninsula for the Serb-controlled
Dubrovnik hinterland. -- Daria Sito Sucic

WILL THE SDA SANDZAK PARTICIPATE IN A CENTER COALITION? This question
was posed by Nasa Borba on 21 November after a meeting of the Muslim
National Council of Sandzak. The meeting, attended by representatives of
19 Muslim political organizations, concluded that the Muslims of Sandzak
should seek a solution to the minority conflict in the region in
accordance with international law and with respect for the integrity of
international borders. The council thus demanded to be represented at
international conferences on former Yugoslavia. Rasim Ljajic, leader of
the Party of Democratic Action (SDA), said he is conducting talks with
Belgrade, adding that his party will in the future participate in the
political life of Serbia. The SDA did not run in the last parliamentary
elections but might form a coalition with the moderate Serbian
opposition or other minority parties. -- Fabian Schmidt

ROMANIAN PARLIAMENT REJECTS NEW PENAL CODE. Radio Bucharest announced on
21 November that the Chamber of Deputies has rejected the draft law on
the modification and completion of the Penal Code. Results of the vote
will be announced on 23 November, but "private parliamentary sources"
were quoted as saying that the Greater Romania Party (which recently
left the ruling coalition) and the Socialist Labor Party (a member of
the government alliance) voted against the draft, together with the
opposition National Peasant Party-Christian Democratic and the Hungarian
Democratic Federation of Romania. -- Michael Shafir

MOLDOVAN-DNIESTER MEETING CANCELED. A meeting between experts from
Chisinau and Tiraspol scheduled for 21 November was canceled after the
Dniester delegation refused to attend, Infotag reported. The meeting was
intended to conclude preparations for a late November summit between
Moldovan President Mircea Snegur and the president of the self-styled
"Dniester republic," Igor Smirnov. According to Tiraspol officials, the
Dniester negotiators refused to attend because the "Moldovan leadership
has subjected Tiraspol to a squall of devastating criticism." Snegur
expressed doubts that the Chisinau-Tiraspol summit can be held given
this latest development. -- Matyas Szabo

BULGARIAN PRESIDENT CANNOT RUN AGAIN, SOCIALISTS SAY. Miroslav Popov,
member of the Executive Bureau of the Bulgarian Socialist Party, was
quoted by 24 chasa on 22 November as saying Zhelyu Zhelev cannot run for
another term as president under the present constitution. Zhelev is
currently serving his second term and, according to the constitution,
cannot serve a third term, Popov said. The BSP is considering asking the
Constitutional Court to rule on the question. Zhelev was first elected
by the parliament in August 1990 and then by popular vote in January
1992, after the new constitution went into effect. Meanwhile, some
member parties of the Union of Democratic Forces said they will support
Zhelev if he runs again. -- Stefan Krause

THREE BULGARIANS INDICTED OVER DEATH OF TAMILS. Western media report
that three Bulgarians have been indicted for the death of 18 Tamil
refugees. The Tamils were found in an abandoned Bulgarian-registered
truck near the Hungarian town of Gyor on 15 July (see OMRI Daily Digest,
17 and 20 July 1995). Among the three indicted is the the driver of the
truck, who is accused of multiple homicide. If convicted, he faces up to
15 years in prison. The other two accused were indicted for illegally
moving people across international borders. They were released on bail.
-- Stefan Krause

ALBANIA DEMANDS EXTRADITION OF FORMER COMMUNIST-ERA OFFICIALS. Albania
is to apply for the extradition of several communist-era officials
living abroad, Koha Jone reported on 21 November. This announcement
follows a letter from the head of the Parliamentary Commission on
Defense, Public Order, and the Secret Service to Prime Minister
Aleksander Meksi. The officials worked mainly at the Defense and
Interior ministries or for the secret services; some were ambassadors or
consuls. Among other things, they are charged with corruption and
espionage. The accused include Sofokli Duka, the former head of the
secret police, and former Defense Minister Kico Mustaqi, who is charged
with planning a coup d'etat and bearing responsibility for a violent
crackdown on a pro-democracy demonstration in 1991. -- Fabian Schmidt

ALBANIA OFFERS FACILITIES FOR NATO FORCES IN BOSNIA. President Sali
Berisha, in an interview with Albanian TV, repeated earlier offers to
provide NATO troops with access to Albanian airports and harbors.
Berisha also expressed the hope that the Dayton agreement will offer
"real prospects for the solution of the Balkan crisis, including its
most delicate problem--the Kosovo question," Rilindja Demokratike
reported on 22 November. -- Fabian Schmidt

[As of 12:00 CET]

Compiled by Jan Cleave

The OMRI Daily Digest offers the latest news from the former Soviet
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            Copyright (C) 1995 Open Media Research Institute, Inc.
                             All rights reserved. ISSN 1211-1570


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